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Earth’s Surface: Unit 1 The Big Idea: Continuous processes on Earth’s surface result in the formation and destruction of landforms and the formation of.

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Presentation on theme: "Earth’s Surface: Unit 1 The Big Idea: Continuous processes on Earth’s surface result in the formation and destruction of landforms and the formation of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Earth’s Surface: Unit 1 The Big Idea: Continuous processes on Earth’s surface result in the formation and destruction of landforms and the formation of soil.

2 What on Earth? Earth systems- all of the matter, energy, and processes within Earth’s boundary. Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres

3 Geosphere Geosphere- mostly solid, rock part of Earth. It extends from the center to the surface of Earth. – Layers of Geosphere a.Crust b.Mantle c.Core Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres

4 Layers of the Geosphere Crust km (ocean) km (continental), made of silicates, LEAST DENSE Mantle-about 2900 km thick, very slow flowing, solid rock, made of silicate minerals that are denser than the crust. Core- Outer : liquid layer 3500 km thick Inner: solid, dense core made of Fe & Ni MOST DENSE

5 Got Water? Hydrosphere- liquid water including oceans, lakes, rivers, marshes, streams, swamps, ground water, rain & water droplets in clouds. – 97% of all water on Earth is the saltwater found in oceans. – Oceans cover 71% of Earth. Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres

6 Ice, Ice Baby Cryosphere- made up of all the frozen water on Earth. All the ice, sea ice, glaciers, ice shelves, icebergs, & permafrost. Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres

7 What a Gas! Atmosphere- made of invisible gases that surround Earth. The atmosphere is about 78% Nitrogen 21% Oxygen 1% many other gases (Ar, CO 2, & water vapor). Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres

8 Living Together Biosphere- made up of living things and the areas of Earth where they are found. Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres

9 What’s the Matter? All of the five spheres of Earth interact as matter & energy change & cycle through the system. (Think of the water, nitrogen & carbon cycles) Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres Trace the flow of energy through Earth’s system. Energy Budget- formed with movement of energy through Earth’s system.

10 Break It Down Weathering- breakdown of rock material by physical and chemical processes. Types of Weathering 1. Physical 2. Chemical Unit 1 Lesson 2 Weathering and-images/utah-pictures/0/Image67.jpg

11 Physical weathering process by which rock is broken down into smaller pieces by physical changes, but does NOT change composition. – Ice wedging (frost wedging)- crack growth – Exfoliation – Animals-mix soil, air & drainage – Plants-reason crack growth – Wind-moves sediment – Abrasion Unit 1 Lesson 2 Weathering

12 Physical Weathering Abrasion -breaking down & wearing away of rock material by the mechanical action of other rocks. Water Wind Gravity http ://nondot.org/sabre/pics/ India-Trip/ /02%20-%20On%20the%20Road%20Again/thumbs/75%20-%20Falling%20rocks.jpg Unit 1 Lesson 2 Weathering

13 Chemical Weathering breakdown of rocks by chemical reactions which changes composition & appearance. Oxidation-chemicals in rock combine with oxygen in the air or in water, sometimes indicated by color change. Acid precipitation -occurs when strong acids fall to Earth as rain, sleet, or snow. Unit 1 Lesson 2 Weathering

14 Go with the Flow Erosion process by which sediment & other materials are moved from one place to another. Deposition process by which eroded material is dropped. Unit 1 Lesson 3 Erosion & Deposition

15 Floodplain –flat area; fertile Meander –curves & bends Oxbow –a meander that is cut off Delta- fan shaped pattern of deposited sediment Shoreline- place where land & water meet Groundwater-water below Earth’s surface

16 Alluvial fan - fan shaped deposit that forms on dry land Creep -extremely slow movement of material downslope. Mudflow -rapid movement of a large mass of mud due to lots of rain Unit 1 Lesson 4 BY Wind, Ice, & Gravity

17 Shaping the Earth Glacial drift -general term for all materials carried & deposited by a glacier. – Alpine glaciers- cause U shaped valleys & rugged landscapes. – Continental glaciers - form flat landscapes Unit 1 Lesson 4 BY Wind, Ice, & Gravity

18 Soil - loose mixture of rock fragments, organic matter, water, and air that can support the growth of vegetation. Soil profile - vertical section of soil that shows all the different layers. Soil horizon - Each layer in the soil profile that has different physical properties. Unit 1 Lesson 5 Soil Formation

19 Soil Horizons A horizon - topmost layer of soil, often referred to as topsoil. It contains the most humus. B horizon -has less humus. Water carries material from the A to the B horizon, in a process called leaching. “Zone of accumulation” C horizon -lies below the B horizon and directly above the parent rock. It contains the largest rock fragments and usually no organic matter. Unit 1 Lesson 5 Soil Formation

20 1.Parent rock - determines soil type 2.Climate-faster in warm, wet rather cold & dry. 3.Topography- (slope of the land) faster on flatlands 4.Plants and animals- add organic material by breaking down remains 5.Time- longer it has, the better the soil Unit 1 Lesson 5 Soil Formation What it takes for soil to form:

21 Soil properties are used to classify different soils – Soil texture – Color – Pore space – Fertility – Chemistry (pH-acid/base) Unit 1 Lesson 5 Soil Formation

22 pH scale -measure of how acidic or basic a substance is. Acids and bases are on opposite ends of a measuring tool, the pH scale. At the center of the scale is the neutral zone. This scale receives extensive use in testing soil for farmers, gardeners and environmentalists.


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