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Skeletal System Functions: Varieties: Anatomy of a Long Bone:

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Presentation on theme: "Skeletal System Functions: Varieties: Anatomy of a Long Bone:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Skeletal System Functions: Varieties: Anatomy of a Long Bone:
Supports the body; Protects organs (ribs, sternum, skull); Place for muscles to attach; Stores Ca; Makes blood (hematopoiesis) Varieties: Long (arms, legs); Short (toes, fingers); Flat (skull); Irregular (kneecap) Greatest number of bones in the hands and feet Anatomy of a Long Bone: Periosteum: a seran-wrap covering over the whole bone; contains blood vessels (protection) Cartilage: shiny, bendable tissue at the end of the bone (articular); few blood vessels (protection)

2 Compact Bone: solid (no holes); the middle of the bone; high in Ca
Spongy Bone: has holes; the ends of the bone; low in Ca Red Marrow: makes blood; center of the bone Yellow Marrow: makes fat; ends of the bone Ossification: Process of cartilage turning into bone Infants (“soft spot”); Males long bones (21); Females long bones (18) Osteoclasts eat cartilage and primitive bone cells appear (osteoblasts); Osteoblasts mature into osteocytes Begins at the diaphysis (center) Primary Ossification Center Continues at the epiphyses (ends) Secondary Ossification Center Epiphyseal Disk: last place for cartilage to turn into bone (growth plate)

3 Human Adult Skeleton (206 bones)
Haversian Canals: microscopic view of bone concentric circles of blood vessels and cells Human Adult Skeleton (206 bones) Axial Skeleton: skull, vertebrae, thorax (80) Skull: (cranium); protects the brain; depressions called sinuses; cartilage in infant skull to make birth easier/allow the brain to grow (fontannels); Bones include: frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital (foramen magnum) Ear Bones: (3); smallest bones in the body Facial Bones: hyoid (tongue); Mandible (lower jaw); Maxillary (upper jaw)

4 Sternum: breast bone (protects the heart); ribs attach to it
Ribs: (12 pairs); protect the lungs; true ribs (1-8); false ribs (9-12); floating ribs (11-12); intercostal muscles Vertebrae: backbone; axis (yes); atlas (no);cervical (7); thoracic (12); lumbar (5); intervertebral disks (cartilage); slipped disk/herniated disk; kyphosis (hunchback); lordosis (swayback); scoliosis Pelvis: (pelvic girdle) hips; females (wider and stronger) Sacrum: fusion of 5 bones; wider in women; spina bifida Coccyx: tailbone

5 Appendicular Skeleton: Includes pectoral girdle (126)
Clavicle: collar bone Scapula: shoulder bone; contain bursa (sacks of liquid); bursitis Femur: thigh bone; longest bone Patella: kneecap (sesmoid bone) Tibia: shin bone (front); shin splints Fibula: calf bone (back) Tarsals: (7) ankle Metatarsals: (5) arch; “flat feet” Phalanges: (14) toes; bunions Humerus: upper arm bone Radius: lower arm bone (up from thumb) Ulna: lower arm bone (up from little finger) Carpals: (8) Metacarpals: (5) palm Phalanges: (14) fingers

6 Joints Articulations; any place where 2 bones come together
Types of Joints: Fibrous (immovable): sutures Cartilaginous: intervertebral disks Synovial: freely move (with synovial fluid) Hinge: move in 1 plane (knee, elbow) Ball & Socket: rotate (hips, shoulders) Gliding: wrist, ankle Pivot: crossing over (radius-ulna)

7 Skeletal System Conditions:
Ligament: an elastic band that connects a bone to a bone Tendon: an elastic band that connects a bone to a muscle Skeletal System Conditions: Fracture: a broken bone (simple-compound) Reduction: open vs. closed Dislocation: a bone is forced out of its normal position Hematoma: a bruise Sprain: ligaments or tendons are stretched Osteoporosis: brittle bones; women after menopause Arthritis: inflammation at the joints Bursitis: inflammation at bursa Rickets: decrease in Ca and vitamin D: bowed condition Gout: uric acid crystals accumulate at big toe joint

8 Muscles Involve movement
Work in antagonistic pairs (one muscle stretches/the other muscle contracts); extensor/flexor (triceps/biceps) Origin: place where muscle begins (on an immovable bone) Insertion: place where muscle ends (on a movable bone) Muscle Types: Skeletal (striated): moves the bones of the skeleton; voluntary; bands called striations Cardiac: branching bands; in the heart; involuntary

9 Muscular Conditions: Exercise:
Smooth Muscle: wavy; in all organs that cannot be controlled; involuntary (intestines, uterus, stomach) Exercise: Isotonic: Muscles stretched out against an immovable object Isometric: Muscles push against something that gives Cross-training: combination of isotonic and isometric Muscular Conditions: Charley Horse: knot in muscles; lack of O2 Cramps: muscles contracting too fast; use a muscle relaxer Strain: a pulled muscle Steroids: build up muscle mass; long period with side effects

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