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Holt McDougal, New Empires in the Americas Chapter 2.

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1 Holt McDougal, New Empires in the Americas Chapter 2

2 Holt McDougal, 141614921533160916191738 Prince Henry the Navigator establishes a center for naval exploration at Sagres, Portugal Christopher Columbus lands in the Bahamas Francisco Pizarro and his men kill Inca leader Atahualpa Henry Hudson makes his first voyage to North America The first Africans in North America arrive in Jamestown Former slaves built Fort Mose, the first free black settlement in North America Chapter 2 Timeline page 35

3 Holt McDougal, 1519 1534154815871520-1860 Ferdinand Magellan led an expedition to circumnavigat e the world Hernan Cortez landed in Mexico and conquered the Aztec Empire Conquistado r Francisco Pizarro conquered the Inca Empire Fernandez de Oviedo reported the effects of European diseases on the Taino people of Hispaniola The Roanoke Colony disappeared 12 million Africans were shipped across the Atlantic to the Americas Chapter 2 Timeline

4 Holt McDougal, 1624 Peter Minuit bought Manhattan Island for the Native Americans for $24. He also founded the towns of New Amsterdam (New York) and New Sweden. Chapter 2 Timeline

5 Holt McDougal, Fort Mose, Florida (Page 33 FL 2) In 1738, former slaves built Fort Mose, the first free black settlement in North America.

6 Holt McDougal, Section 1: Europeans Set Sail The Big Idea Europeans explored the world, searching for new lands and new trade routes. Main Ideas Vikings were skilled sailors, and they were the first Europeans to reach North America. Prince Henry the Navigator established a school for sailors and provided financial support that enabled the Portuguese to start exploring the oceans. Portuguese sailors sailed around Africa and found a sea route to Asia.

7 Holt McDougal, Main Idea 1: Vikings were skilled sailors, and they were the first Europeans to reach North America. Vikings came from Scandinavia. They raided countries throughout Europe and developed large trading networks. In 1000 Leif Eriksson sailed from Norway to the North American coast after having been blown off course by a storm. –Landed on the Labrador Peninsula in present-day Canada –Sailed further south to Newfoundland and perhaps even into New England Created a North American settlement, but attacks by Native Americans and the area’s isolation prompted the Vikings to return to Europe

8 Holt McDougal, Main Idea 2: Prince Henry the Navigator established a school for sailors and provided financial support that enabled the Portuguese to start exploring the oceans. Henry the Navigator Made great advances in exploration in the 1400s: Prince Henry built an observatory and founded a school of navigation. – Financed research by mapmakers and shipbuilders – Paid for expeditions to explore the coast of Africa

9 Holt McDougal, The Caravel page 39

10 Holt McDougal, Advancement of Exploration To find sea routes to develop additional trade with Asia To spread Christianity and convert more people Many Europeans wanted to learn more about Asia and its culture. Better instruments made it possible for sailors to travel the open seas. –The astrolabe enabled navigators to use the stars to chart location. The Portuguese began designing ships that were smaller, lighter, and easier to steer. –Caravels used triangular sails that allowed ships to sail against the wind. Motivations for Exploration Technological Advances

11 Holt McDougal, Sea Routes in Asia page 40

12 Holt McDougal, Main Idea 3: Portuguese sailors sailed around Africa and found a sea route to Asia. In 1488 Bartolomeu Dias led an exploration from Portugal southward along African coast, discovering the southern tip of Africa, the Cape of Good Hope. In 1497 Vasco da Gama sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and landed in India, winning the European race for a sea route to Asia.

13 Holt McDougal, Results of Exploration As Portuguese sailors explored the west coast of Africa, they negotiated for gold, ivory, and slaves. – Devastated African communities – Broke up many families – Led to increased warfare among kingdoms Slaves were sent to Europe and to islands in the Atlantic where they endured brutal living conditions. New trade increased Portuguese wealth and power. Other European countries launched their own voyages of exploration.

14 Holt McDougal, Portuguese Routes of Exploration page 41

15 Holt McDougal, Section 2: Europeans Reach the Americas The Big Idea Christopher Columbus’s voyages led to new exchanges between Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Main Ideas Christopher Columbus sailed across the Atlantic Ocean and reached a continent that was previously unknown to him. After Columbus’s voyages, other explorers sailed to the Americas.

16 Holt McDougal, Main Idea 1: Christopher Columbus sailed across the Atlantic Ocean and reached a continent that was previously unknown to him. Christopher Columbus, a sailor from Genoa, Italy, heard stories of great wealth in Asia. He persuaded King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain to pay for an expedition across the Atlantic. On August 3, 1492, Columbus set sail across the Atlantic with three ships. On October 12, 1492, he reached the Americas. Columbus thought he could reach Asia by sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean from Spain.

17 Holt McDougal, Columbus’s Voyages, 1942-1504 page 43

18 Holt McDougal, Columbus in the Americas Columbus and his crew landed in the Bahamas, on an island he named San Salvador. He called the native people Indians because he thought he was in the Indies. Columbus was interested in gold, not the culture of the native people. He made three more voyages to the Americas. The impact of Columbus’s voyages on the world was not realized until years after his death. Columbus was concerned about creating towns, controlling the collecting of gold, mayors of towns, priest, and a church.

19 Holt McDougal, Impact of Columbus Changed the way Europeans thought of the world and their place in it. Began a new era of interaction between Europe and the Americas. Created conflict as countries vied to add lands to their empires. –In 1493 Pope Alexander VI, from Spain, decreed the Line of Demarcation through the Atlantic Ocean that allowed Spain to claim all lands west of the line. –Portugal and Spain then signed an agreement, the Treaty of Tordesillas, which moved the Line of Demarcation 800 miles further west.

20 Holt McDougal, Main Idea 2: After Columbus’s voyages, other explorers sailed to the Americas. Magellan Vespucci 3. America was named for Amerigo Vespucci, who sailed to South America in 1501. 4. Ferdinand Magellan headed an expedition in 1519 that eventually circumnavigated, or sailed around, the world. Balboa Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed Central America to discover the Pacific Ocean.

21 Holt McDougal, The Columbian Exchange Explorers brought plants, animals, and diseases to the “New World” of the Americas and brought back plants and animals to the “Old World”—Europe, Asia, and Africa. The Columbian Exchange is the name given to this transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between Europe and the Americas. Explorers brought horses, cattle, pigs, and grains such as barley and wheat to the Americas. Europeans took back such American plants as corn, tomatoes, tobacco, and cocoa.

22 Holt McDougal, The Columbian Exchange page 45 Exit Ticket The Columbian Exchange brought new foods and products to Europe and the Americans. The Columbian also brought slaves from Africa to the Americas.

23 Holt McDougal, Columbian Exchange

24 Holt McDougal, Triangular Trade page 92

25 Holt McDougal, Section 3: Spain Builds an Empire The Big Idea Spain established a large empire in the Americas. Main Ideas Spanish conquistadors conquered the Aztec and the Inca empires. Spanish explorers traveled through the borderlands of New Spain, claiming more land. Spanish settlers treated Native Americans harshly, forcing them to work on plantations and in mines.

26 Holt McDougal, Main Idea 1: Spanish conquistadors conquered the Aztec and the Inca empires. Conquistadors were Spanish soldiers who led military expeditions in the Americas. Hernán Cortés led a military expedition to Mexico in 1519. Cortés heard of a wealthy land ruled by a king named Moctezuma II.

27 Holt McDougal, Conquest of the Aztec Empire Moctezuma II ruled the Aztec Empire from his capital city of Tenochtitlán. The Aztecs had thousands of warriors. Cortés had several hundred soldiers and sailors, as well as horses and guns. Moctezuma welcomed Cortés but was seized by the Spanish and later killed during fighting. The Spanish overthrew the Aztec Empire with the aid of the Aztec’s enemies. The Aztecs had also been weakened by smallpox and other diseases brought by the Spanish.

28 Holt McDougal, Pizarro’s Conquest of the Inca Francisco Pizarro, another conquistador, led a military expedition to the Inca Empire in the Andes Mountains of South America. The Inca ruled over territory that stretched from present-day Chile to Colombia. Pizarro’s forces killed the Inca ruler. Pizarro, with the aid of Native American allies, had conquered the Inca by 1534.

29 Holt McDougal, Early American Empires CivilizationLocation/LeadersCharacteristics/CultureAchievements/Technologies Maya  1000 BC began farming  200 AD began forming cities  250-900 AD began forming large cities  1500 AD power had faded  Mexico, Honduras, Belize, Guatemala  Capital: None  King Pacal  Religion – many gods, Sun God, Moon God, Maize God, human sacrifice  Government: Theocracy – studied the stars  Crops – beans, squash, avocados, maize  Resources – cotton, cacao, obsidian, jade, bird feathers, gold, deer, rabbits, monkeys  Stone pyramids, temples, statues  365 day calendar, 260 day calendar  Calendars that determined length of the year  Observatories  Number system and symbol for 0  Writing system of Detailed Written Records  Books  Canals, terraces, Hieroglyphics Aztec  Began in Mid-1100 AD  1521 AD Empire Ended  Mexico  Capital: Tenochtitlan built in 1325 AD on Lake Texacoco  Emperor Moctezuma II  Religion – many gods, human sacrifice  Crops –cotton, maize  Formed alliances, controlled trade, collected tribute  Huge Military  Resources –cotton, gold, silver, gems, bright feathers  Stone pyramids, temples, statues  Causeways, canals, Hieroglyphics  Chinampas (floating gardens)  Calendar  Study astronomy  Detailed Written records  Jewelry and mask  Artisans used gold, gems and bright bird feathers  Women embroidered colorful designs of cloth they wove Inca  Began in Mid-1400’s AD  In 1537 AD Spanish began to rule the Empire  South America  Capital: Cuzco  Ruler Pachacuti  Language: Quechua  Andes Mountains  Religion – many gods, rarely human sacrifice, mummies  Crops –maize, peanuts, potatoes,  Resources -llamas  Stone pyramids, temples, masonry  Largest empire (over 12 million people)  10,000 miles of stone roads  Terraces, Hieroglyphics  Bridges  Gold and silver jewelry, pottery  Records kept with knotted cords called quipus  Fine textiles

30 Holt McDougal, Spanish Explorations, 1513-1542 page 49

31 Holt McDougal, Spanish Settlements The Spanish called their vast empire New Spain. Jews, Muslims, and non-Christians were forbidden to settle there. Royal officials ruled the empire through viceroys, or royal governors. Three types of settlements were established: –Pueblos served as trading posts and centers of government. –Missions were founded by priests to convert local Native Americans to Catholicism. –Presidios, or military bases, protected towns and missions. Settlers built El Camino Real, an extensive road system, to link the empire.

32 Holt McDougal, Reasons for Spanish Victory page 48

33 Holt McDougal, Spanish Viceroyalties, c 1700 page 50

34 Holt McDougal, Main Idea 2: Spanish explorers traveled through the borderlands of New Spain, claiming more land. Spain’s American colonies helped make it wealthy. Tons of gold and silver were brought to Spain from the Aztec and Inca empires. Food was also grown in Mexico and Peru to support Spain’s expanding empire. Many other Spanish explorers came to North America in the 1500s to find treasure. Juan Ponce de León explored present-day Florida in 1513. Hernando de Soto traveled through Florida and North Carolina in 1539. Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, accompanied by a slave named Estevanico and a few others, journeyed on foot throughout the North American Southwest. De Vaca’s account of their journey inspired Francisco Vásquez de Coronado to continue exploration, leading to the discovery of the Grand Canyon.

35 Holt McDougal, Catholicism in the Americas Spain commanded priest to convert American Indians to Christianity.

36 Holt McDougal, Spanish America GovernmentReligionLabor viceroyalties increased infrastructure bureaucracy taxes spread of Christianity enslavement cruel/harsh working conditions influx of new diseases

37 Holt McDougal, Main Idea 3: Spanish settlers treated Native Americans harshly, forcing them to work on plantations and in mines. The encomienda system gave settlers the right to tax local Native Americans or make them work. Most Spanish treated Native Americans like slaves. Native Americans were forced to work on plantations, or large farms, to work in mines, and to herd cattle. Bartolomé de Las Casas, a Spanish priest, wrote books and letters defending Native American rights.

38 Holt McDougal, Section 4: The Race for Empires The Big Idea Other European nations challenged Spain in the Americas. Main Ideas Events in Europe affected settlement of North America. Several explorers searched for a Northwest Passage to the Pacific Ocean. European nations raced to establish empires in North America.

39 Holt McDougal, Main Idea 1: Events in Europe affected settlement of North America. Martin Luther, a German priest, protested the practices of the Catholic Church in 1517 leading to a religious reform movement called the Protestant Reformation. Reformers became known as Protestants. The printing press, a machine that produces printed copies, helped spread the ideas of the Reformation. Conflict between Catholics and Protestants in Europe often led to civil war. King Henry VIII defied the pope and founded the Church of England, or Anglican Church, in 1534.

40 Holt McDougal, Spain and England Go to War King Philip II used Spain’s wealth to lead a Counter-Reformation against the Protestants. Philip sent the Spanish Armada to England to overthrow Queen Elizabeth and the Anglican Church. The smaller English fleet defeated the Armada. Spain was also weakened by economic problems, including inflation, a rise in the price of goods caused by an increase in the amount of money in use. England, France, and the Netherlands challenged Spanish power in the Americas.

41 Holt McDougal, Main Idea 2: Several explorers searched for a Northwest Passage to the Pacific Ocean. The English captain Henry Hudson led a Dutch expedition to present-day New York in 1609. Hudson Frenchman Jacques Cartier sailed down the Saint Lawrence river all the way to present- day Montreal, claiming lands for France. Cartier Italian sailor John Cabot, sailing for the English, searched for a passage to the Pacific Ocean along the coast of Canada and Newfoundland. This became the basis of England’s claim to North America. Cabot

42 Holt McDougal, Northwest Passage page 55

43 Holt McDougal, Main Idea 3: European nations raced to establish empires in North America. Spanish and Portuguese were the early leaders in exploration and colonization of Central America, the Caribbean, and South America. English, French and Dutch then focused on North America for expansion of their empires.

44 Holt McDougal, English Settlement The English decided to found a colony in North America in the late 1500s. Sir Walter Raleigh received a charter, a document giving him permission to start a colony. He sent an expedition that landed in present-day North Carolina and Virginia. The colony established at Roanoke by John White in 1587, in what is now Virginia, mysteriously disappeared.

45 Holt McDougal, European Exploration of the Americas, 1492-1682 page 56

46 Holt McDougal, Roanoke Colony page 54 Sir Walter Raleigh built a colony on Roanoke Island. The English colonist of Roanoke had a hard life. They fought with Native Americans and had trouble finding food. John White resettled Roanoke in 15 87, after a few months he went back to England for supplies. When he returned he found the colony deserted. The only clue found to the fate of the colonist was the word Croatoan carved to a post. To this day no one is certain what happened to the “lost colony” at Roanoke.

47 Holt McDougal, French Empire in North America First settlements were in Florida, but they were soon destroyed and the settlers driven out by the Spanish. Fur traders, explorers, and missionaries populated the region. René-Robert de La Salle claimed lands along the Mississippi River and in the Mississippi Valley. French settlers developed close trading relationship with the Native Americans. The North American territory that spread out from the St. Lawrence River in the late 1600s was called New France. The explorations of Jacques Cartier and Samuel de Champlain gave France a claim in the north, in present-day Canada along the Saint Lawrence River.

48 Holt McDougal, Dutch and Swedish Presence New Netherland The Dutch came to America for trade. They settled land between the Delaware and Hudson rivers. Manhattan Island was purchased from local Native Americans and called New Amsterdam. New Sweden Colonists settled along the Delaware River. New Christina, the first Swedish settlement, was founded in 1638. The Dutch conquered New Sweden in 1655.

49 Holt McDougal, Section 5: Beginnings of Slavery in the Americas The Big Idea Europeans forced millions of African slaves to work in their colonies. Main Ideas European diseases wiped out much of the Native American population, causing colonists to look for a new labor force. Europeans enslaved millions of Africans and sent them to work in their colonies. Slaves in the Americas created a distinct culture.

50 Holt McDougal, Main Idea 1: European diseases wiped out much of the Native American population, causing colonists to look for a new labor force. Europeans were immune, or had a natural resistance, to diseases common in Europe like measles, smallpox, and typhus. Native Americans had no resistance to these diseases, and millions died in the years after the Europeans arrived. With a shortage of Native American workers, Spanish and Portuguese plantation owners had to find other sources of cheap labor. Slaves from West Africa were brought to America and the African slave trade flourished.

51 Holt McDougal, Main Idea 2: Europeans enslaved millions of Africans and sent them to work in their colonies. In 1510 Spanish government legalized the sale of slaves in the colonies. Most slaves came from the interior of Africa. One out of every six slaves died along the Middle Passage, the voyage across the Atlantic Ocean to reach the Americas, because of horrible living conditions. Slave trade led to the African Diaspora, as enslaved Africans were sent all across the world. Colonial leaders worked to regulate slave treatment and behavior, but treatment of enslaved Africans varied. Between the 1520’s and 1800’s about 12 million Africans were shipped across the Atlantic.

52 Holt McDougal, African Diaspora in the United States page 60

53 Holt McDougal, The Slave Trade

54 Holt McDougal, Main Idea 3: Slaves in the Americas created a distinct culture. Slaves in the Americas came from diverse backgrounds, but shared many customs and viewpoints. They built upon what they had in common to create a new African American culture.

55 Holt McDougal, Slave Culture Family Vital part of slave culture Provided a refuge, a place not fully under the slaveholders’ control Faced many challenges, including being broken apart Religion Christianity blended with traditional African elements Gave sense of self-worth and hope Spirituals were a common form of religious expression. Used songs and folktales to tell their stories of hope, sorrow, agony, and joy. Art and Dance Form of expression Dances were important social events in slave communities. Heavily influenced by African traditions.

56 Holt McDougal, Slave Trade in the Americas Causes Native Americans dying from European diseases Need for cheap labor for plantations West Africans had immunity to most European diseases Effects African Diaspora Middle Passage Deaths Harsh/cruel treatment of enslaved Africans Formation of African American culture

57 Holt McDougal, Chapter 2 Review page 65

58 Holt McDougal, Important Facts Columbus’s travels to the Americas created a conflict between Spain and Portugal The Treaty of Tordesillas moved the Line of Demarcation 800 miles further west The colonist of Roanoke abandoned the site for a reason that remains a mystery

59 Holt McDougal, Important Facts Searches for the Northwest Passage were significant because they raised European interest in North America Conquistadors’ biggest advantage in defeating the Aztec and the Inca was steel armor and weapons The Columbian Exchange had deadly effects such as infecting Native Americans with new and deadly diseases

60 Holt McDougal, The Columbian Exchange had deadly effects such as infecting Native Americans with new and deadly diseases

61 Holt McDougal, Important Facts Quebec was a small colony on the Saint Lawrence River which opened trading routes for the French

62 Holt McDougal, Important Facts The El Camino Real was a network of paths connecting the communities of New Spain Spain commanded priest to convert American Indians to Christianity or Catholicism About 12 million Africans were shipped across the Atlantic as slaves between 1520’s and 1860’s

63 Holt McDougal, Important Facts Colonist in need of cheap labor turned to slaves from West Africa because West African slaves had already built up immunity to European diseases Dutch settlers practiced religious toleration because they thought it would attract more colonist The Aztec Empire exist in present day Mexico

64 Holt McDougal, Important Facts Many Native Americans died as a result of exposure to new diseases brought by European explorers. King Phillip II’s launching of the Spanish Armada against England’s Queen Elizabeth I and her sea dogs showed that Spain’s religious allegiance was to the Catholic Church.

65 Holt McDougal, Important People Ferdinand Magellan was the first explorer to circumnavigate the globe Jacques Cartier claimed land for France during his two trips to Canada

66 Holt McDougal, Important People Peter Minuit was a Dutchman who founded New Amsterdam and helped found New Sweden Bartolome de Las Casas wrote books and letters defending the American Indians to change Spain’s way of governing the Americas. He wrote Brief Account of the Devastation of the Indies

67 Holt McDougal, Important People Fernandez de Oviedo wrote “there are not now believed to be at the present time… five hundred persons left.” He was writing about the effects of infection on the Taino people of Hispaniola

68 Holt McDougal, Important People Francisco Pizarro was a Spaniard who led the defeat of the Inca Juan Ponce de Leon landed on Puerto Rico in 1508, conquered it by 1511, and founded the city of San Jaun

69 Holt McDougal, Important People Christopher Columbus’s explorations were funded by king Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain Hernan Cortez was a Spanish conquistador who led the destruction of the Aztec Empire Vasco de Gama was the first European to discover a sea route to Asia Leif Eriksson and his crew landed on the labrador peninsula in present day Canada

70 Holt McDougal, Important People Prince Henry the Navigator helped Portugal become a leader in world exploration Martin Luther publicly criticized the Roman Catholic Church with his ninety-five theses

71 Holt McDougal, Important People Moctezuma II war the ruler of the Aztec Empire Malintzin was the Indian Woman who helped Cortes win allies to fight the Aztecs

72 Holt McDougal, Important Terms The ecomienda system granted the Spanish settlers the right to tax local American indians or make them work Plantations – large farms that grew just one kind of crop and made enormous profits for their owners

73 Holt McDougal, Important Terms African Diaspora refers to the scattering of enslaved Africans all across the New World Middle Passage describes the voyage taken by slaves across the Atlantic Ocean

74 Holt McDougal, Important Terms Astrolabe – aided explorers in finding new continents by allowing ship navigators to check location by charting the position of celestial bodies Caravel – a special type of ship that featured important advances in sailing technology

75 Holt McDougal, Important Terms Presidios were Spanish military bases in New Spain or the Americas

76 Holt McDougal, Important Places Tenochtitlan was capital of the Aztec Empire, it was located on a lake in Central Mexico


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