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The Eisenhower Years – Foreign & Domestic (1952-1960)

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1 The Eisenhower Years – Foreign & Domestic (1952-1960)

2 The Eisenhower Years – Domestic (1952-1960) Election of 1952 – “I Like Ike”—good reputation, looking to end Korean conflict and clean up “mess.” His policies are known as “Modern Republicanism.” Wins 2 nd term in ’56. Business like cabinet. Priority to budget balance and cut federal spending. Created Dept. of HEW. Interstate Highway System – 1956 – used for defense and travel – created jobs, suburbs, and changed different markets. Between 1945 & 1960 per capita disposable income tripled.

3 The Eisenhower Years – Domestic (1952-1960) POPULAR CULTURE – Television – advertising, comedies, sports, westerns, news. Advertising Paperback & records – Elvis Presley Corporate America – shirt & tie symbolize uniformity  William Whyte “The Organized Man.”  AF of L and CIO merge. White collar & Blue collar. Vacation & expansion of religion. Women’s roles – homemaking “Baby & Child Care” Dr. Benjamin Spock. Dissatisfied with inequality. Social Critics – Sociologists (Mills), writers (Salinger), and Beatniks (Kerouac)

4 The Eisenhower Years – Domestic (1952-1960) Jackie Robinson Truman integrates armed forces, civil right legislation, but Jim Crow (poll tax, segregation, clauses, tests, intimidation) still exist in South. Democracy sinking into minds of African Americans & Asian Americans b/c of Cold War. Civil Rights Movement - *BROWN V. BOARD OF EDUCATION – Tried by Thurgood Marshall – Plessy v. Ferguson violates 14 th amendment – Court overturns decision. Resistance in South – Federal troops are used to enforce the law/constitution. (Gov. Orval Faubus) Montgomery Bus Boycott – Rosa Parks – Series of non-violent protests are triggered led by Martin Luther King Jr. Segregation ruled unconstitutional – 2 civil right laws 1957/1960. SCLC - non-violence to protest segregated facilities.

5 The Eisenhower Years – Foreign (1952-1960) Dulles’ Diplomacy – aggressive challenging of USSR and China. Show nuclear superiority – “Brinkmanship” – Reliance on nuclear weapons. New 3 rd world countries develop – India, Pakistan, Indonesia – lack stable economy and political futures so need $ ---big ?? CIA – covert actions to overthrow several governments (Iran) for needs like oil. Korean armistice

6 The Eisenhower Years – Foreign (1952-1960) Indochina falls – Vietnam & Cambodia are now communist  Ho Chi Minh – North Vietnam under his control  South Vietnam under non-communist Ngo Dinh Diem. U.S. gives 1 billion in aid. Analogy made to “Domino Theory.” Formed SEATO. Middle East – problems w/ Israel & Palestine ---trouble with Suez canal and British French control  Eisenhower Doctrine – give aid to all Mid-East countries who are threatened by communism.  OPEC develops.

7 The Eisenhower Years – Foreign (1952-1960) Geneva Convention – peaceful relation – Bulganin & Khruschev. Hungarian revolt – overthrow communists – USSR steps in and takes it back. Sputnik NASA 2 nd Berlin Crisis. U-2 incident Cuba – Castro overthrows Batista – Nationalizes American business – We cut off trade – Turns to USSR – we train anticommunist exiles to take him (Castro) out --- Bay of Pigs under Kennedy.

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