9 Prince Louis: Not Too Steady! Victor Hugo & Miguel de Girardin try to raise Prince Louis upon a shield. [Honoré Damier’s lithograph published in Charavari, December 11, 1848].
10 The February Revolution Working class & liberals revoltProtests break outTroops open fire on peaceful protestors.National Guard defect to the radicals.King Louis Philippe loses Paris and abdicates on February 24.
11 The “June Days” Workers in Paris rose up Wanted a redistribution of wealth.Victor Hugo’s Les Miserables
23 Lajos Kossuth Hungary declares independence from Austria Austrian & Russian armies invade and defeat the Hungarian army
24 Tsar Nicholas I (r )He raised an army in response to a request from Franz Joseph
25 Bohemia, 1848 Bohemia was split between Pan-Slavs & Pan-Germans Prague Conference:Developed the idea of Austro-SlavismThe Austrian military ultimately attacked Prague, occupied Bohemia & crushed the rebellion.The Prague Barricades
29 Frederick William IV of Prussia (1840-1861) Anti-liberal, but an ‘Arthurian’ medieval romantic.Relied on Junker supportPrussia in the mid- 19c:EfficientGood economyStrong military
30 The Germans Follow the French After the February French revolutions, there were many riots in minor German states.Austria and Prussia expected to intervene to crush these revolts, BUT:Vienna Revolution led to the fall of Metternich.Berlin riotsKing Frederick William IV withdraws the troops and hand the liberals a big victoryOther Princedoms collapse
32 The Frankfurt Assembly Liberals form German National Assembly in Frankfurt:Universal suffrageDelegates mostly from the middle classDebate over the nature of the state monarchy of Habsburgs or Hohenzollerns?They chose the Austrian Habsburg Archduke John rather than the King of PrussiaBut they failed to gain the loyalty of the Prussian Army
36 Austria & Prussia Reassert Control Austria re-gained control of ViennaPrussia opposed The Frankfurt AssemblyRadicals took to the barricades againThe Prussian army crushed radicalsApril, the Assembly collapsed
37 A New German Confederation Frederick William IV of Prussia wanted to rule a united Germany1850 the German Confederation was re-establishedPrussia was forced to accept Austrian leadership of Central Europe
38 Liberalism Discredited in Germany Rule of force was the only winnerA massive exodus of liberal intelligentsiaMilitarism triumphs
41 The Communist Manifesto Karl MarxFriedrich Engels
42 Why did the 1848 Revolutions Fail? Lacked popular supportBegan by middle classes led these revolutions, but turned radicalNationalism divided more than unitedSome gains lasted [abolition of serfdom, etc.]And long term, most of the liberal ideas happen by the end of the 19c:The unification of Germany and Italy.The collapse of the Hapsburg Empire at the end of World War I
43 The Bottom Line It looked like the Conservative forces had triumphed. BUT…Economic/social problems continued to challenge the ruling orderConservatives would have to make concessions in order to stay in powerMany of the limited Liberal achievements remained permanent