2Chapter 2 Timeline page 35141614921533160916191738Prince Henry the Navigator establishes a center for naval exploration at Sagres, PortugalChristopher Columbus lands in the BahamasFrancisco Pizarro and his men kill Inca leader AtahualpaHenry Hudson makes his first voyage to North AmericaThe first Africans in North America arrive in JamestownFormer slaves built Fort Mose, the first free black settlement in North America
3Chapter 2 Timeline1519153415481587Ferdinand Magellan led an expedition to circumnavigate the worldHernan Cortez landed in Mexico and conquered the Aztec EmpireConquistador Francisco Pizarro conquered the Inca EmpireFernandez de Oviedo reported the effects of European diseases on the Taino people of HispaniolaThe Roanoke Colony disappeared12 million Africans were shipped across the Atlantic to the Americas
4Chapter 2 Timeline1624Peter Minuit bought Manhattan Island for the Native Americans for $24. He also founded the towns of New Amsterdam (New York) and New Sweden.
5Fort Mose, Florida (Page 33 FL 2) In 1738, former slaves built Fort Mose, the first free black settlement in North America.
6Section 1: Europeans Set Sail The Big IdeaEuropeans explored the world, searching for new lands and new trade routes.Main IdeasVikings were skilled sailors, and they were the first Europeans to reach North America.Prince Henry the Navigator established a school for sailors and provided financial support that enabled the Portuguese to start exploring the oceans.Portuguese sailors sailed around Africa and found a sea route to Asia.
7Main Idea 1: Vikings were skilled sailors, and they were the first Europeans to reach North America. Vikings came from Scandinavia.They raided countries throughout Europe and developed large trading networks.In 1000 Leif Eriksson sailed from Norway to the North American coast after having been blown off course by a storm.Landed on the Labrador Peninsula in present-day CanadaSailed further south to Newfoundland and perhaps even into New EnglandCreated a North American settlement, but attacks by Native Americans and the area’s isolation prompted the Vikings to return to Europe
8Main Idea 2: Prince Henry the Navigator established a school for sailors and provided financial support that enabled the Portuguese to start exploring the oceans.Henry the NavigatorMade great advances in exploration in the 1400s:Prince Henry built an observatory and founded a school of navigation.Financed research by mapmakers and shipbuildersPaid for expeditions to explore the coast of Africa
10Advancement of Exploration Motivations for ExplorationTo find sea routes to develop additional trade with AsiaTo spread Christianity and convert more peopleMany Europeans wanted to learn more about Asia and its culture.Technological AdvancesBetter instruments made it possible for sailors to travel the open seas.The astrolabe enabled navigators to use the stars to chart location.The Portuguese began designing ships that were smaller, lighter, and easier to steer.Caravels used triangular sails that allowed ships to sail against the wind.
12Main Idea 3: Portuguese sailors sailed around Africa and found a sea route to Asia. In 1488 Bartolomeu Dias led an exploration from Portugal southward along African coast, discovering the southern tip of Africa, the Cape of Good Hope.In 1497 Vasco da Gama sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and landed in India, winning the European race for a sea route to Asia.
13Results of Exploration As Portuguese sailors explored the west coast of Africa, they negotiated for gold, ivory, and slaves.Devastated African communitiesBroke up many familiesLed to increased warfare among kingdomsSlaves were sent to Europe and to islands in the Atlantic where they endured brutal living conditions.New trade increased Portuguese wealth and power.Other European countries launched their own voyages of exploration.
15Section 2: Europeans Reach the Americas The Big IdeaChristopher Columbus’s voyages led to new exchanges between Europe, Africa, and the Americas.Main IdeasChristopher Columbus sailed across the Atlantic Ocean and reached a continent that was previously unknown to him.After Columbus’s voyages, other explorers sailed to the Americas.
16Main Idea 1: Christopher Columbus sailed across the Atlantic Ocean and reached a continent that was previously unknown to him.Christopher Columbus, a sailor from Genoa, Italy, heard stories of great wealth in Asia.He persuaded King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain to pay for an expedition across the Atlantic.On August 3, 1492, Columbus set sail across the Atlantic with three ships.On October 12, 1492, he reached the Americas.Columbus thought he could reach Asia by sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean from Spain.
18Columbus in the Americas Columbus and his crew landed in the Bahamas, on an island he named San Salvador.He called the native people Indians because he thought he was in the Indies.Columbus was interested in gold, not the culture of the native people.He made three more voyages to the Americas.The impact of Columbus’s voyages on the world was not realized until years after his death.Columbus was concerned about creating towns, controlling the collecting of gold, mayors of towns, priest, and a church.
19Impact of ColumbusChanged the way Europeans thought of the world and their place in it.Began a new era of interaction between Europe and the Americas.Created conflict as countries vied to add lands to their empires.In 1493 Pope Alexander VI, from Spain, decreed the Line of Demarcation through the Atlantic Ocean that allowed Spain to claim all lands west of the line.Portugal and Spain then signed an agreement, the Treaty of Tordesillas, which moved the Line of Demarcation 800 miles further west.
20Main Idea 2: After Columbus’s voyages, other explorers sailed to the Americas. 3. America was named for Amerigo Vespucci, who sailed to South America in 1501.VespucciVasco Núñez de Balboa crossed Central America to discover the Pacific Ocean.Balboa4. Ferdinand Magellan headed an expedition in 1519 that eventually circumnavigated, or sailed around, the world.Magellan
21The Columbian Exchange Explorers brought plants, animals, and diseases to the “New World” of the Americas and brought back plants and animals to the “Old World”—Europe, Asia, and Africa.The Columbian Exchange is the name given to this transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between Europe and the Americas.Explorers brought horses, cattle, pigs, and grains such as barley and wheat to the Americas.Europeans took back such American plants as corn, tomatoes, tobacco, and cocoa.
22The Columbian Exchange page 45 Exit Ticket The Columbian Exchange brought new foods and products to Europe and the Americans.The Columbian also brought slaves from Africa to the Americas.
25Section 3: Spain Builds an Empire The Big IdeaSpain established a large empire in the Americas.Main IdeasSpanish conquistadors conquered the Aztec and the Inca empires.Spanish explorers traveled through the borderlands of New Spain, claiming more land.Spanish settlers treated Native Americans harshly, forcing them to work on plantations and in mines.
26Hernán Cortés led a military expedition to Mexico in 1519. Main Idea 1: Spanish conquistadors conquered the Aztec and the Inca empires.Conquistadors were Spanish soldiers who led military expeditions in the Americas.Hernán Cortés led a military expedition to Mexico in 1519.Cortés heard of a wealthy land ruled by a king named Moctezuma II.
27Conquest of the Aztec Empire Moctezuma II ruled the Aztec Empire from his capital city of Tenochtitlán.The Aztecs had thousands of warriors.Cortés had several hundred soldiers and sailors, as well as horses and guns.Moctezuma welcomed Cortés but was seized by the Spanish and later killed during fighting.The Spanish overthrew the Aztec Empire with the aid of the Aztec’s enemies.The Aztecs had also been weakened by smallpox and other diseases brought by the Spanish.
28Pizarro’s Conquest of the Inca Francisco Pizarro, another conquistador, led a military expedition to the Inca Empire in the Andes Mountains of South America.The Inca ruled over territory that stretched from present-day Chile to Colombia.Pizarro’s forces killed the Inca ruler.Pizarro, with the aid of Native American allies, had conquered the Inca by 1534.
29Early American Empires CivilizationLocation/LeadersCharacteristics/CultureAchievements/TechnologiesMaya1000 BC began farming200 AD began forming citiesAD began forming large cities1500 AD power had fadedMexico, Honduras, Belize, GuatemalaCapital: NoneKing PacalReligion – many gods, Sun God, Moon God, Maize God, human sacrificeGovernment: Theocracy – studied the starsCrops – beans, squash, avocados, maizeResources – cotton, cacao, obsidian, jade, bird feathers, gold, deer, rabbits, monkeysStone pyramids, temples, statues365 day calendar, 260 day calendarCalendars that determined length of the yearObservatoriesNumber system and symbol for 0Writing system of Detailed Written RecordsBooksCanals, terraces, HieroglyphicsAztecBegan in Mid-1100 AD1521 AD Empire EndedMexicoCapital: Tenochtitlan built in 1325 AD on Lake TexacocoEmperor Moctezuma IIReligion – many gods, human sacrificeCrops –cotton, maizeFormed alliances, controlled trade, collected tributeHuge MilitaryResources –cotton, gold, silver, gems, bright feathersCauseways, canals, HieroglyphicsChinampas (floating gardens)CalendarStudy astronomyDetailed Written recordsJewelry and maskArtisans used gold, gems and bright bird feathersWomen embroidered colorful designs of cloth they woveIncaBegan in Mid-1400’s ADIn 1537 AD Spanish began to rule the EmpireSouth AmericaCapital: CuzcoRuler PachacutiLanguage: QuechuaAndes MountainsReligion – many gods, rarely human sacrifice, mummiesCrops –maize, peanuts, potatoes,Resources -llamasStone pyramids, temples, masonryLargest empire (over 12 million people)10,000 miles of stone roadsTerraces, HieroglyphicsBridgesGold and silver jewelry, potteryRecords kept with knotted cords called quipusFine textiles
31Spanish Settlements The Spanish called their vast empire New Spain. Jews, Muslims, and non-Christians were forbidden to settle there.Royal officials ruled the empire through viceroys, or royal governors.Three types of settlements were established:Pueblos served as trading posts and centers of government.Missions were founded by priests to convert local Native Americans to Catholicism.Presidios, or military bases, protected towns and missions.Settlers built El Camino Real, an extensive road system, to link the empire.
34Main Idea 2: Spanish explorers traveled through the borderlands of New Spain, claiming more land. Many other Spanish explorers came to North America in the 1500s to find treasure.Juan Ponce de León explored present-day Florida in 1513.Hernando de Soto traveled through Florida and North Carolina in 1539.Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, accompanied by a slave named Estevanico and a few others, journeyed on foot throughout the North American Southwest.De Vaca’s account of their journey inspired Francisco Vásquez de Coronado to continue exploration, leading to the discovery of the Grand Canyon.Spain’s American colonies helped make it wealthy.Tons of gold and silver were brought to Spain from the Aztec and Inca empires.Food was also grown in Mexico and Peru to support Spain’s expanding empire.
35Catholicism in the Americas Spain commanded priest to convert American Indians to Christianity.
36Government Religion Labor Spanish AmericaGovernmentReligionLaborviceroyaltiesincreased infrastructurebureaucracytaxesspread of Christianityenslavementcruel/harsh working conditionsinflux of new diseases
37Main Idea 3: Spanish settlers treated Native Americans harshly, forcing them to work on plantations and in mines.The encomienda system gave settlers the right to tax local Native Americans or make them work.Most Spanish treated Native Americans like slaves.Native Americans were forced to work on plantations, or large farms, to work in mines, and to herd cattle.Bartolomé de Las Casas, a Spanish priest, wrote books and letters defending Native American rights.
38Section 4: The Race for Empires The Big IdeaOther European nations challenged Spain in the Americas.Main IdeasEvents in Europe affected settlement of North America.Several explorers searched for a Northwest Passage to the Pacific Ocean.European nations raced to establish empires in North America.
39Main Idea 1: Events in Europe affected settlement of North America. Martin Luther, a German priest, protested the practices of the Catholic Church in 1517 leading to a religious reform movement called the Protestant Reformation.Reformers became known as Protestants.The printing press, a machine that produces printed copies, helped spread the ideas of the Reformation.Conflict between Catholics and Protestants in Europe often led to civil war.King Henry VIII defied the pope and founded the Church of England, or Anglican Church, in 1534.
40Spain and England Go to War King Philip II used Spain’s wealth to lead a Counter-Reformation against the Protestants.Philip sent the Spanish Armada to England to overthrow Queen Elizabeth and the Anglican Church.The smaller English fleet defeated the Armada.Spain was also weakened by economic problems, including inflation, a rise in the price of goods caused by an increase in the amount of money in use.England, France, and the Netherlands challenged Spanish power in the Americas.
41Main Idea 2: Several explorers searched for a Northwest Passage to the Pacific Ocean. Italian sailor John Cabot, sailing for the English, searched for a passage to the Pacific Ocean along the coast of Canada and Newfoundland. This became the basis of England’s claim to North America.CabotFrenchman Jacques Cartier sailed down the Saint Lawrence river all the way to present-day Montreal, claiming lands for France.CartierThe English captain Henry Hudson led a Dutch expedition to present-day New York in 1609.Hudson
43Main Idea 3: European nations raced to establish empires in North America. Spanish and Portuguese were the early leaders in exploration and colonization of Central America, the Caribbean, and South America.English, French and Dutch then focused on North America for expansion of their empires.
44English SettlementThe English decided to found a colony in North America in the late 1500s.Sir Walter Raleigh received a charter, a document giving him permission to start a colony.He sent an expedition that landed in present-day North Carolina and Virginia.The colony established at Roanoke by John White in 1587, in what is now Virginia, mysteriously disappeared.
45European Exploration of the Americas, 1492-1682 page 56
46Roanoke Colony page 54Sir Walter Raleigh built a colony on Roanoke Island. The English colonist of Roanoke had a hard life. They fought with Native Americans and had trouble finding food.John White resettled Roanoke in 15 87, after a few months he went back to England for supplies. When he returned he found the colony deserted. The only clue found to the fate of the colonist was the word Croatoan carved to a post. To this day no one is certain what happened to the “lost colony” at Roanoke.
47French Empire in North America First settlements were in Florida, but they were soon destroyed and the settlers driven out by the Spanish.The explorations of Jacques Cartier and Samuel de Champlain gave France a claim in the north, in present-day Canada along the Saint Lawrence River.The North American territory that spread out from the St. Lawrence River in the late 1600s was called New France.Fur traders, explorers, and missionaries populated the region.René-Robert de La Salle claimed lands along the Mississippi River and in the Mississippi Valley.French settlers developed close trading relationship with the Native Americans.
48Dutch and Swedish Presence New NetherlandThe Dutch came to America for trade.They settled land between the Delaware and Hudson rivers.Manhattan Island was purchased from local Native Americans and called New Amsterdam.New SwedenColonists settled along the Delaware River.New Christina, the first Swedish settlement, was founded in 1638.The Dutch conquered New Sweden in 1655.
49Section 5: Beginnings of Slavery in the Americas The Big IdeaEuropeans forced millions of African slaves to work in their colonies.Main IdeasEuropean diseases wiped out much of the Native American population, causing colonists to look for a new labor force.Europeans enslaved millions of Africans and sent them to work in their colonies.Slaves in the Americas created a distinct culture.
50Main Idea 1: European diseases wiped out much of the Native American population, causing colonists to look for a new labor force.Europeans were immune, or had a natural resistance, to diseases common in Europe like measles, smallpox, and typhus.Native Americans had no resistance to these diseases, and millions died in the years after the Europeans arrived.With a shortage of Native American workers, Spanish and Portuguese plantation owners had to find other sources of cheap labor.Slaves from West Africa were brought to America and the African slave trade flourished.
51Main Idea 2: Europeans enslaved millions of Africans and sent them to work in their colonies. In 1510 Spanish government legalized the sale of slaves in the colonies.Most slaves came from the interior of Africa.One out of every six slaves died along the Middle Passage, the voyage across the Atlantic Ocean to reach the Americas, because of horrible living conditions.Slave trade led to the African Diaspora, as enslaved Africans were sent all across the world.Colonial leaders worked to regulate slave treatment and behavior, but treatment of enslaved Africans varied.Between the 1520’s and 1800’s about 12 million Africans were shipped across the Atlantic.
54Main Idea 3: Slaves in the Americas created a distinct culture. Slaves in the Americas came from diverse backgrounds, but shared many customs and viewpoints.They built upon what they had in common to create a new African American culture.
55Slave Culture Family Vital part of slave culture Provided a refuge, a place not fully under the slaveholders’ controlFaced many challenges, including being broken apartReligionChristianity blended with traditional African elementsGave sense of self-worth and hopeSpirituals were a common form of religious expression.Used songs and folktales to tell their stories of hope, sorrow, agony, and joy.Art and DanceForm of expressionDances were important social events in slave communities.Heavily influenced by African traditions.
56Slave Trade in the Americas CausesEffectsNative Americans dying from European diseasesNeed for cheap labor for plantationsWest Africans had immunity to most European diseasesAfrican DiasporaMiddle Passage DeathsHarsh/cruel treatment of enslaved AfricansFormation of African American culture
58Important FactsColumbus’s travels to the Americas created a conflict between Spain and PortugalThe Treaty of Tordesillas moved the Line of Demarcation 800 miles further westThe colonist of Roanoke abandoned the site for a reason that remains a mystery
59Important FactsSearches for the Northwest Passage were significant because they raised European interest in North AmericaConquistadors’ biggest advantage in defeating the Aztec and the Inca was steel armor and weaponsThe Columbian Exchange had deadly effects such as infecting Native Americans with new and deadly diseases
60The Columbian Exchange had deadly effects such as infecting Native Americans with new and deadly diseases
61Important FactsQuebec was a small colony on the Saint Lawrence River which opened trading routes for the French
62Important FactsThe El Camino Real was a network of paths connecting the communities of New SpainSpain commanded priest to convert American Indians to Christianity or CatholicismAbout 12 million Africans were shipped across the Atlantic as slaves between 1520’s and 1860’s
63The Aztec Empire exist in present day Mexico Important FactsColonist in need of cheap labor turned to slaves from West Africa because West African slaves had already built up immunity to European diseasesDutch settlers practiced religious toleration because they thought it would attract more colonistThe Aztec Empire exist in present day Mexico
64Important FactsMany Native Americans died as a result of exposure to new diseases brought by European explorers.King Phillip II’s launching of the Spanish Armada against England’s Queen Elizabeth I and her sea dogs showed that Spain’s religious allegiance was to the Catholic Church.
65Ferdinand Magellan was the first explorer to circumnavigate the globe Important PeopleFerdinand Magellan was the first explorer to circumnavigate the globeJacques Cartier claimed land for France during his two trips to Canada
66Important PeoplePeter Minuit was a Dutchman who founded New Amsterdam and helped found New SwedenBartolome de Las Casas wrote books and letters defending the American Indians to change Spain’s way of governing the Americas. He wrote Brief Account of the Devastation of the Indies
67Important PeopleFernandez de Oviedo wrote “there are not now believed to be at the present time… five hundred persons left.” He was writing about the effects of infection on the Taino people of Hispaniola
68Francisco Pizarro was a Spaniard who led the defeat of the Inca Important PeopleFrancisco Pizarro was a Spaniard who led the defeat of the IncaJuan Ponce de Leon landed on Puerto Rico in 1508, conquered it by 1511, and founded the city of San Jaun
69Important PeopleChristopher Columbus’s explorations were funded by king Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of SpainHernan Cortez was a Spanish conquistador who led the destruction of the Aztec EmpireVasco de Gama was the first European to discover a sea route to AsiaLeif Eriksson and his crew landed on the labrador peninsula in present day Canada
70Important PeoplePrince Henry the Navigator helped Portugal become a leader in world explorationMartin Luther publicly criticized the Roman Catholic Church with his ninety-five theses
71Moctezuma II war the ruler of the Aztec Empire Important PeopleMoctezuma II war the ruler of the Aztec EmpireMalintzin was the Indian Woman who helped Cortes win allies to fight the Aztecs
72Important TermsThe ecomienda system granted the Spanish settlers the right to tax local American indians or make them workPlantations – large farms that grew just one kind of crop and made enormous profits for their owners
73Important TermsAfrican Diaspora refers to the scattering of enslaved Africans all across the New WorldMiddle Passage describes the voyage taken by slaves across the Atlantic Ocean
74Important TermsAstrolabe – aided explorers in finding new continents by allowing ship navigators to check location by charting the position of celestial bodiesCaravel – a special type of ship that featured important advances in sailing technology
75Presidios were Spanish military bases in New Spain or the Americas Important TermsPresidios were Spanish military bases in New Spain or the Americas
76Important PlacesTenochtitlan was capital of the Aztec Empire, it was located on a lake in Central Mexico