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The Revolutions Of 1848. The turning point at which history failed to turn. --- George Macaulay Trevelyn [1937]

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Presentation on theme: "The Revolutions Of 1848. The turning point at which history failed to turn. --- George Macaulay Trevelyn [1937]"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Revolutions Of 1848

2 The turning point at which history failed to turn. --- George Macaulay Trevelyn [1937]

3 Pre-1848 Tensions: Long- Term  Industrialization  Ideological Challenges  Romanticism  Repressive Measures of restored monarchs

4 Pre-1848 Tensions: Short- Term  Agricultural Crises  Poor cereal harvests  Potato famine  Financial Crises Urban & Agricultural workers and the middle classes are now joined in misery

5 Centers of Revolution in 1848

6 FRANCE: The Giant Sea Snake?

7 FRANCE

8 Louis Philippe, “The Pear,” 1848

9 Prince Louis : Not Too Steady! Victor Hugo & Miguel de Girardin try to raise Prince Louis upon a shield. [Honoré Damier’s lithograph published in Charavari, December 11, 1848].

10 The February Revolution  Working class & liberals revolt  Protests break out  Troops open fire on peaceful protestors.  National Guard defect to the radicals.  King Louis Philippe loses Paris and abdicates on February 24.

11 The “June Days”  Workers in Paris rose up  Wanted a redistribution of wealth.  Victor Hugo’s Les Miserables

12 Paris: To the Barricades Again!

13 The 2 nd French Republic ( 1848- 1852 ) ‏ General Louis Cavaignac Nov., 1848  a new constitution provided for:  An elected President  A one-house legislature The Republic by Jean-Leon Gerome

14 President Louis Napoleon  The December election:  The “law and order” candidate, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte wins

15 1851 Coup d’Etat  President Louis Napoleon declared a hereditary 2 nd French Empire  A national plebiscite confirmed it

16 The HAPSBURG EMPIRE

17 The Austrian Empire: 1830

18   Culturally and racially heterogeneous.   Very conservative monarchy   Serfdom   Corrupt and inefficient Ferdinand I (1793-1875)‏

19 Austrian Students Form a Militia

20   The Austrian Empire collapses   Metternich fled.   Constituent Assembly met   Serfdom abolished.   BUT…   The revolutionary government failed Vienna, 1848: The Liberal Revolution

21 The New Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph I [r. 1848- 1916]

22 The Hungarian Revolution

23 Lajos Kossuth  Hungary declares independence from Austria  Austrian & Russian armies invade and defeat the Hungarian army

24 Tsar Nicholas I (r. 1825-1855)‏  He raised an army in response to a request from Franz Joseph

25 Bohemia, 1848  Bohemia was split between Pan-Slavs & Pan-Germans  Prague Conference:  Developed the idea of Austro-Slavism  The Austrian military ultimately attacked Prague, occupied Bohemia & crushed the rebellion. The Prague Barricades

26 Revolution in Romania

27 The German States

28 Germania - 1848

29 Anti-liberal, but an ‘Arthurian’ medieval romantic.   Relied on Junker support   Prussia in the mid- 19 c :   Efficient   Good economy   Strong military Frederick William IV of Prussia ( 1840-1861 )‏

30 The Germans Follow the French GAfter the February French revolutions, there were many riots in minor German states. GAustria and Prussia expected to intervene to crush these revolts, BUT:  Vienna Revolution  led to the fall of Metternich.  Berlin riots King Frederick William IV withdraws the troops and hand the liberals a big victory Other Princedoms collapse

31 Funeral for Berlin Freedom Fighters

32 The Frankfurt Assembly  Liberals form German National Assembly in Frankfurt:  Universal suffrage  Delegates mostly from the middle class  Debate over the nature of the state  monarchy of Habsburgs or Hohenzollerns?  They chose the Austrian Habsburg Archduke John rather than the King of Prussia But they failed to gain the loyalty of the Prussian Army

33 Frankfurt Assembly Meets

34 A Citizen Militia on Parade in Berlin

35 The “Three Germanies”

36 Austria & Prussia Reassert Control  Austria re-gained control of Vienna  Prussia opposed The Frankfurt Assembly  Radicals took to the barricades again  The Prussian army crushed radicals  April, 1849 the Assembly collapsed

37 A New German Confederation  Frederick William IV of Prussia wanted to rule a united Germany  1850  the German Confederation was re-established  Prussia was forced to accept Austrian leadership of Central Europe

38 Liberalism Discredited in Germany  Rule of force was the only winner  A massive exodus of liberal intelligentsia  Militarism triumphs

39 THE AFTERMATH

40 Democrats Swept Out of Europe

41 The Communist Manifesto Karl Marx Friedrich Engels

42 Why did the 1848 Revolutions Fail?  Lacked popular support  Began by middle classes led these revolutions, but turned radical  Nationalism divided more than united  Some gains lasted [abolition of serfdom, etc.]  And long term, most of the liberal ideas happen by the end of the 19 c :  The unification of Germany and Italy.  The collapse of the Hapsburg Empire at the end of World War I

43 The Bottom Line  It looked like the Conservative forces had triumphed.  BUT…  Economic/social problems continued to challenge the ruling order  Conservatives would have to make concessions in order to stay in power  Many of the limited Liberal achievements remained permanent


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