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Digital IF for SATCOM Terminals Introduction

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1 Digital IF for SATCOM Terminals Introduction
VIEWING INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Print out these “Notes Pages” 2. “Slide Show” / “From Beginning” or “Slide Show” / “From Current Slide” 3. Use “Notes Pages” to supply context to animations in presentation. A.J. Vigil, Ph.D. Senior Scientist, Systek Senior Systems Engineer Product Director, Satellite Communications Systems (PD-SCS) (703) / DSN (312) 2011 February 04 Friday

2 Digital IF = Digital Intermediate Format
Motivators Concept Feasibility Technical Readiness Level Enterprise Terminal Architecture Enterprise Terminal Cost-Benefit Mid-Size Terminal Architectures Small Terminal Architectures Why an Open Commercial Standard? Standardization Objectives Standards Process Progress & Activity Why do it What it is Maturity level Architectures & Cost-Benefit Standardization Progress & Activity L-Band IF: Intermediate Frequency Digital IF: Intermediate Format

3 Introduction: Motivators
Traffic Demand Link Count Transmission BW (BandWidth) Cost & Schedule Development Production Deployment Operations Floor Space SWAP (Size, Weight And Power) VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminals) COTM (Comm[unications] On The Move Operational Complexity RF Performance New Capability Insertion We launch projects to solve problems like these. Any of our projects addresses one or more of these problems. Digital IF is unique in that it addresses all of these challenges. Included under “Cost & Schedule” as part of “Operations” - accommodate ever increasing OPTEMPO Included under “New Capability Insertion” - enhance net readiness

4 Digital IF: Concept L-Band IF Digital IF Waveform Analog
Digitally Sampled Capacity Bandwidth Sampling Rate Fidelity Dynamic Range Sample Size Frequency Waveform Center Frequency Center Frequency Tag Power Waveform Power Power Tag Transport Medium Coaxial Cable Analog Fiber Ethernet Twisted Pair Ethernet Digital Fiber Modem Mixed-Signal Pure DSP Engine Switch Ethernet Combine / Divide Digital IFL Digital Fiber Conversion L-Band to RF Digital to L-Band or RF Acronym Intermediate Frequency Intermediate Format What is Digital IF? Context here is about SATCOM in general and MILSATCOM in particular. Today we move electromagnetic signals around our terminals, from modem to antenna, at an IF – Intermediate Frequency - using coax. Suppose instead that we digitized those signals and moved them around our terminals using Ethernet over CAT6 cable. This table shows how Digital IF compares with the L-band IF we use today. Tha’t’s Digital IF – Digital Intermediate FORMAT for moving carrier & aggregate waveforms around our terminals, from modems to antenna & antenna to modems.

5 Digital IF: Feasibility
L-Band IF Digital IF DSP 125 MHz BW - lights up WGS transponders 90 dB Dynamic Range - cert-level performance 250 Msamples / sec x 16 bits / sample = 4 Gbits / sec << 10 Gig Ethernet Switches L-Band Matrix Switch COTS Ethernet Switch, 288x288 - 10 Gig Ethernet Capable Standards & Precedents MIL-STD NATO STANAG 4486 Cellular Base Stations WGS Channelizer ANSI/VITA (SIGINT) Technology Growth Linear Exponential - think “Moore’s Law” What makes us think this is even possible? - DSP perspective - switching perspective - standards & precedents - forward looking expectations This is more than just feasible. It’s a no-brainer, and it’s a must-do. Feasible now Strong precedents Ideal for sustained growth

6 Digital IF: Technology Readiness Level
CERDEC FAST Prototypes Underlying Technology A/D, D/A, DSP, FFT, IP, Ethernet SNMPv1, SNMPv3, XML over IP, secure XML over IP Technology Readiness Level Description 6. System/subsystem model or prototype demonstration in a relevant environment Representative model or prototype system, which is well beyond the breadboard tested for TRL 5, is tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in a technology's demonstrated readiness. Examples include testing a prototype in a high fidelity laboratory environment or in simulated operational environment. Technology Readiness Levels in the Department of Defense (DoD) (Source: DoD (2006), Defense Acquisition Guidebook) Technology Readiness Level Description 1. Basic principles observed and reported Lowest level of technology readiness. Scientific research begins to be translated into applied research and development. Example might include paper studies of a technology's basic properties. 2. Technology concept and/or application formulated Invention begins. Once basic principles are observed, practical applications can be invented. The application is speculative and there is no proof or detailed analysis to support the assumption. Examples are still limited to paper studies. 3. Analytical and experimental critical function and/or characteristic proof of concept Active research and development is initiated. This includes analytical studies and laboratory studies to physically validate analytical predictions of separate elements of the technology. Examples include components that are not yet integrated or representative. 4. Component and/or breadboard validation in laboratory environment Basic technological components are integrated to establish that the pieces will work together. This is "low fidelity" compared to the eventual system. Examples include integration of 'ad hoc' hardware in a laboratory. 5. Component and/or breadboard validation in relevant environment Fidelity of breadboard technology increases significantly. The basic technological components are integrated with reasonably realistic supporting elements so that the technology can be tested in a simulated environment. Examples include 'high fidelity' laboratory integration of components. 6. System/subsystem model or prototype demonstration in a relevant environment Representative model or prototype system, which is well beyond the breadboard tested for TRL 5, is tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in a technology's demonstrated readiness. Examples include testing a prototype in a high fidelity laboratory environment or in simulated operational environment. 7. System prototype demonstration in an operational environment Prototype near or at planned operational system. Represents a major step up from TRL 6, requiring the demonstration of an actual system prototype in an operational environment, such as in an aircraft, vehicle or space. Examples include testing the prototype in a test bed aircraft. 8. Actual system completed and 'flight qualified' through test and demonstration Technology has been proven to work in its final form and under expected conditions. In almost all cases, this TRL represents the end of true system development. Examples include developmental test and evaluation of the system in its intended weapon system to determine if it meets design specifications. 9. Actual system 'flight proven' through successful mission operations Actual application of the technology in its final form and under mission conditions, such as those encountered in operational test and evaluation. In almost all cases, this is the end of the last "bug fixing" aspects of true system development. Examples include using the system under operational mission conditions. Technology Readiness Level Description 8. Actual system completed and 'flight qualified' through test and demonstration Technology has been proven to work in its final form and under expected conditions. In almost all cases, this TRL represents the end of true system development. Examples include developmental test and evaluation of the system in its intended weapon system to determine if it meets design specifications.

7 Digital IF: Enterprise Terminal Architecture
L-Band modem IFL IFL BUC BDC HPA LNA IFL = Inter-Facility Link o 192 o 24 o o 24 L-Band modem L-Band Switch Combiner / Divider o IFL IFL BUC BDC HPA LNA Dig / L o Dig IF modems Dig / L Dig / L BUC BDC HPA LNA How do we grow with Digital IF? Baseline – what we’re building today - significant investment – painful to walk away from First Insertion: introduction - problem solved: Tx uplink noise sue to L-band combining - problem solved: physical L-Band switch limitation of 192 carriers, enabling disproportionately more First Upgrade: moves Digital-to-L-band converters to antenna shack - solves IFL (Inter-Facility-Link) dynamic range problem that you can’t solve at L-band Next Upgrade: migrates to direct RF conversion as it matures (L-band conversion is mature today) Conversion Integration: integrates direct RF conversion into HPA & LNA as direct RF conversion further matures - Ethernet all the way to LNA & HPA Migration is gradual & sensible - leverages L-Band investment rather than discarding it - today’s equipment remains compatible with the architecture, indefinitely if necessary o Ethernet Switch Combiner / Divider Dig / RF HPA LNA Dig IF modems HPA LNA traffic Digital IF L/-Band RF

8 Digital IF: Enterprise Terminal Cost-Benefit
modems through block conversion L-Band IF Digital IF Modems, 192 each $1,920,000 $ 960,000 Switch Matrix Combiner/Divider, 192x24 $3,200,000 Ethernet Switch, 288 x 288, 2 each $ 200,000 Digital Combiner/Dividers, 24 each $ 240,000 Digital / L-band Converters, 24 each $ 600,000 Coax Cables, L-band Amps $ 50,000 Totals, modems to RF $5,170,000 $2,050,000 Assumptions Significant components only Modem cost is half Modem conversion cost is trivial Ethernet Switch – layer 1 – quoted Digital combiner/dividers $10k / aggregate Digital / L-band Converters $25k per pair All are conservative Conclusions Save > $3M / terminal, incl modems Save > $1M / terminal sinking modem cost Conservative; yet to consider IFLs Future insertions Performance burdens Facility burdens How much can be saved on terminals large scale enterprise terminals? > $3.12 M on a terminal starting from scratch > $1.20 M on a terminal walking away from existing modems There is a potential here for recovering from budget cuts & funding delays Additional benefits not included: eliminate IFLs altogether advantage on every new insertion in terms of reduced development cost & schedule solve performance problems that can’t be solved, economically, at L-band reduce facility footprint & power/HVAC demands Cost-benefits for small & mid size terminals pending.

9 Digital IF: Mid-Size Terminal Architectures
Dig IF modem bank o Dig / L BUC BDC HPA LNA Dig IF modems prototype equipment under development Dig IF modems Dig IF modems Dig / L BUC BDC HPA LNA Dig IF modems Dig / RF HPA LNA Digital IF is flexible. Prototypes are under development at CERDEC S&TCD, Aberdeen, MD, with OSAT (over satellite) prototype testing anticipated for early 2012. This will be a proof-of-concept prototype test, not a “Digital IF” standard test, per se, nor a production-ready equipment test. PD-SCS does not control this, but are working with CERDEC on it. We expect this to - demonstrate the feasibility of a digital IF terminal - offer “lessons learned” that feed into the open commercial standardization process. Medium terminal – illustrates redundant failover configuration HPA LNA medium sized terminal, modems daisy chained with fail-over redundancy traffic Digital IF L/-Band RF

10 VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) or COTM (Comm On The Move)
Digital IF: Small Terminal Architectures Dig IF modems Dig / L BUC BDC HPA LNA Dig / RF HPA LNA HPA LNA small terminal Small terminal – simpler configuration, simpler migration. Here, a single modem offers enough multiple modem functions so that a dedicated combiner/divider is not required. VSAT & COTM – Digital IF offers a huge SWAP advantage Take away: Digital IF is for terminals of all types & sizes. ANECDOTE: - DCATS thinks this would be good for WIN-T on account of SWAP - WIN-T thinks this would be good for DCATS on account of floor space! Dig IF modem HPA LNA VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) or COTM (Comm On The Move) traffic Digital IF L/-Band RF

11 Why an Open Commercial Standard?
Plug & play interoperability Faster procurement path Less procurement expense Wider participation Government Industry Level playing field Standard comes first Full COTS basis Technology development is mature Government procurement cycle includes - RFI - procurement docs – spec, SOW, etc. - solicitation - source selection - negotiation - development - schedule slips - FAT (First Article Test) - standardization (last!) + Sometimes equipment can be obsolete before it is fielded. + This process also discourages multiple vendors. Open commercial standardization, on the other hand, is - public - interactive - industry-wide - as fast as the business case makes it - standards can be revised to accommodate growth and add features + costs the Government precious little compared to the alternative + offers each Government stakeholder any level of participation it chooses + likewise each industry shareholder

12 Digital IF: Standardization Objectives
CONOPS Reduced equipment complement Simplified installation Simplified test processes Reduced operational complexity Practical remote CMA Economy Development costs & schedules Equipment / production costs Deployment costs & schedules Terminal footprint SWAP Migration Minimal operational disruption, if any Retain legacy infrastructure value Arbitrarily scalable Initial Capability Digital conversion to L-Band min 125 MHz contiguous BW 16 bit resolution Existing technology only; Engineering, not development Growth – Inherent Capability No limit to link count No limit to bandwidth Common to all terminal types & sizes RF Performance Resolve IFL DR bottleneck Non-additive Tx noise floor Eliminate linear distortion effects Enable compensation for surviving linear distortion What do we want to get out of our standard? - It’s not about developing any “technology” - It’s about taking mature technology that we know we have, that we already use, and collaboratively making the most of it Bottom line: “Unified Systems Engineering” approach - don’t address “gaps” one at a time - instead, make aggregate implementation decisions that facilitate common solutions to multiple problems Anticipated means of realizing these objectives: - integrated CMA (Control, Monitoring & Alarm) XML / secure XML over IP or SNMPv1/v3 (non-secure / secure) - leverage existing standards & interfaces (i.e. IP, Ethernet) - leverage industry-standard (IEEE) Ethernet Migration Plan - leverage existing L-band architecture to migrate more efficiently - convey waveforms using frequency bins at Digital IF interfaces vice time samples - packetize at Layer 3 (IP) - transport at Layer 2 (Ethernet), leveraging Ethernet Migration Plan & continuous networking industry growth

13 Digital IF: Standards Process
Why IEEE? Credibility, experience, affordability, technical oversight, indemnification umbrella “Industry Connections” “Incubation” stage - bring stakeholders together – with relevant IEEE support –under IEEE liability umbrella – up to 1 year “Study Group” Up to 6 months, IEEE sponsor Advanced Corp Membership Including “Government Agencies” $3,500 to $10,000 / year One membership, all standards Present members include DISA, Boeing PAR & Working Group Project Authorization Request Min 3 Advanced Corporate Members IEEE SA (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers - Standards Association) - strong reputation for worldwide technical standards - reasonably priced - launch based on technical merit as evaluated by (“sponsors” in) relevant technical societies POC: Chris Vigil, IEEE-SA Membership Development, Piscataway NJ Links Process overview - "Industry Connections“ - info - online ICAID (Industry Connections Activity Initiation Document) Study Group Guidelines - IEEE SA Membership - Corp Svcs Overview: - Rationale: - Brochure: - supplemental pro svcs: - Application: PAR (Project Authorization Request) Submittal - FAQ - content

14 Digital IF: Progress & Activity
MILCOM 2009 Concept Paper Website MILCOM 2010 CONOPS Paper RDECOM CERDEC S&TCD FAST POTATO Participation Visibility & Interest, Govt & Industry PD-SCS POM wedge for FY 2013 Present Activity Website updates distribution list & e-newsletter Establishing partnerships IEEE Standards Association We welcome collaborators ! More Information sign up for updates Work is not “development” per se. Work is in the standardization process; socialization, collaboration, synchronization, standardization, then COTS deployment RDECOM CERDEC S&TCD FAST = Future Advanced SATCOM Terminals POTATO = Programs Other Than “ATO” (Advanced Technology Objectives) near-term prototyping of CBP = Configurable Baseband Processor DLBC = Direct L-Band Converter POC: Herald Beljour, RDECOM CERDEC S&TCD, APG MD CHICKEN & EGG PROBLEM: Vendors don’t want to invest until Govt commits to spending money. But Govt wants a cooperative standard & COTS opportunity. CHICKEN & EGG SOLUTION: - Standardization initiative under 3rd party IEEE indemnification umbrella - With aggressive Goverment leadership - Welcoming close industry cooperation RECOMMENDATIONS: - Start sooner, not later - Join our list - Work Digital IF into your business plan (companies) or mission roadmap (Govt agencies) - Participate in the Standards Process - Start by browsing and signing up for updates

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