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The Revolutions Of 1848.

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Presentation on theme: "The Revolutions Of 1848."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Revolutions Of 1848

2 The turning point at which history failed to turn.
--- George Macaulay Trevelyn [1937]

3 Pre-1848 Tensions: Long-Term
Industrialization Ideological Challenges Romanticism Repressive Measures of restored monarchs

4 Pre-1848 Tensions: Short-Term
Agricultural Crises Poor cereal harvests Potato famine Financial Crises Urban & Agricultural workers and the middle classes are now joined in misery

5 Centers of Revolution in 1848

6 FRANCE: The Giant Sea Snake?


8 Louis Philippe, “The Pear,” 1848

9 Prince Louis: Not Too Steady!
Victor Hugo & Miguel de Girardin try to raise Prince Louis upon a shield. [Honoré Damier’s lithograph published in Charavari, December 11, 1848].

10 The February Revolution
Working class & liberals revolt Protests break out Troops open fire on peaceful protestors. National Guard defect to the radicals. King Louis Philippe loses Paris and abdicates on February 24.

11 The “June Days” Workers in Paris rose up
Wanted a redistribution of wealth. Victor Hugo’s Les Miserables

12 Paris: To the Barricades Again!

13 The 2nd French Republic (1848-1852)‏
General Louis Cavaignac Nov., 1848  a new constitution provided for: An elected President A one-house legislature The Republic by Jean-Leon Gerome

14 President Louis Napoleon
The December election: The “law and order” candidate, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte wins

15 1851 Coup d’Etat President Louis Napoleon declared a hereditary 2nd French Empire A national plebiscite confirmed it


17 The Austrian Empire: 1830

18 Ferdinand I (1793-1875)‏ Culturally and racially heterogeneous.
Very conservative monarchy Serfdom Corrupt and inefficient

19 Austrian Students Form a Militia

20 Vienna, 1848: The Liberal Revolution
The Austrian Empire collapses Metternich fled. Constituent Assembly met Serfdom abolished. BUT… The revolutionary government failed

21 The New Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph I [r. 1848-1916]

22 The Hungarian Revolution

23 Lajos Kossuth Hungary declares independence from Austria
Austrian & Russian armies invade and defeat the Hungarian army

24 Tsar Nicholas I (r )‏ He raised an army in response to a request from Franz Joseph

25 Bohemia, 1848 Bohemia was split between Pan-Slavs & Pan-Germans
Prague Conference: Developed the idea of Austro-Slavism The Austrian military ultimately attacked Prague, occupied Bohemia & crushed the rebellion. The Prague Barricades

26 Revolution in Romania

27 The German States

28 Germania

29 Frederick William IV of Prussia (1840-1861)‏
Anti-liberal, but an ‘Arthurian’ medieval romantic. Relied on Junker support Prussia in the mid- 19c: Efficient Good economy Strong military

30 The Germans Follow the French
After the February French revolutions, there were many riots in minor German states. Austria and Prussia expected to intervene to crush these revolts, BUT: Vienna Revolution  led to the fall of Metternich. Berlin riots King Frederick William IV withdraws the troops and hand the liberals a big victory Other Princedoms collapse

31 Funeral for Berlin Freedom Fighters

32 The Frankfurt Assembly
Liberals form German National Assembly in Frankfurt: Universal suffrage Delegates mostly from the middle class Debate over the nature of the state  monarchy of Habsburgs or Hohenzollerns? They chose the Austrian Habsburg Archduke John rather than the King of Prussia But they failed to gain the loyalty of the Prussian Army

33 Frankfurt Assembly Meets

34 A Citizen Militia on Parade in Berlin

35 The “Three Germanies”

36 Austria & Prussia Reassert Control
Austria re-gained control of Vienna Prussia opposed The Frankfurt Assembly Radicals took to the barricades again The Prussian army crushed radicals April, the Assembly collapsed

37 A New German Confederation
Frederick William IV of Prussia wanted to rule a united Germany 1850  the German Confederation was re-established Prussia was forced to accept Austrian leadership of Central Europe

38 Liberalism Discredited in Germany
Rule of force was the only winner A massive exodus of liberal intelligentsia Militarism triumphs


40 Democrats Swept Out of Europe

41 The Communist Manifesto
Karl Marx Friedrich Engels

42 Why did the 1848 Revolutions Fail?
Lacked popular support Began by middle classes led these revolutions, but turned radical Nationalism divided more than united Some gains lasted [abolition of serfdom, etc.] And long term, most of the liberal ideas happen by the end of the 19c: The unification of Germany and Italy. The collapse of the Hapsburg Empire at the end of World War I

43 The Bottom Line It looked like the Conservative forces had triumphed.
BUT… Economic/social problems continued to challenge the ruling order Conservatives would have to make concessions in order to stay in power Many of the limited Liberal achievements remained permanent

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