Presentation on theme: "Pygmalion Pygmalion: A Romance in Five Acts (1912) is a play by Irish playwright George Bernard Shaw."— Presentation transcript:
Pygmalion Pygmalion: A Romance in Five Acts (1912) is a play by Irish playwright George Bernard Shaw.
The Story Professor of phonetics Henry Higgins makes a bet that he can train a bedraggled flower girl, Eliza Doolittle, to pass for a duchess at an ambassador's garden party by teaching her to assume a veneer of gentility, the most important element of which, he believes, is impeccable speech. The play is a sharp lampoon of the rigid British class system of the day and a comment on women's independence, packaged as a romantic comedy. In ancient Greek mythology, Pygmalion was the creator of a sculpture which came to life and was a popular subject for Victorian Era English playwrights. Terminology: phonetics: noun ~ the science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription veneer: noun ~ a superficially valuable or pleasing appearance: a cruel person with a veneer of kindliness lampoon: noun ~ a sharp, satire directed against an individual or institution; a work of literature art, or the like, ridiculing severely the character or behaviour of a person, society, etc
Play Pygmalion remains Shaw's most popular play. The play's widest audiences know it as the inspiration for the highly romanticized 1956 musical My Fair Lady and the 1964 film version starring Audrey Hepburn as Eliza and Rex Harrison as Higgins.
Genre ~ Romance aka “a love story” or a “chick flick” “Romantic comedies” are a literary tradition dating back to Shakespeare. While a “romance” to some is simply a love story, a “romantic comedy” delves into deeper issues about human relationships with a mixture of humour and male-female relationship issues, while maintaining a witty tone. Victorian romances are more along these lines. In addition to the witty dialogue and the relationships between men and women, Victorian romances such as Pride and Prejudice and Jane Eyre also set out to examine social issues, and often showcase leading ladies who are impoverished yet inherently moral, and male protagonists who learn that money and character do not necessarily go hand in hand. George Bernard Shaw is a Victorian playwright who makes these same issues central to Pygmalion: A Romance in Five Acts Terminology: impoverished: adjective ~ reduced to poverty
In ancient Greek mythology, Pygmalion was the creator of a sculpture which came to life and was a popular subject for Victorian Era English playwrights. BACKGROUND READING: As you read Ovid’s Metamorphosis, focus on the relationship between the artist and his creation. 1.Who is more responsible for Galatea’s “awakening,” Pygmalion or Aphrodite? Explain. 2.Because he is her creator, is Pygmalion’s love for Galatea indicative of self-obsession? To what extent is his love ethical? 3.What rights of her own does Galatea have? Terminology: indicative: adjective ~ showing, signifying, or pointing out; expressive or suggestive (usually followed by of ): behaviour indicative of mental disorder.
"Pygmalion" From Ovid's Metamorphosis Pygmalion saw so much to blame in women that he came at last to abhor the sex, and resolved to live unmarried. He was a sculptor, and had made with wonderful skill a statue of ivory, so beautiful that no living woman could be compared to it in beauty. It was indeed the perfect semblance of a maiden that seemed to be alive, and only prevented from moving by modesty. His art was so perfect that it concealed itself, and its product looked like the workmanship of nature. Pygmalion admired his own work, and at last fell in love with the counterfeit creation. Falconet’s Pygmalion and Galate (1763)
Oftentimes he laid his hand upon it, as if to assure himself whether it were living or not, and could not even then believe that it was only ivory. He caressed it, and gave it presents such as young girls love, bright shells and polished stones, little birds and flowers of various hues, beads and amber. He put raiment on its limbs, and jewels on its fingers, and a necklace about its neck. To the ears he hung earrings and strings of pearls upon the breast. Her dress became her, and she looked not less charming than when unattired. He laid her on a couch spread with cloths of Tyrian dye, and called her his wife, and put her head upon a pillow of the softest feathers, as if she could enjoy their softness. Goya’s Pygmalion and Galatea (1812)
The festival of Venus was at hand, a festival celebrated with great pomp at Cyprus. Victims were offered, the altars smoked, and the odor of incense filled the air. When Pygmalion had performed his part in the solemnities, he stood before the altar and timidly said, "Ye gods, who can do all things, give me, I pray you, for my wife" he dared not say "my ivory virgin," but said instead "one like my ivory virgin." Venus, who was present at the festival, heard him and knew the thought he would have uttered; and, as an omen of her favor, caused the flame on the altar to shoot up thrice in a fiery point into the air. When he returned home, he went to see his statue, and, leaning over the couch, gave a kiss to the mouth. It seemed to be warm. He pressed its lips again, he laid his hand upon the limbs; the ivory felt soft to his touch, and yielded to his fingers like the wax of Hymettus. Burne-Jones first of four part Series of Pygmalion (1868-1870)
While he stands astonished and glad, though doubting, and fears he may be mistaken, again and again with a lover's ardor he touches the object of his hopes. It was indeed alive! The veins when pressed yielded to the finger and then resumed their roundness. Then at last the votary of Venus found words to thank the goddess, and pressed his lips upon lips as real as his own. The virgin felt the kisses and blushed, and, opening her timid eyes to the light, fixed them at the same moment on her lover. Venus blessed the nuptials she had formed, and from this union Paphos (pey fos) was born, from whom the city, sacred to Venus, received its name. Gerome’s Pygmalion and Galatea (1890)
Schiller ~ “Ideals” Schiller, in his poem, “Ideals”, applies this tale of Pygmalion to the love of nature in a youthful heart. In Schiller's version, as in William Morris's, the statue is of marble. "As once with prayers in passion flowing, Pygmalion embraced the stone, Till from the frozen marble glowing, The light of feeling o'er him shone, So did I clasp with young devotion Bright Nature to a poet's heart; Till breath and warmth and vital motion Seemed through the statue form to dart. "And then in all my ardor sharing, The silent form expression found; Returned my kiss of youthful daring, And understood my heart's quick sound. Then lived for me the bright creation. The silver rill with song was rife; The trees, the roses shared sensation, An echo of my boundless life." Rodin’s Pygmalion et Galatee (1908)
Morris’s ~ Earthly Paradise Morris tells the story of Pygmalion and the image in some of the most beautiful verses of the Earthly Paradise. This is Galatea's description of her metamorphosis: "'My sweet,' she said, 'as yet I am not wise, Or stored with words aright the tale to tell, But listen: when I opened first mine eyes I stood within the niche thou knowest well, And from my hand a heavy thing there fell Carved like these flowers, nor could I see things clear, But with a strange confused noise could hear. "'At last mine eyes could see a woman fair, But awful as this round white moon o'er head, So that I trembled when I saw her there, For with my life was born some touch of dread, And therewithal I heard her voice that said, "Come down and learn to love and be alive, For thee, a well-prized gift, today I give."'"
What is an archetype? According to Dictionary.com... an archetype is an original pattern or model from which all things of the same kind are copied or on which they are based; a model or first form; prototype
Carl Jung applied the term archetype to literature. He recognized that there were universal patterns in all stories and mythologies regardless of culture or historical period and hypothesized that part of the human mind contained a collective unconscious shared by all members of the human species, a sort of universal, primal memory. Joseph Campbell took Jung’s ideas and applied them to world mythologies. In A Hero with a Thousand Faces, among other works, he refined the concept of hero and the hero’s journey ~ George Lucas used Campbell’s writings to formulate the Star Wars sega. Recognizing archetypal patterns in literature brings patterns we all unconsciously respond to in similar ways to a conscious level. Carl Jung
An image A theme A symbol An idea A character type A plot pattern The term archetype can be applied to:
Dreams Myths Literature Religions Fantasies Folklore Archetypes can be expressed in
The quest for identity The epic journey to find the promised land/to find the good city The quest for vengeance The warrior’s journey to save his people The search for love (to rescue the princess/damsel in distress) The journey in search of knowledge The tragic quest: penance or self-denial The fool’s errand The quest to rid the land of danger The grail quest (the quest of human perfection) Types of Archetypal Journeys
Includes author, actor, playwright, chef, musician, sculptor, etc. Character is about bringing something new to the world, so is sometimes akin to childbirth or parenthood. Sometimes the power of this archetype leads to an enormous drive to do something outstanding that will claim attention from others. But often it is a drive within the person to give form to an influence they barely understand themselves, and as it comes into being is as much a surprise to the creative artist as it is to her or his audience. Archetypes evident in Pygmalion The Artist ~ a character type
Coined as the ‘victim’ because they perceive themselves to be victimized by life and other challenges. Person who is a down and out, an alcoholic, homeless or illegal alien fits into this archetype. Qualities of this archetype are dependence, powerlessness and lack of resources, both personal and material. They might be impoverished of the ability to love, or of initiative or motivation. They might beg for attention or power. May be recognizing how fears, guilt and lack of confidence has imprisoned them. Literally they feel they have been living with emotional ‘@*$&” for years. Degraded human and living condition has come about through forms of self judgement This archetype might seem to be all together negative, BUT it has a positive side also... This side is to do with the great compassion and wisdom that comes from having lost or let go of everything that gives most people a sense of value, of worth or motivation. The beggar might depict the letting go of all illusions, dreams, worldly ambitions and hopes, opening the freedom and enlightenment that arise from this. The Beggar ~ a character type
The inventor is energetic, expressive, decisive, easygoing, and, hence the archetypal name, the most inventive. The inventor’s strongest personality indicators are in extroversion, intuition, thinking and perception. The inventor is highly sociable and freely interacts with people. They rely more heavily on "gut" feelings than on past experience. They are imaginative people who are more intrigued with fantasy then facts. They spend more time contemplating about future possibilities than worrying about the here and now. They can be a great source of inspiration to the people around them. They may appear to roll with the punches. They live life in the moment adapting to situations as they pop up. The Inventor ~ a character type
The Fairy Godmother and Fairy Godfather archetypes are closely related to the Angel archetype in that they generally have loving, nurturing qualities and a tendency to help those in need, either anonymously or with no expectation of any return. While their natures can be maternal, they don’t necessarily have children of their own but often serve as foster parents or guides to others. Some other tell-tale characteristics are: Enjoy throwing parties, dressing up and helping others to have a good time Provide makeovers and ways people can feel better about themselves They can see the potential in something or someone and can help bring that to life Excellent gift-givers (and many times anonymously) Adopts or otherwise takes on a protégé (or several) Has unbridled support of one’s growth and achievement The FGM/FGF might grant a wish or two but nearly always teach how we have magic of our own The ability to see the best in someone but also administer a stern word or two if necessary Tends to be smart, knowing, wise and slightly aloof Often portrayed as eccentric or quirky if not down right odd Fairy Godmother & Godfather ~ a character type
The Quest ~ plot pattern The story of the hero's quest typically begins in the hero's ordinary world, when he or she receives a call to adventure from a herald. Many heroes initially refuse the call, until a mentor reassures them that they are capable. After this meeting with the mentor, they must enter the world of the quest. They meet allies and enemies along the way and are tested frequently. As they near the source of their quest, they usually face one final ordeal. Upon their success, they take the object of their quest, and make their way home. The way home is not always easy, but eventually they return to their ordinary world with their prize.
Characteristics of The Quest The hero may search for an object or he may search for knowledge for himself or his people. Sometimes his quest is to right a wrong. The hero's quest may be prophecized. The hero receives the call to adventure in different ways. Some hear voices, some are guided by gods/goddesses, while others have the council of wise women or burning bushes. The hero's quest is dangerous, and often involves facing death itself. The hero's journey symbolizes the need to confront one's mortality. The hero may be required to travel into the otherworld in order to face death. Or, he or she may face supernatural creatures (eg: fight monsters, face fire breathing giants, etc). Once the questing heroes have faced his or her trials successfully, they return to their people, usually transformed by their experience. Terminology: prophecy: noun ~ the foretelling or prediction of what is to come
Q. Name some artist/orphan/godmother archetypes in literature, film, and society. Q. How are these archetypes perceived in contemporary society? How has that perception evolved over time? Explain.
Film: Mary Poppins, Wizard of Oz, Sleeping Beauty, Princess and the Frog, Cinderella and Auntie Mame all feature a Fairy Godmother archetype in action. The title character in ‘Amelie’ is a Fairy Godmother/Angel as she anonymously does good deeds for people as well as some mischievous ones. Dustin Hoffman’s role in ‘Mr. Magorum’s Wonder Emporium’ is a prime example of a very endearing Fairy Godfather as is Robert DeNiro’s Captain Shakespeare in ‘Stardust’. Literature: Dumbledore in the Harry Potter series, Aunt March in Little Women, Uncle Andrew in The Magician’s Nephew, Lady Lilith de Tempscire of the Discworld series, Leanansidhe from the Dresden Files series, Mrs. Madrigal in the Tales of the City series Television: Oprah, Stacy and Clinton from the make-over show ‘What Not To Wear’ (They might be catty, but you can also tell they really enjoy helping people feel better about themselves.), the animated series The Fairly Odd Parents, Stephen Root as Jimmy James in ‘News Radio’
The Artist’s Dilemma Watch Disney’s Pinocchio where Gepetto’s wish comes true and his puppet turns into a real boy, who is warned by the Blue Fairy that he needs to fully understand himself prior to being considered “human.” (Chapter #4-7) Discuss: 1.What archetypal roles are played by Gepetto, Pinocchio and the Blue Fairy? 2.Is Gepetto’s wish for his puppet to become real an ethical desire? 3.What is the role of an artist in reference to his/her work? Should he be able to control his/her art, or to control the outside world’s reactions to it? At what point must the artist abandon his creation? The fairy tells Pinocchio that if he wants to become a real boy of flesh and blood he must prove himself to be brave, truthful and unselfish and able to tell right from wrong by listening to his conscience.
Social Class & Distinction Create a Tree Diagram Social Class Name social classes you believe exits today. Continue to develop more fully by assigning perceived characteristics and behaviours to each of these classes. Discussion: 1. Why do these distinctions exist? 2. How has the class system in American changed over the years? 3. Can people move from one class to another, or are there restrictions?
Social Class Four common factors/criteria for gauging a person’s position in society OCCUPATIONINCOMEEDUCATIONWEALTH Upper Class a.k.a. The Rich Derived from social position in one’s family, not from one`s own achievements or wealth Don’t have to work for a living Supported by investments/inheritance ie: aristocrats, ruling families, titled people, religious hierarchs Possess great influence & wealth Strong sense of solidarity amongst class Have ability to derive enormous incomes from wealth through investments & management In America, “Upper class families...dominate corporate America and have a disproportionate influence over the nation’s political, educational, religious and other institutions Upper Class: celebrities, corporate executives, entrepreneurs, investors, investment bankers, top level fund managers, stock brokers, high ranking evil servants, & politicians
Middle Class a.k.a. Blue Collar People in contemporary society who fall socio-economically between the working class and upper class Common measures varies between cultures as there is no set criteria Blue collar job (member of working class who performs manual labour and earns an hourly wage) Middle Class: manufacturing, mining, building, construction trades, mechanical work, maintenance Term ``working class`` considered unflattering in USA Middle class criteria...good education, own a family home and hold a managerial or professional job Lower Class a.k.a. Working or Labouring Class Those in lower tier jobs measured by skill, education & lower incomes) Those unemployed or possessing below average incomes Found in industrialized economies and in urban areas of non-industrialized economies Section of society dependent on physical labour This percentage of population has lower access to economic resources, education and cultural interests Money spent for sustenance over lifestyle ie: fashion vs nutrition or shelter
*Household net worth of $1 million and over is defined as Upper Class as the wealthiest 1%. *Who Rules America? Top 1% of Americans own around 34% of the wealth in the US. The bottom 80% own only 16% of the wealth. Do we pigeonhole people? Terminology: pigeonhole: verb ~ to assign to a definite place or to definite places in some orderly system: to pigeonhole new ideas INTERESTING FACTS:
Directed Reading Activity ~ Pygmalion Read the Act One of Pygmalion Take note of any descriptions or dialogue that indicates class differences. ex: Eliza Doolittle’s contrasting outfits. OR The difference in dialect between the flower girl and the theatre patrons. As a class…. Compile a class list on the board and discuss connections to contemporary society Q. To what extent do cloths still “make the man?” Q. Should it matter how a person speaks? Q. Why and in what circumstances?
Discussion Questions ~ Pygmalion Act 1 1.At the opening of Act 1, Shaw makes a distinction between St. Paul’s Cathedral and St. Paul’s Church. Why might this difference be important? 2. A bystander defends Higgins with “It’s aw rawt: e’s a gentleman: look at his boots” (page 13). What does this observation signify about social class and crime? 3. Higgins identifies Eliza’s neighbourhood and upbringing simply by listening to her accent. Do such judgements and assumptions occur in our society? Discuss. 4. Compare Higgins’ and Pickering’s treatment of Eliza. 5. In the scene where Eliza returns home and puts herself to bed, description is lengthier than dialogue. Give more than one reason for this stylistic choice.