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Skeletal System Functions:  Supports the body; Protects organs (ribs, sternum, skull); Place for muscles to attach; Stores Ca; Makes blood (hematopoiesis)

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Presentation on theme: "Skeletal System Functions:  Supports the body; Protects organs (ribs, sternum, skull); Place for muscles to attach; Stores Ca; Makes blood (hematopoiesis)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Skeletal System Functions:  Supports the body; Protects organs (ribs, sternum, skull); Place for muscles to attach; Stores Ca; Makes blood (hematopoiesis) Varieties:  Long (arms, legs); Short (toes, fingers); Flat (skull); Irregular (kneecap)  Greatest number of bones in the hands and feet Anatomy of a Long Bone:  Periosteum: a seran-wrap covering over the whole bone; contains blood vessels (protection)  Cartilage: shiny, bendable tissue at the end of the bone (articular); few blood vessels (protection)

2  Compact Bone: solid (no holes); the middle of the bone; high in Ca  Spongy Bone: has holes; the ends of the bone; low in Ca  Red Marrow: makes blood; center of the bone  Yellow Marrow: makes fat; ends of the bone Ossification:  Process of cartilage turning into bone  Infants (“soft spot”); Males long bones (21); Females long bones (18)  Osteoclasts eat cartilage and primitive bone cells appear (osteoblasts); Osteoblasts mature into osteocytes  Begins at the diaphysis (center) Primary Ossification Center  Continues at the epiphyses (ends) Secondary Ossification Center  Epiphyseal Disk: last place for cartilage to turn into bone (growth plate)

3 Haversian Canals:  microscopic view of bone  concentric circles of blood vessels and cells Human Adult Skeleton (206 bones) Axial Skeleton: skull, vertebrae, thorax (80)  Skull: (cranium); protects the brain; depressions called sinuses; cartilage in infant skull to make birth easier/allow the brain to grow (fontannels); Bones include: frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital (foramen magnum)  Ear Bones: (3); smallest bones in the body  Facial Bones: hyoid (tongue); Mandible (lower jaw); Maxillary (upper jaw)

4  Sternum: breast bone (protects the heart); ribs attach to it  Ribs: (12 pairs); protect the lungs; true ribs (1-8); false ribs (9-12); floating ribs (11-12); intercostal muscles  Vertebrae: backbone; axis (yes); atlas (no);cervical (7); thoracic (12); lumbar (5); intervertebral disks (cartilage); slipped disk/herniated disk; kyphosis (hunchback); lordosis (swayback); scoliosis  Pelvis: (pelvic girdle) hips; females (wider and stronger)  Sacrum: fusion of 5 bones; wider in women; spina bifida  Coccyx: tailbone

5 Appendicular Skeleton: Includes pectoral girdle (126)  Clavicle: collar bone  Scapula: shoulder bone; contain bursa (sacks of liquid); bursitis  Femur: thigh bone; longest bone  Patella: kneecap (sesmoid bone)  Tibia: shin bone (front); shin splints  Fibula: calf bone (back)  Tarsals: (7) ankle Metatarsals: (5) arch; “flat feet”  Phalanges: (14) toes; bunions  Humerus: upper arm bone  Radius: lower arm bone (up from thumb)  Ulna: lower arm bone (up from little finger)  Carpals: (8) Metacarpals: (5) palm  Phalanges: (14) fingers

6 Joints Articulations; any place where 2 bones come together Types of Joints:  Fibrous (immovable): sutures  Cartilaginous: intervertebral disks  Synovial: freely move (with synovial fluid) `Hinge: move in 1 plane (knee, elbow) `Ball & Socket: rotate (hips, shoulders) `Gliding: wrist, ankle `Pivot: crossing over (radius-ulna)

7 Ligament: an elastic band that connects a bone to a bone Tendon: an elastic band that connects a bone to a muscle Skeletal System Conditions: Fracture: a broken bone (simple-compound)  Reduction: open vs. closed  Dislocation: a bone is forced out of its normal position  Hematoma: a bruise Sprain: ligaments or tendons are stretched Osteoporosis: brittle bones; women after menopause Arthritis: inflammation at the joints Bursitis: inflammation at bursa Rickets: decrease in Ca and vitamin D: bowed condition Gout: uric acid crystals accumulate at big toe joint

8 Muscles Involve movement Work in antagonistic pairs (one muscle stretches/the other muscle contracts); extensor/flexor (triceps/biceps) Origin: place where muscle begins (on an immovable bone) Insertion: place where muscle ends (on a movable bone) Muscle Types:  Skeletal (striated): moves the bones of the skeleton; voluntary; bands called striations  Cardiac: branching bands; in the heart; involuntary

9  Smooth Muscle: wavy; in all organs that cannot be controlled; involuntary (intestines, uterus, stomach) Exercise:  Isotonic: Muscles stretched out against an immovable object  Isometric: Muscles push against something that gives  Cross-training: combination of isotonic and isometric Muscular Conditions:  Charley Horse: knot in muscles; lack of O 2  Cramps: muscles contracting too fast; use a muscle relaxer  Strain: a pulled muscle  Steroids: build up muscle mass; long period with side effects


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