2Metaphor A metaphor is a comparison without using like or as. Example: His house was a prison.* Metaphors rename. The house is renamed prison.
3Genre Genre is categories of literature. Poetry, short story, essay, novel, and drama are all examples.For more information on Genre go to Student Notes and find this message:“Do you still need help with Genre?? Study This!”- Click on this and it will take you to a power point focused on Genre.
5OutlineAn outline is a written, organized list of the main points of a text.ExampleStory to introduce the symptom (e.g. vandalism)Use facts and evidence to trace back to the core problem (e.g. lack of “safe” activities for youth)StatisticsReportsInterviewsSuggest a solutionBudgetVolunteersStakeholders
6Possessive NounsA possessive noun shows possession, ownership, and relationships between nouns.If the noun is singular, you use (‘) then the (s). If the noun is plural (s’).Example: Sally’s dog barked at the neighbor’s cat.The teachers’ lounge was decorated for Valentine’s Day,
7PredictionA prediction is an explanation of what you think might happen in the future based on information and experience.Example:A weatherman predicts the weather based on information given by radar.
8ProofreadProofread means to read carefully for the purpose of correcting punctuation, spelling. and grammar.Example: We proofread our essays and marked needed revisions.
9Quotation MarksQuotation marks are used to enclose a direct quote – a person’s exact words or for titles of song, poems, short stories, etc. Always capitalize the first word of a quotation.“Where’s the chap stick?” asked Jim.“Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star” is the name of my favorite song.Our class read the short story “ The Jacket.”We read the poem “T’was the Night Before Christmas,” before going to bed.
10QuotationsQuotations are words from another person that you repeat exactly in writing.Example: “At the center of non-violence stands the principle of love.”-Martin Luther King Jr.
11Sentence FragmentA sentence fragment is a group of words that is punctuated as if it was a complete sentence but doesn’t contain a subject and a verb; doesn’t express a complete thought.Example: Smiling at me.This is a sentence fragment because you do not have a subject. Who is smiling at me?The meaning is unclear.
12Simile Comparison of two things using like or as. Example: Sharpay was strutting around like a peacock in her new dress .
13Subject/Verb Agreement Subject/Verb agreement is where your subject and verb agree in your sentence.Example:They (was/were) waiting in line to get ice cream.
14Time OrderPutting the facts or events into a sequence using references to time.Example:7-7:30 Wake up7:30-9:00 Showers, breakfast, clean-up9-10 Clean rooms10-11 Do laundry11-12 Go to store12-1 Vacuum house1-1:30 Clean bathrooms1:30-2:15 Pick up kids2:15-3:00 Wash cars3-3:30 Bath time3:30-4:30 Cook super
15Topic SentenceStates the main idea of the texts ; what the paper will be about, often occur at the beginning.Example: My dog, Pablo, is an unusual dog. He won’t play dead, fetch, or do anything that most dogs enjoy.
16Transitional WordsWords or phrases that bridge sentences & paragraphs by showing location, time, comparisons, etc.See examples on the following slides.
17Addition: also, again, as well as, besides, coupled with, furthermore, in addition, likewise, moreover, similarlyConsequence: accordingly, as a result, consequently, for this reason, for this purpose, hence, otherwise, so then, subsequently, therefore, thus, thereupon, whereforeGeneralizing: as a rule, as usual, for the most part, generally, generally speaking, ordinarily, usually
18Exemplifying: chiefly, especially, for instance, in particular, markedly, namely, particularly, including, specifically, such asIllustration: for example, for instance, for one thing, as an illustration, illustrated with, as an example, in this caseEmphasis above all, chiefly, with attention to, especially, particularly, singularly
19Similarity: comparatively, coupled with, correspondingly, identically, likewise, similar, moreover, together withException: aside from, barring, besides, except, excepting, excluding, exclusive of, other than, outside of, saveRestatement: in essence, in other words, namely, that is, that is to say, in short, in brief, to put it differently
20Contrast and Comparison: contrast, by the same token, conversely, instead, likewise, on one hand, on the other hand, on the contrary, rather, similarly, yet, but, however, still, nevertheless, in contrastSequence: at first, first of all, to begin with, in the first place, at the same time, for now, for the time being, the next step, in time, in turn, later on, meanwhile, next, then, soon, the meantime, later, while, earlier, simultaneously, afterward, in conclusion, with this in mind,
21Summarizing: after all, all in all, all things considered, briefly, by and large, in any case, in any event, in brief, in conclusion, on the whole, in short, in summary, in the final analysis, in the long run, on balance, to sum up, to summarize, finallyDiversion: by the way, incidentallyDirection: here, there, over there, beyond, nearly, opposite, under, above, to the left, to the right, in the distance
22Verb TenseExpresses time of the action or state of being such as past, present, & future.Example: Jim ran across the street.Ran is the past tense of run.
231. Judy saved thirty dollars. (past) 2. Judy will save thirty dollars. (future)3. Judy has saved thirty dollars. (present perfect)4. Judy had saved thirty dollars by the end of last month. (past perfect)5. Judy will have saved thirty dollars by the end of this month. (future perfect)Notice: There can be only one "would have" action group in a sentence.
24AlliterationAlliteration is the repetition of the consonant sound at the beginning of words.ExamplesPeter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.Sandy sells seashells by the sandy seashore.Phyllis fell flat on her face.
25Analogy Comparison made between two things to show how they are alike. Up is to sky as down is to groundUp:sky::down:ground.
26Audiencethe reader or spectators of a work of literature or dramatic performance. The audience applauded as the play ended.
27Author’s Purpose 4 types To inform- To learn To entertain-For enjoymentTo persuade-to try to get you to buy or do somethingTo express- To show emotions or feelings.Usually, it is a poem.
28Drawing Conclusions Is when you sum a story or article up. The conclusion for Three Little Pigs is 3 pigs who learn a lesson about hard work.
29Caption Caption is the text describing a picture or graph. In this picture, the African lion is roaring.
30Compare To examine how two or more things are alike. The cat and the dog both have tails.
31Contrast How to things are different. A tiger doesn’t have a mane, but a lion does.
32Double NegativeA double negative is a clause or sentence that uses to negative words.Negative words have the word “no” in them in most case. (not, nobody, no one, nothing ,etc.)Contractions can be negative too. (don’t, doesn’t, couldn’t, etc.)
33Double Negative cont. These are some examples. He did not let nobody play his game.Nothing couldn’t get past the filter.See how hard to understand that is?
34Fablea short, simple story usually involving animal characters which tells a moral, teaches a lesson.3 Little Pigs is also an example of this.
35Homonyms Homonyms are words that sound the same, but look different. Days/dazeThe past few (days/daze) have been terrific.I was during a (days/daze) during the teacher’s lecture.
36Indexan alphabetical listing of topics and the page numbers where than alphabetical listing of topics and the page numbers where they can be found in a text. It is usually found in the back if the book.Here is an example of what you might find in the back of a science book.Ocean water pollution, 374
37Inferenceswhen the reader combines information read with what the reader already knows to make a reasonable guess.The student walked sadly into the principal’s office.You can infer that he is in trouble for something he did.