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Earth’s Surface: Unit 1 The Big Idea: Continuous processes on Earth’s surface result in the formation and destruction of landforms and the formation of.

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Presentation on theme: "Earth’s Surface: Unit 1 The Big Idea: Continuous processes on Earth’s surface result in the formation and destruction of landforms and the formation of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Earth’s Surface: Unit 1 The Big Idea: Continuous processes on Earth’s surface result in the formation and destruction of landforms and the formation of soil.

2 What on Earth? Earth systems- all of the matter, energy, and processes within Earth’s boundary. Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres

3 Geosphere Geosphere- mostly solid, rock part of Earth. It extends from the center to the surface of Earth. – Layers of Geosphere a.Crust b.Mantle c.Core Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres

4 Layers of the Geosphere Crust km (ocean) km (continental), made of silicates, LEAST DENSE Mantle-about 2900 km thick, very slow flowing, solid rock, made of silicate minerals that are denser than the crust. Core- Outer : liquid layer 3500 km thick Inner: solid, dense core made of Fe & Ni MOST DENSE

5 Got Water? Hydrosphere- liquid water including oceans, lakes, rivers, marshes, streams, swamps, ground water, rain & water droplets in clouds. – 97% of all water on Earth is the saltwater found in oceans. – Oceans cover 71% of Earth. Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres

6 Ice, Ice Baby Cryosphere- made up of all the frozen water on Earth. All the ice, sea ice, glaciers, ice shelves, icebergs, & permafrost. Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres

7 What a Gas! Atmosphere- made of invisible gases that surround Earth. The atmosphere is about 78% Nitrogen 21% Oxygen 1% many other gases (Ar, CO 2, & water vapor). Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres

8 Living Together Biosphere- made up of living things and the areas of Earth where they are found. Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres

9 What’s the Matter? All of the five spheres of Earth interact as matter & energy change & cycle through the system. (Think of the water, nitrogen & carbon cycles) Energy Budget- formed with movement of energy through Earth’s system. Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres Trace the flow of energy through Earth’s system.

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11 Break It Down Weathering- breakdown of rock material by physical and chemical processes. Types of Weathering 1. Physical 2. Chemical Unit 1 Lesson 2 Weathering

12 Physical weathering process by which rock is broken down into smaller pieces by physical changes, but does NOT change composition. – Ice wedging (frost wedging)- crack growth – Exfoliation – Animals-mix soil, air & drainage – Plants-reason crack growth – Abrasion – Wind Unit 1 Lesson 2 Weathering

13 Physical Weathering Abrasion -breaking down & wearing away of rock material by the mechanical action of other rocks. Water Wind Gravity %20On%20the%20Road%20Again/thumbs/75%20-%20Falling%20rocks.jpg Unit 1 Lesson 2 Weathering

14 Chemical Weathering breakdown of rocks by chemical reactions which changes composition & appearance. Oxidation-chemicals in rock combine with oxygen in the air or in water, sometimes indicated by color change. Acid precipitation -occurs when strong acids fall to Earth as rain, sleet, or snow. Unit 1 Lesson 2 Weathering

15 Go with the Flow Erosion process by which sediment & other materials are moved from one place to another. Deposition process by which eroded material is dropped. Unit 1 Lesson 3 Erosion & Deposition

16 Run of a River Floodplain Oxbow Meander Delta Alluvial fan Groundwater Shoreline Beach Unit 1 Lesson 3 Erosion & Deposition

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18 Shaping the Earth Groundwater -water located within the rocks below Earth’s surface. Acidic groundwater can dissolve rock, forming underground caves. Wind (sand dunes/loess) heaviest settle first Glacial drift -general term for all materials carried & deposited by a glacier. Gravity- influences the movement of water and ice. Gravity also moves rocks and soil downslope. Unit 1 Lesson 4 BY Wind, Ice, & Gravity

19 The Dirt on Soil Soil - loose mixture of rock fragments, organic matter, water, and air that can support the growth of vegetation. Soil profile - vertical section of soil that shows all the different layers. Soil horizon - Each layer in the soil profile that has different physical properties. Unit 1 Lesson 5 Soil Formation

20 Soil Horizons A horizon - topmost layer of soil, often referred to as topsoil. It contains the most humus. B horizon -has less humus. Water carries material from the A to the B horizon, in a process called leaching. C horizon -lies below the B horizon and directly above the parent rock. It contains the largest rock fragments and usually no organic matter. Unit 1 Lesson 5 Soil Formation

21 Thick Tops, Rocky Bottoms What factors determine how long it takes for soils to form? 1.Parent rock type- determines soil type 2.Climate 3.Topography 4.Plants and animals-add organic material by breaking down remains Unit 1 Lesson 5 Soil Formation

22 What are some properties of soil? How does the pore space of the soil on the left compare to that of the soil on the right? Unit 1 Lesson 5 Soil Formation


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