Presentation on theme: "The Phrase: Prepositional, Verbal, and Appositive Phrases."— Presentation transcript:
The Phrase: Prepositional, Verbal, and Appositive Phrases
What is a Phrase? A PHRASE is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain both a verb and its subject. Example of a PHRASE: for you and her to be the best If a group of words DOES contain both subject and verb, it is called a CLAUSE: They will be here soon. after she leaves A CLAUSE does not have to be a complete sentence, and a PHRASE is never a complete sentence
Prepositional Phrase Includes a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object. A koala is a marsupial, a mammal with an external abdominal pouch. To me a koala looks like a cuddly teddy bear. DO NOT confuse a prepositional phrase beginning with to– with an infinitive, such as to be or to learn. An object of a prepositional phrase may be compound: Koalas feed on only eucalyptus buds and leaves.
Adjective Phrases A prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or a pronoun is called an ADJECTIVE PHRASE. An adjective phrase tells what kind or which one: We ordered a dish of salsa and a basket of tortilla chips. No one in the class has seen the movie yet. Two or more adjective phrases may modify the same noun: The picture of the candidate in today’s newspaper is not at all flattering. An adjective phrase may modify the object of ANOTHER prepositional phrase: The coconut palms in the park near the bay were planted a long time ago.
Adverb Phrase A prepositional phrase modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb is called an ADVERB PHRASE. The mole burrowed under the lawn. (modifies verb burrowed.) Althea Gibson was graceful on the tennis court. (modifies adjective graceful.) The child speaks quite clearly for a two-year-old. (modifies adverb clearly.)
Adverb Phrases, continued Adverb Phrases tell when, where, how, or to what extent (how much, how long, or how far.) After the storm, the town grew quiet. (when) He glanced out the window. (where) Many street musicians play for tips. (why) This summer we’re going by car to Kansas. (how) She won the contest by two points. (to what extent) Adverb Phrases may come before or after the words they modify – and more than one adverb phrase may modify the same word. In the first inning she pitched with great control.
Verbals & Verbal Phrases THE PARTICIPLE A Participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjective. For example: to boil (verb) I boil the water first. Used as a participle: What is the temperature of the boiling water? See how a form of the “verb” is now an adjective modifying a noun? Another example: to chip (verb) I chip away at my to-do list. Used as a participle: A chipped fingernail can be annoying.
Participles – two kinds: Present Participle: Simply put – those are the participles ending with –ing! Example: boiling water Past Participle: Participles ending in –d or –ed! Example: chipped nail
The Participial Phrase A Participial Phrase consists of a participle and any modifier or complements the participle has. The entire phrase is used as an adjective. (what???) Example: Climbing the tree, the monkey disappeared into the branches. (the participial phrase modifies the noun monkey. The noun tree is the direct object of the present participle climbing.) I heard him whispering to a friend. (the participial phrase modifies the pronoun him. The adverb phrase to his friend modifies the present participle whispering.)
The Gerund A gerund is a verb form that ends in -ing. A gerund can be used as a NOUN: subject, a predicate nominative, a direct object, or an object of a preposition. SUBJECT: Reading will improve your vocabulary. PREDICATE NOMINATIVE: A popular summer sport is swimming. DIRECT OBJECT: Both Dad and Mom enjoy cooking together. INDIRECT OBJECT: Before she decided to become a lawyer, she had given teaching thoughtful consideration. OBJECT of a PREPOSITION: After studying, how do you relax?
Who you callin’ a GERUND?! Gerunds, like Present Participles, end in –ing. DO NOT CONFUSE a gerund, which is used as a noun, with a present participle, which may be used as an adjective or as part of a verb phrase. GERUND: I have enjoyed reading about the different species of dinosaurs. (reading is used as the direct object of the verb have enjoyed) PRESENT PARTICIPLE: I have spent several hours in the library, reading about different species of dinosaurs. (reading is used as an adjective modifying the pronoun I) PRESENT PARTICIPLE: I have been reading about the different species of dinosaurs. (reading is used as part of the verb phrase have been reading)
The Gerund Phrase A gerund phrase consists of a gerund and any modifies or complements the gerund has. The entire phrase is used as a NOUN! SUBJECT: The sudden shattering of glass broke the silence. P/N: One of my chores in the summer is mowing the lawn. D/O: She enjoys hiking in the mountains occasionally. I/O: Ms. Smith is giving working full-time careful thought. Ob of a Prep: By reading the works of Pat Mora, I have learned much about Mexican culture. A noun or pronoun directly before a gerund should be in the possessive case: Eli’s dancing won him first prize in the contest.
Gerund or phrase test To determine if you are dealing with a gerund or a phrase: Replace the word with a pronoun (it, that, etc) If the sentences still makes sense, it is a GERUND phrase If it does NOT, it is most likely a PARTICIPIAL phrase
The Infinitive An infinitive is a verb form that can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Most infinitives begin with to. NOUN: To err is human. His dream is to travel. ADJECTIVE: The candidate to believe is Villegas. ADVERB: Grandmother is coming to visit. The team was slow to score.
You have a split in your infinitive! Have you ever heard of a “split infinitive”? Here’s what they look like: The director wants to, before rehearsal, speak with both the stage crew and the cast. (this is BAD!) Sometimes, it’s necessary to split your infinitive though: He hoped to avoid carefully causing delays. What?? “carefully causing delays”??? No – he wants to carefully avoid causing delays…but sadly, he needs to split his infinitive to make that clear to us…
Infinitive Phrase An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive and any modifier or complement the infinitive has. The entire phrase can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. NOUN: To hit a curveball solidly is very difficult. (the infinitive phrase is the subject of the verb is. The noun curveball is the D/O of the infinitive “to hit” and the adverb solidly modifies to hit.) NOUN (direct object): She wants to study marine biology. (to study is DO of verb wants. Marine biology is DO of infinitive to study.)
Infinitive Phrases, continued… ADJECTIVE: His efforts to trace his ancestry led to greater appreciation of his heritage. (to trace modifies the noun efforts. The noun ancestry is the DO of to trace, and the possessive pronoun his is used to modify ancestry.) whew. ADVERB: I found his explanation difficult to accept. (to accept modifies the adjective difficult.) An infinitive MAY have a subject – which then “promotes” it from being an infinitive phrase to an infinitive clause. I wanted him to come to our meeting. (Him is the subject of the infinitive to come. The entire infinitive clause is the direct object of the verb wanted.)
Appositives & Appositive Phrases An appositive is a noun or pronoun placed beside another noun or pronoun to identify or describe it. My cousin Bryan is my best friend. Our football team has won its first two games, one by three points and the other by six. Annie, a cautious driver, has never had an automobile accident. An appositive phrase consists of an appositive and any modifiers it has. The Vescuzos live on Milner Lane, a wide street lined with beech trees.