Presentation on theme: "Digital IF for SATCOM Terminals Introduction"— Presentation transcript:
1 Digital IF for SATCOM Terminals Introduction VIEWING INSTRUCTIONS:1. Print out these “Notes Pages”2. “Slide Show” / “From Beginning” or “Slide Show” / “From Current Slide”3. Use “Notes Pages” to supply context to animations in presentation.A.J. Vigil, Ph.D.Senior Scientist, SystekSenior Systems EngineerProduct Director, Satellite Communications Systems (PD-SCS)(703) / DSN (312)2011 February 04 Friday
2 Digital IF = Digital Intermediate Format MotivatorsConceptFeasibilityTechnical Readiness LevelEnterprise Terminal ArchitectureEnterprise Terminal Cost-BenefitMid-Size Terminal ArchitecturesSmall Terminal ArchitecturesWhy an Open Commercial Standard?Standardization ObjectivesStandards ProcessProgress & ActivityWhy do itWhat it isMaturity levelArchitectures & Cost-BenefitStandardizationProgress & ActivityL-Band IF: Intermediate FrequencyDigital IF: Intermediate Format
3 Introduction: Motivators Traffic DemandLink CountTransmission BW (BandWidth)Cost & ScheduleDevelopmentProductionDeploymentOperationsFloor SpaceSWAP (Size, Weight And Power)VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminals)COTM (Comm[unications] On The MoveOperational ComplexityRF PerformanceNew Capability InsertionWe launch projects to solve problems like these.Any of our projects addresses one or more of these problems.Digital IF is unique in that it addresses all of these challenges.Included under “Cost & Schedule” as part of “Operations”- accommodate ever increasing OPTEMPOIncluded under “New Capability Insertion”- enhance net readiness
4 Digital IF: Concept L-Band IF Digital IF Waveform Analog Digitally SampledCapacityBandwidthSampling RateFidelityDynamic RangeSample SizeFrequencyWaveform Center FrequencyCenter Frequency TagPowerWaveform PowerPower TagTransport MediumCoaxial CableAnalog FiberEthernet Twisted PairEthernet Digital FiberModemMixed-SignalPure DSP EngineSwitchEthernetCombine / DivideDigitalIFLDigital FiberConversionL-Band to RFDigital to L-Band or RFAcronymIntermediate FrequencyIntermediate FormatWhat is Digital IF?Context here is about SATCOM in general and MILSATCOM in particular.Today we move electromagnetic signals around our terminals, from modem to antenna, at an IF – Intermediate Frequency - using coax.Suppose instead that we digitized those signals and moved them around our terminals using Ethernet over CAT6 cable.This table shows how Digital IF compares with the L-band IF we use today.Tha’t’s Digital IF – Digital Intermediate FORMAT for moving carrier & aggregate waveforms around our terminals, from modems to antenna & antenna to modems.
5 Digital IF: Feasibility L-Band IFDigital IFDSP125 MHz BW- lights up WGS transponders90 dB Dynamic Range- cert-level performance250 Msamples / secx 16 bits / sample= 4 Gbits / sec<< 10 Gig EthernetSwitchesL-Band Matrix SwitchCOTS Ethernet Switch, 288x288- 10 Gig Ethernet CapableStandards & PrecedentsMIL-STDNATO STANAG 4486Cellular Base StationsWGS ChannelizerANSI/VITA (SIGINT)Technology GrowthLinearExponential- think “Moore’s Law”What makes us think this is even possible?- DSP perspective- switching perspective- standards & precedents- forward looking expectationsThis is more than just feasible. It’s a no-brainer, and it’s a must-do.Feasible nowStrong precedentsIdeal for sustained growth
6 Digital IF: Technology Readiness Level CERDEC FAST PrototypesUnderlying TechnologyA/D, D/A, DSP, FFT, IP, EthernetSNMPv1, SNMPv3, XML over IP, secure XML over IPTechnology Readiness LevelDescription6. System/subsystem model or prototype demonstration in a relevant environmentRepresentative model or prototype system, which is well beyond the breadboard tested for TRL 5, is tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in a technology's demonstrated readiness. Examples include testing a prototype in a high fidelity laboratory environment or in simulated operational environment.Technology Readiness Levels in the Department of Defense (DoD) (Source: DoD (2006), Defense Acquisition Guidebook)Technology Readiness LevelDescription1. Basic principles observed and reportedLowest level of technology readiness. Scientific research begins to be translated into applied research and development. Example might include paper studies of a technology's basic properties.2. Technology concept and/or application formulatedInvention begins. Once basic principles are observed, practical applications can be invented. The application is speculative and there is no proof or detailed analysis to support the assumption. Examples are still limited to paper studies.3. Analytical and experimental critical function and/or characteristic proof of conceptActive research and development is initiated. This includes analytical studies and laboratory studies to physically validate analytical predictions of separate elements of the technology. Examples include components that are not yet integrated or representative.4. Component and/or breadboard validation in laboratory environmentBasic technological components are integrated to establish that the pieces will work together. This is "low fidelity" compared to the eventual system. Examples include integration of 'ad hoc' hardware in a laboratory.5. Component and/or breadboard validation in relevant environmentFidelity of breadboard technology increases significantly. The basic technological components are integrated with reasonably realistic supporting elements so that the technology can be tested in a simulated environment. Examples include 'high fidelity' laboratory integration of components.6. System/subsystem model or prototype demonstration in a relevant environmentRepresentative model or prototype system, which is well beyond the breadboard tested for TRL 5, is tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in a technology's demonstrated readiness. Examples include testing a prototype in a high fidelity laboratory environment or in simulated operational environment.7. System prototype demonstration in an operational environmentPrototype near or at planned operational system. Represents a major step up from TRL 6, requiring the demonstration of an actual system prototype in an operational environment, such as in an aircraft, vehicle or space. Examples include testing the prototype in a test bed aircraft.8. Actual system completed and 'flight qualified' through test and demonstrationTechnology has been proven to work in its final form and under expected conditions. In almost all cases, this TRL represents the end of true system development. Examples include developmental test and evaluation of the system in its intended weapon system to determine if it meets design specifications.9. Actual system 'flight proven' through successful mission operationsActual application of the technology in its final form and under mission conditions, such as those encountered in operational test and evaluation. In almost all cases, this is the end of the last "bug fixing" aspects of true system development. Examples include using the system under operational mission conditions.Technology Readiness LevelDescription8. Actual system completed and 'flight qualified' through test and demonstrationTechnology has been proven to work in its final form and under expected conditions. In almost all cases, this TRL represents the end of true system development. Examples include developmental test and evaluation of the system in its intended weapon system to determine if it meets design specifications.
7 Digital IF: Enterprise Terminal Architecture L-BandmodemIFLIFLBUCBDCHPALNAIFL = Inter-Facility Linko192o24oo24L-BandmodemL-Band SwitchCombiner / DivideroIFLIFLBUCBDCHPALNADig/ LoDig IFmodemsDig/ LDig/ LBUCBDCHPALNAHow do we grow with Digital IF?Baseline – what we’re building today- significant investment – painful to walk away fromFirst Insertion: introduction- problem solved: Tx uplink noise sue to L-band combining- problem solved: physical L-Band switch limitation of 192 carriers,enabling disproportionately moreFirst Upgrade: moves Digital-to-L-band converters to antenna shack- solves IFL (Inter-Facility-Link) dynamic range problem that youcan’t solve at L-bandNext Upgrade: migrates to direct RF conversion as it matures(L-band conversion is mature today)Conversion Integration: integrates direct RF conversion into HPA & LNAas direct RF conversion further matures- Ethernet all the way to LNA & HPAMigration is gradual & sensible- leverages L-Band investment rather than discarding it- today’s equipment remains compatible with the architecture,indefinitely if necessaryoEthernet SwitchCombiner / DividerDig/ RFHPALNADig IFmodemsHPALNAtrafficDigital IFL/-BandRF
8 Digital IF: Enterprise Terminal Cost-Benefit modems through block conversionL-Band IFDigital IFModems, 192 each$1,920,000$ 960,000Switch Matrix Combiner/Divider, 192x24$3,200,000Ethernet Switch, 288 x 288, 2 each$ 200,000Digital Combiner/Dividers, 24 each$ 240,000Digital / L-band Converters, 24 each$ 600,000Coax Cables, L-band Amps$ 50,000Totals, modems to RF$5,170,000$2,050,000AssumptionsSignificant components onlyModem cost is halfModem conversion cost is trivialEthernet Switch – layer 1 – quotedDigital combiner/dividers $10k / aggregateDigital / L-band Converters $25k per pairAll are conservativeConclusionsSave > $3M / terminal, incl modemsSave > $1M / terminal sinking modem costConservative; yet to considerIFLsFuture insertionsPerformance burdensFacility burdensHow much can be saved on terminals large scale enterprise terminals?> $3.12 M on a terminal starting from scratch> $1.20 M on a terminal walking away from existing modemsThere is a potential here for recoveringfrom budget cuts & funding delaysAdditional benefits not included:eliminate IFLs altogetheradvantage on every new insertion in terms ofreduced development cost & schedulesolve performance problems that can’t be solved,economically, at L-bandreduce facility footprint & power/HVAC demandsCost-benefits for small & mid size terminals pending.
9 Digital IF: Mid-Size Terminal Architectures Dig IFmodembankoDig/ LBUCBDCHPALNADig IFmodemsprototype equipment under developmentDig IFmodemsDig IFmodemsDig/ LBUCBDCHPALNADig IFmodemsDig/ RFHPALNADigital IF is flexible.Prototypes are under development at CERDEC S&TCD, Aberdeen, MD, with OSAT (over satellite) prototype testing anticipated for early 2012.This will be a proof-of-concept prototype test, not a “Digital IF” standard test, per se, nor a production-ready equipment test.PD-SCS does not control this, but are working with CERDEC on it. We expect this to- demonstrate the feasibility of a digital IF terminal- offer “lessons learned” that feed into the open commercial standardization process.Medium terminal – illustrates redundant failover configurationHPALNAmedium sized terminal, modems daisy chained with fail-over redundancytrafficDigital IFL/-BandRF
10 VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) or COTM (Comm On The Move) Digital IF: Small Terminal ArchitecturesDig IFmodemsDig/ LBUCBDCHPALNADig/ RFHPALNAHPALNAsmall terminalSmall terminal – simpler configuration, simpler migration. Here, a single modem offers enough multiple modem functions so that a dedicated combiner/divider is not required.VSAT & COTM – Digital IF offers a huge SWAP advantageTake away: Digital IF is for terminals of all types & sizes.ANECDOTE:- DCATS thinks this would be good for WIN-T on account of SWAP- WIN-T thinks this would be good for DCATS on account of floor space!Dig IFmodemHPALNAVSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) or COTM (Comm On The Move)trafficDigital IFL/-BandRF
11 Why an Open Commercial Standard? Plug & play interoperabilityFaster procurement pathLess procurement expenseWider participationGovernmentIndustryLevel playing fieldStandard comes firstFull COTS basisTechnology development is matureGovernment procurement cycle includes- RFI- procurement docs – spec, SOW, etc.- solicitation- source selection- negotiation- development- schedule slips- FAT (First Article Test)- standardization (last!)+ Sometimes equipment can be obsolete before it is fielded.+ This process also discourages multiple vendors.Open commercial standardization, on the other hand, is- public- interactive- industry-wide- as fast as the business case makes it- standards can be revised to accommodate growth and add features+ costs the Government precious little compared to the alternative+ offers each Government stakeholder any level of participation it chooses+ likewise each industry shareholder
12 Digital IF: Standardization Objectives CONOPSReduced equipment complementSimplified installationSimplified test processesReduced operational complexityPractical remote CMAEconomyDevelopment costs & schedulesEquipment / production costsDeployment costs & schedulesTerminal footprintSWAPMigrationMinimal operational disruption, if anyRetain legacy infrastructure valueArbitrarily scalableInitial CapabilityDigital conversion to L-Bandmin 125 MHz contiguous BW16 bit resolutionExisting technology only;Engineering, not developmentGrowth – Inherent CapabilityNo limit to link countNo limit to bandwidthCommon to all terminal types & sizesRF PerformanceResolve IFL DR bottleneckNon-additive Tx noise floorEliminate linear distortion effectsEnable compensation for survivinglinear distortionWhat do we want to get out of our standard?- It’s not about developing any “technology”- It’s about taking mature technology that we know we have,that we already use, and collaboratively making the most of itBottom line: “Unified Systems Engineering” approach- don’t address “gaps” one at a time- instead, make aggregate implementation decisions that facilitatecommon solutions to multiple problemsAnticipated means of realizing these objectives:- integrated CMA (Control, Monitoring & Alarm)XML / secure XML over IP or SNMPv1/v3 (non-secure / secure)- leverage existing standards & interfaces (i.e. IP, Ethernet)- leverage industry-standard (IEEE) Ethernet Migration Plan- leverage existing L-band architecture to migrate more efficiently- convey waveforms using frequency bins at Digital IF interfaces vice time samples- packetize at Layer 3 (IP)- transport at Layer 2 (Ethernet), leveraging Ethernet Migration Plan& continuous networking industry growth
13 Digital IF: Standards Process Why IEEE?Credibility, experience, affordability, technical oversight, indemnification umbrella“Industry Connections”“Incubation” stage - bring stakeholders together – with relevant IEEE support –under IEEE liability umbrella – up to 1 year“Study Group”Up to 6 months, IEEE sponsorAdvanced Corp MembershipIncluding “Government Agencies”$3,500 to $10,000 / yearOne membership, all standardsPresent members includeDISA, BoeingPAR & Working GroupProject Authorization RequestMin 3 Advanced Corporate MembersIEEE SA (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers - Standards Association)- strong reputation for worldwide technical standards- reasonably priced- launch based on technical merit as evaluated by (“sponsors” in) relevant technical societiesPOC: Chris Vigil, IEEE-SA Membership Development, Piscataway NJLinksProcess overview-"Industry Connections“- info- online ICAID(Industry Connections Activity Initiation Document)Study Group Guidelines-IEEE SA Membership- Corp Svcs Overview:- Rationale:- Brochure:- supplemental pro svcs:- Application:PAR (Project Authorization Request) Submittal- FAQ- content https://development.standards.ieee.org/myproject/Public/mytools/init/newpar.pdf
14 Digital IF: Progress & Activity MILCOM 2009 Concept PaperWebsiteMILCOM 2010 CONOPS PaperRDECOM CERDEC S&TCD FAST POTATO ParticipationVisibility & Interest, Govt & IndustryPD-SCS POM wedge for FY 2013Present ActivityWebsite updatesdistribution list & e-newsletterEstablishing partnershipsIEEE Standards AssociationWe welcome collaborators !More Informationsign up for updatesWork is not “development” per se. Work is in the standardization process; socialization, collaboration, synchronization, standardization, then COTS deploymentRDECOM CERDEC S&TCDFAST = Future Advanced SATCOM TerminalsPOTATO = Programs Other Than “ATO” (Advanced Technology Objectives)near-term prototyping ofCBP = Configurable Baseband ProcessorDLBC = Direct L-Band ConverterPOC: Herald Beljour, RDECOM CERDEC S&TCD, APG MDCHICKEN & EGG PROBLEM: Vendors don’t want to invest until Govt commits to spending money. But Govt wants a cooperative standard & COTS opportunity.CHICKEN & EGG SOLUTION:- Standardization initiative under 3rd party IEEE indemnification umbrella- With aggressive Goverment leadership- Welcoming close industry cooperationRECOMMENDATIONS:- Start sooner, not later- Join our list- Work Digital IF into your business plan (companies) or mission roadmap (Govt agencies)- Participate in the Standards Process- Start by browsing and signing up for updates