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Unit 5: VA/US SOL Review Unit 5: World War II.

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1 Unit 5: VA/US SOL Review Unit 5: World War II

2 The War in Europe Began with Hitler’s invasion of Poland in 1939, followed shortly by the Soviet Union’s invasion of Poland from the East US officially neutral for 2yrs while Germany pounded Britain from the air (Battle of Britain) In mid-1941, Hitler turned on his ally, Soviet Union, by breaking their non-aggression pact Though neutral, we tried to help Britain through the Lend-Lease Act, which FDR said was, “Like lending a garden hose to a neighbor whose house is on fire.”

3 The War in Asia Japan invaded Manchuria & China; trying to take over the mainland US refused to recognize Japan’s new conquests, so we imposed an embargo on oil & steal. TENSION!!!! (could cut it with a knife) Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in retaliation for the embargo, even though we’d been negotiation for peace. FDR said it, “was a date that will live in infamy,” & he asked Congress to declare war on Japan. Hitler honored his pact with Japan & declared war on the US.

4 Axis Strategy Germany hoped to defeat the Soviet Union quickly to gain access to their oil fields. Germany hoped to force Britain out of the war by continually bombing them. (Battle of Britain) Following Pearl Harbor, Japan invaded the Philippines & Indonesia & was going to continue towards Hawaii. They wanted to make the US recognize their territorial gains.

5 Allied Strategy America & its allies, Britain & the Soviet Union, followed a “Defeat Hitler First” strategy in Europe. In the Pacific, we practiced island hopping; going from island to island on our way to Japan.

6 Minority Participation in WW2
African-Americans served in segregated units & non-combat military roles. Tuskegee Airmen Asian-American regiments (called Nisei) earned a high number of decorations. Communication codes of the Navajo were used; never broken/ deciphered by the enemy Mexican-Americans fought in non-segregated units Minority units usually had high casualties, but won LOTS of awards for bravery in action

7 Major European Battles in WW2
Stalingrad Germans died in the thousands trying to take siege to a Russian city Prevented Germany from taking Soviet oil fields & turned the tide against Germany in the east Normandy Landings (D-Day) American & Allied forces, led by General Eisenhower, tried to take over Normandy beaches on June 6, 1944 Despite intense German opposition & heavy causalities, we succeeded in liberating western Europe from Hitler.

8 Major Battles in the Pacific during WW2
Midway (“Miracle at Midway”) Americans defeated a much larger Japanese force If we lost, the Japanese would’ve tried to invade Hawaii Proved that “island hopping” strategy worked Iwo-Jima & Okinawa Brought us closer than ever to Japan, but costs thousands of lives (American & Japanese) Had to deal with determined Japanese soldiers who often committed suicide than surrender Hiroshima & Nagasaki President Harry Truman ordered the a-bomb to be used After the bombs, Japanese leaders surrendered!

9 Other WW2 Events Battle of El Alamein ( in N. Africa)
German forces tried to take Egypt & the Suez canal, but the British stopped them This defeat stopped Hitler from getting Middle Eastern oil supplies & from attacking the Soviets from the South Geneva Convention Tried to establish rules of warfare; but, not followed by all nations. Savagery of fighting in Pacific: Bataan Death March, American & Filipino POWs were brutally treated after the surrender of the Philippines. Japanese soldiers committed suicide instead of surrender Treatment of POWs in Europe followed ideas of the Geneva Convention

10 Hitler, Hatred & the Holocaust
Genocide = Systematic & purposeful destruction of a racial, political, religious or cultural group Final Solution = Hitler’s plan to exterminate all Jews Affected Groups (by the Holocaust) Jews Slavs (Slavic people) Gypsies “Undesirables” Homosexuals Mentally ill Politically dissidents Physically & mentally handicapped

11 Hitler, Hatred & the Holocaust…
In the Nuremberg trials, Nazi leaders & others were convicted of war crimes. The Nuremberg trials emphasized individual responsibility for actions during warfare, regardless of orders received. The trials led to increased demand for a Jewish homeland. (Israel was created not too long after.) **Skip to Pg. 44, we’ll come back to the next activity on Pg. 43 when we’re done!**

12 WW2 on the Homefront Economic Resources Rationing was used on supplies
War bonds & income tax were used to finance the war effort Businesses were retooled for wartime production Example: Car manufacturing to tank manufacturing

13 WW2 on the Homefront… Human Resources Military Resources:
More women & minorities entered the work force Citizens volunteered in support of the war Military Resources: The draft (selective service) was used to provide soldiers for the army.

14 Women & Minorities in the War effort
Rosie the Riveter represented the new role of women in the workforce. Women typically participated in non-combat military roles. African-Americans migrated to cities in search of jobs in war plants, while campaigning for victory in war & equality at home. Treatment of Japanese-Americans: Fear & prejudice allowed the US government to take away their civil liberties There was strong Anti-Japanese prejudice on the West coast. False belief that Japanese-Americans were aiding the enemy Relocated to internment camps. The Supreme Court upheld the government’s actions. A public apology was eventually issued.

15 Media in WW2 During WW2, the media & entertainment industries saw their role as supporting the war effort by promoting nationalism (patriotism). The US government maintained strict censorship of reporting of the war. Public morale & ad campaigns kept Americans focused on the war effort. The entertainment industry produced movies, plays & shows that boosted morale & patriotic support for the war effort as well as portrayed the enemy in stereotypical ways. Captain America

16 Chronological Order Activity -Fill in the events that are missing
Great Depression (1930s) Sherman Anti-Trust Act ________________ Spanish-American War Teddy Roosevelt’s Square Deal _________________ 17th Amendment Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated- WWI begins in Europe Treaty of Versailles signed ____________________ Immigration Restriction Act of 1921 Smoot-Hawley Act (1930) _____________________ New Deal ________________________ Bombing of Pearl Harbor El Alamein Stalingrad _________________ Iwo-Jima & Okinawa ___________________ Pullman strike occurs (1894) World War II begins (1939) Hitler invades Soviet Union (mid 1941) NAACP founded (1909) Bataan Death March begins (1942) D-Day (June 6, 1944) Women get to vote (19th amendment) Bombing of Hiroshima & Nagasaki Nuremberg Trials begin (1945)

17 Question time!!! Show me what you know

18 During World War II, the purpose of posters such as this was to ---
Motivate American women to enter the work force in defense factories Encourage civilians to become members of the armed forces Show how Americans on the homefront could contribute to the war effort Pressure industries to dedicate their resources to war manufacturing

19 Japanese civilians welcoming Allied troops
Bushido: a feudal-military Japanese code of behavior valuing honor above life Merriam-Webster dictionary 2. During World War II, which action was an example of this code of behavior? Japanese civilians welcoming Allied troops Japanese captors treating American POWs humanely Japanese emperor accepting the terms of unconditional surrender Japanese troops committing suicide rather than surrendering

20 3. The members of the World War II Nisei regiment were primarily---
Mexican Americans Japanese Americans German Americans Italian Americans

21 4. The Lend-Lease Act was passed by the United States Congress in response to increased---
Concern about German aggression in Europe Anger over the Japanese invasion of China Concern about Italian demands in North Africa Fear over the German pact with the Soviet Union

22 5. During World War II, the role of the Selective Service System in the United States was to ---
Draft military personnel Ration manufactured goods Increase industrial productivity Replace factory workers

23 6. Which effect did United States participation in World War II have on the home front?
An increase in volunteers for the war effort The end of racial segregation in the South A decline in farm income due to war rationing The growth of isolationism in the Midwest

24 7. The United States interned many Japanese Americans during World War II because of---
Their refusal to be deported A fear they would aid the enemy A concern over violent protest from them Their refusal to be drafted into the military

25 8. Which New Deal program attempted to protect Americans from the instability of banks during the Great Depression? Works Progress Administration Tennessee Valley Authority Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Agricultural Adjustment Administration

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