2 The War in EuropeBegan with Hitler’s invasion of Poland in 1939, followed shortly by the Soviet Union’s invasion of Poland from the EastUS officially neutral for 2yrs while Germany pounded Britain from the air (Battle of Britain)In mid-1941, Hitler turned on his ally, Soviet Union, by breaking their non-aggression pactThough neutral, we tried to help Britain through the Lend-Lease Act, which FDR said was, “Like lending a garden hose to a neighbor whose house is on fire.”
3 The War in AsiaJapan invaded Manchuria & China; trying to take over the mainlandUS refused to recognize Japan’s new conquests, so we imposed an embargo on oil & steal. TENSION!!!! (could cut it with a knife)Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in retaliation for the embargo, even though we’d been negotiation for peace.FDR said it, “was a date that will live in infamy,” & he asked Congress to declare war on Japan.Hitler honored his pact with Japan & declared war on the US.
4 Axis StrategyGermany hoped to defeat the Soviet Union quickly to gain access to their oil fields.Germany hoped to force Britain out of the war by continually bombing them. (Battle of Britain)Following Pearl Harbor, Japan invaded the Philippines & Indonesia & was going to continue towards Hawaii. They wanted to make the US recognize their territorial gains.
5 Allied StrategyAmerica & its allies, Britain & the Soviet Union, followed a “Defeat Hitler First” strategy in Europe.In the Pacific, we practiced island hopping; going from island to island on our way to Japan.
6 Minority Participation in WW2 African-Americans served in segregated units & non-combat military roles.Tuskegee AirmenAsian-American regiments (called Nisei) earned a high number of decorations.Communication codes of the Navajo were used; never broken/ deciphered by the enemyMexican-Americans fought in non-segregated unitsMinority units usually had high casualties, but won LOTS of awards for bravery in action
7 Major European Battles in WW2 StalingradGermans died in the thousands trying to take siege to a Russian cityPrevented Germany from taking Soviet oil fields & turned the tide against Germany in the eastNormandy Landings (D-Day)American & Allied forces, led by General Eisenhower, tried to take over Normandy beaches on June 6, 1944Despite intense German opposition & heavy causalities, we succeeded in liberating western Europe from Hitler.
8 Major Battles in the Pacific during WW2 Midway (“Miracle at Midway”)Americans defeated a much larger Japanese forceIf we lost, the Japanese would’ve tried to invade HawaiiProved that “island hopping” strategy workedIwo-Jima & OkinawaBrought us closer than ever to Japan, but costs thousands of lives (American & Japanese)Had to deal with determined Japanese soldiers who often committed suicide than surrenderHiroshima & NagasakiPresident Harry Truman ordered the a-bomb to be usedAfter the bombs, Japanese leaders surrendered!
9 Other WW2 Events Battle of El Alamein ( in N. Africa) German forces tried to take Egypt & the Suez canal, but the British stopped themThis defeat stopped Hitler from getting Middle Eastern oil supplies & from attacking the Soviets from the SouthGeneva ConventionTried to establish rules of warfare; but, not followed by all nations.Savagery of fighting in Pacific:Bataan Death March, American & Filipino POWs were brutally treated after the surrender of the Philippines.Japanese soldiers committed suicide instead of surrenderTreatment of POWs in Europe followed ideas of the Geneva Convention
10 Hitler, Hatred & the Holocaust Genocide = Systematic & purposeful destruction of a racial, political, religious or cultural groupFinal Solution = Hitler’s plan to exterminate all JewsAffected Groups (by the Holocaust)JewsSlavs (Slavic people)Gypsies“Undesirables”HomosexualsMentally illPolitically dissidentsPhysically & mentally handicapped
11 Hitler, Hatred & the Holocaust… In the Nuremberg trials, Nazi leaders & others were convicted of war crimes.The Nuremberg trials emphasized individual responsibility for actions during warfare, regardless of orders received.The trials led to increased demand for a Jewish homeland. (Israel was created not too long after.)**Skip to Pg. 44, we’ll come back to the next activity on Pg. 43 when we’re done!**
12 WW2 on the Homefront Economic Resources Rationing was used on supplies War bonds & income tax were used to finance the war effortBusinesses were retooled for wartime productionExample: Car manufacturing to tank manufacturing
13 WW2 on the Homefront… Human Resources Military Resources: More women & minorities entered the work forceCitizens volunteered in support of the warMilitary Resources:The draft (selective service) was used to provide soldiers for the army.
14 Women & Minorities in the War effort Rosie the Riveter represented the new role of women in the workforce. Women typically participated in non-combat military roles.African-Americans migrated to cities in search of jobs in war plants, while campaigning for victory in war & equality at home.Treatment of Japanese-Americans:Fear & prejudice allowed the US government to take away their civil libertiesThere was strong Anti-Japanese prejudice on the West coast. False belief that Japanese-Americans were aiding the enemyRelocated to internment camps. The Supreme Court upheld the government’s actions. A public apology was eventually issued.
15 Media in WW2During WW2, the media & entertainment industries saw their role as supporting the war effort by promoting nationalism (patriotism).The US government maintained strict censorship of reporting of the war.Public morale & ad campaigns kept Americans focused on the war effort.The entertainment industry produced movies, plays & shows that boosted morale & patriotic support for the war effort as well as portrayed the enemy in stereotypical ways.Captain America
16 Chronological Order Activity -Fill in the events that are missing Great Depression (1930s)Sherman Anti-Trust Act________________Spanish-American WarTeddy Roosevelt’s Square Deal_________________17th AmendmentArchduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated- WWI begins in EuropeTreaty of Versailles signed____________________Immigration Restriction Act of 1921Smoot-Hawley Act (1930)_____________________New Deal________________________Bombing of Pearl HarborEl AlameinStalingrad_________________Iwo-Jima & Okinawa___________________Pullman strike occurs (1894)World War II begins (1939)Hitler invades Soviet Union (mid 1941)NAACP founded (1909)Bataan Death March begins (1942)D-Day (June 6, 1944)Women get to vote (19th amendment)Bombing of Hiroshima & NagasakiNuremberg Trials begin (1945)
18 During World War II, the purpose of posters such as this was to --- Motivate American women to enter the work force in defense factoriesEncourage civilians to become members of the armed forcesShow how Americans on the homefront could contribute to the war effortPressure industries to dedicate their resources to war manufacturing
19 Japanese civilians welcoming Allied troops Bushido: a feudal-military Japanese code of behavior valuing honor above life Merriam-Webster dictionary2. During World War II, which action was an example of this code of behavior?Japanese civilians welcoming Allied troopsJapanese captors treating American POWs humanelyJapanese emperor accepting the terms of unconditional surrenderJapanese troops committing suicide rather than surrendering
20 3. The members of the World War II Nisei regiment were primarily--- Mexican AmericansJapanese AmericansGerman AmericansItalian Americans
21 4. The Lend-Lease Act was passed by the United States Congress in response to increased--- Concern about German aggression in EuropeAnger over the Japanese invasion of ChinaConcern about Italian demands in North AfricaFear over the German pact with the Soviet Union
22 5. During World War II, the role of the Selective Service System in the United States was to --- Draft military personnelRation manufactured goodsIncrease industrial productivityReplace factory workers
23 6. Which effect did United States participation in World War II have on the home front? An increase in volunteers for the war effortThe end of racial segregation in the SouthA decline in farm income due to war rationingThe growth of isolationism in the Midwest
24 7. The United States interned many Japanese Americans during World War II because of--- Their refusal to be deportedA fear they would aid the enemyA concern over violent protest from themTheir refusal to be drafted into the military
25 8. Which New Deal program attempted to protect Americans from the instability of banks during the Great Depression?Works Progress AdministrationTennessee Valley AuthorityFederal Deposit Insurance CorporationAgricultural Adjustment Administration