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What is an atom? I love science, Ms. Solari! No, not this kind of Adam!

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Presentation on theme: "What is an atom? I love science, Ms. Solari! No, not this kind of Adam!"— Presentation transcript:

1 What is an atom? I love science, Ms. Solari! No, not this kind of Adam!

2 What is an atom? All matter in the universe is made up of atoms. All matter in the universe is made up of atoms. An atom is the smallest particle of an element that has all the properties of that element. An atom is the smallest particle of an element that has all the properties of that element. Parts of the Atom— Subatomic Particles Parts of the Atom— Subatomic Particles Parts of the Atom— Subatomic Particles Parts of the Atom— Subatomic Particles Nucleus—small, dense, positively charged center of the atom. It contains most of the atom’s mass. Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus. Nucleus—small, dense, positively charged center of the atom. It contains most of the atom’s mass. Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus. Proton—has a positive (+) charge Proton—has a positive (+) charge Neutron—has no charge (neutral) Neutron—has no charge (neutral) Electron Cloud— area surrounding the nucleus where the electrons are found. An electron is very small a negatively (-) charged particle moving very quickly in the area around the nucleus. Electron Cloud— area surrounding the nucleus where the electrons are found. An electron is very small a negatively (-) charged particle moving very quickly in the area around the nucleus. The atom is mostly empty space. The atom is mostly empty space.

3 Subatomic Particles: Most atoms are composed of 3 major subatomic particles Subatomic particle LocationCharge Relative mass (amu) ProtonNucleus Positive (+) 1 amu NeutronNucleus Neutral (n) 1 amu Electron Electron cloud Negative (-) 1/2000 amu

4 All atoms of the same element have the same chemical and physical properties as one another. All atoms of the same element have the same chemical and physical properties as one another. When an atom has the same number of protons (+) and electrons (-), the atom is neutral (has no electric charge). When atoms gain or lose electrons, they become charged atoms or ions. When an atom has the same number of protons (+) and electrons (-), the atom is neutral (has no electric charge). When atoms gain or lose electrons, they become charged atoms or ions.

5 Properties of an Atom Each element is represented by a box on the periodic table. The box gives information about the atoms of that element. All of the atoms of a certain element are alike. The atoms of different elements are different. Each element is represented by a box on the periodic table. The box gives information about the atoms of that element. All of the atoms of a certain element are alike. The atoms of different elements are different. 2atomic number 2atomic number Hechemical symbol (Helium)element name (Helium)element name 4.003atomic mass 4.003atomic mass

6 Properties of an Atom Chemical Symbol—every element has its own symbol. The first letter is always capitalized. The second letter, if there is one, is always a lower case letter. Chemical Symbol—every element has its own symbol. The first letter is always capitalized. The second letter, if there is one, is always a lower case letter. Atomic number describes the number of protons (+) in each atom of an element. Every element has a unique atomic number. In a neutral atom, the number of protons equals the number of electrons. Atomic number describes the number of protons (+) in each atom of an element. Every element has a unique atomic number. In a neutral atom, the number of protons equals the number of electrons. Atomic mass is the average mass of the atoms of an element often expressed in atomic mass units (amu); atomic mass is sometimes referred to as the atomic weight. Atomic mass is the average mass of the atoms of an element often expressed in atomic mass units (amu); atomic mass is sometimes referred to as the atomic weight.

7 Mass Number is the total number (the sum) of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. Mass Number is the total number (the sum) of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. The number of protons and neutrons may be different. The number of protons and neutrons may be different. To find the mass number, round the average atomic mass to get an approximate mass number. Subtract the number of protons (atomic number) from the mass number to get the number of neutrons. To find the mass number, round the average atomic mass to get an approximate mass number. Subtract the number of protons (atomic number) from the mass number to get the number of neutrons. Use your periodic table to complete the following chart. Use your periodic table to complete the following chart. Element name Symbol Atomic # Atomic mass Mass # # of protons # of neutrons # of electrons Calcium4020 B ChlorineCl

8 Isotope is the atom of an element that has a different number of neutrons from other atoms of that element. It still has the same number of protons. Isotope is the atom of an element that has a different number of neutrons from other atoms of that element. It still has the same number of protons. Isotope Example: Example: A common carbon atom has a mass number of 12 (6 protons and 6 neutrons) and may be written as C-12. An isotope of carbon with a mass number of 14 has 6 protons and 8 neutrons (it is heavier) and may be written as C-14. Carbon-14 has 2 extra neutrons but still has the same number of protons and electrons as C-12. C-14 is an isotope of C-12. A common carbon atom has a mass number of 12 (6 protons and 6 neutrons) and may be written as C-12. An isotope of carbon with a mass number of 14 has 6 protons and 8 neutrons (it is heavier) and may be written as C-14. Carbon-14 has 2 extra neutrons but still has the same number of protons and electrons as C-12. C-14 is an isotope of C-12. Hydrogen is the smallest atom. Most atoms of Hydrogen have 1 proton and 0 neutrons. Hydrogen is the smallest atom. Most atoms of Hydrogen have 1 proton and 0 neutrons. H-1 has ____________________ neutrons. H-1 has ____________________ neutrons. H-2 has ____________________ neutrons. H-2 has ____________________ neutrons. H-3 has ____________________ neutrons. H-3 has ____________________ neutrons.

9 Models of the Atom Models of the Atom The Electron Cloud Model (Quantum Mechanics)—Modern Theory The Electron Cloud Model (Quantum Mechanics)—Modern Theory The Electron Cloud Model The Electron Cloud Model Because electrons move so fast, they appear to be in many places at the same time. This causes a “blur” around the nucleus called the “electron cloud” Because electrons move so fast, they appear to be in many places at the same time. This causes a “blur” around the nucleus called the “electron cloud” This model represents the most likely area for an electron to be found This model represents the most likely area for an electron to be found Most accurate theory to date Most accurate theory to date

10 The Bohr Model of an Atom Neils Bohr was a Danish scientist who said that electrons move around the nucleus in certain paths or energy levels much the same as the planets orbit the sun. His model is sometimes called the “planetary” model. Neils Bohr was a Danish scientist who said that electrons move around the nucleus in certain paths or energy levels much the same as the planets orbit the sun. His model is sometimes called the “planetary” model. Sample Bohr Model Sample Bohr Model 3 rd energy level (outermost) 2 nd energy level 1 st energy level nucleus

11 The Bohr Model: A clear and easy model of the atom, but not accurate Electrons are shown in energy levels which are defined paths around the nucleus The energy levels are in circular paths around the nucleus. Each energy level can “hold” a certain number of electrons before it is “full” For the first 18 elements found on periodic table: 1st level—2 electrons 2nd level—8 electrons 3rd level—8 electrons The electrons in the outermost energy level are called valence electrons; they determine the chemical reactivity of the atom. Chemical reactivity refers to how each element will react or bond with another element or molecule.

12 The outer energy level or “shell” is considered full when it has the maximum number of electrons that can fit into that level (for example, the 1st level is full when it has 2 electrons, but the 2nd and 3rd levels are full when it has 8 electrons.) The outer energy level or “shell” is considered full when it has the maximum number of electrons that can fit into that level (for example, the 1st level is full when it has 2 electrons, but the 2nd and 3rd levels are full when it has 8 electrons.) If the outside energy level is full, it is considered non-reactive. It does not need to chemically react or bond with any other atom or molecule. If the outside energy level is full, it is considered non-reactive. It does not need to chemically react or bond with any other atom or molecule. If the outside energy level is incomplete (not full), it is considered reactive. It will either lose or gain electrons and chemically react or bond with another atom or molecule. If the outside energy level is incomplete (not full), it is considered reactive. It will either lose or gain electrons and chemically react or bond with another atom or molecule. Electrons can move from one energy level to the next (if it gains or loses energy) Electrons can move from one energy level to the next (if it gains or loses energy) Electrons closest to the nucleus have the lowest amount of energy Electrons closest to the nucleus have the lowest amount of energy

13 Sample Bohr Models Reactive Non-reactive Reactive & Isotope O Ne Be


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