2Unit 1: Colonizing America 1 Unit 1: Colonizing America 1. How did colonial settlement affect existing Native American populations?Native Americans did not have built-in immunities like the Europeans so diseases that were brought to the Americas by Europeans were deadly.In North America the Native American population north of Mexico was about 10 million when Columbus arrived. This number would drop to less than a million.
3Unit 1: Colonizing America 2 Unit 1: Colonizing America 2. How did slavery develop and expand in the Americas?Native Americans were dying of European diseases, so colonist turned to enslaved Africans for labor on their plantations. Africans had already developed immunity to European diseases. They were a cheap labor supply.As farmers begin to rely less on indentured servants, they needed more slaves to work their farms. Slave traders (triangular trade) placed many slaves on ships as possible to increase profits, which created terrifying and deadly conditions of passage (middle passage).
4Unit 1: Colonizing America 3 Unit 1: Colonizing America 3. What difficulties were encountered in establishing early colonial settlements?Early colonial settlements encountered a lack of preparation, disease-carrying mosquitoes, famine, and conflict with Native Americans.
5Southern Middle New England Unit 1: Colonizing AmericaWhat were the main economic activities of the following colonial regions?SouthernMiddleNew EnglandCash Crops grown on large plantationsAgriculture – tobacco, rice, and indigoExported materials like tar and wood to New England colonies to build shipsSlavery provided the main workforce for the labor-intensive cash crops grown on plantationsStaple Crops included wheat, barley, and oatsMerchant trade to Britain and West Indies (triangular trade)Skilled labor such as blacksmiths and carpentersSlaves worked on farms and in big cities as skilled laborsMerchants selling trade goods mainly to BritainFishing – cod, mackerel, and halibutShipbuilding jobsSkilled craftspeople such as blacksmiths, weaving, and printingFew slaves, some indentured servants
6Unit 1: Colonizing America 5. List examples of colonial self-government. Monarch – ultimate authority over all English coloniesPrivy Council – royal advisors; set English colonial policiesGovernors – appointed by Crown or proprietors, or elected by people; served as head of colonial government; assisted by advisory councilAssemblies – elected representatives; assisted in making laws and setting policies; had to get approval from advisory council and governorTown Meetings – center of politics in New England; decided local issuesCourts – provided control over local affairs; protected individual freedoms
7Unit 1: Colonizing America 6 Unit 1: Colonizing America 6. What role did religion play in shaping colonial life?Many American colonist experienced “a great awakening” in their religious lives. This Great Awakening was a religious movement that swept through the colonies in the 1730’s and 1740’s which changed colonial religion.The Great Awakening (Jonathan Edwards)sermons about spiritual equality of all people inspired colonist to begin demanding more political equality.In the 1700’s, many colonist were influenced by the Enlightenment movement (John Locke) which spread the idea that reason and logic could improve society. Enlightenment thinkers formed ideas on how government should work.
8The British had rapid growing settlements in the English Colonies Unit 1: Colonizing America 7. How did the British and French relationships with Native Americans differ?BritishFrenchThe British had rapid growing settlements in the English ColoniesThe French settlements were smaller and less threatening
9Britain began a crackdown on smugglers Unit 1: Colonizing America 8. How did British policies change towards its American colonies following the French and Indian War?Following the French and Indian War, Britain continued to keep a standing army in North America to protect the colonist from Indian attacks. To pay for the army Parliament passed the Sugar Act, which set duties on molasses and sugar imported to the colonist.Britain began a crackdown on smugglersParliament changed the colonies’ legal system by giving greater powers to the vice-admiralty courts (British Courts) which colonist were guilty until proven innocentBritain continued to impose tax and currency regulations
10Unit 2: Revolutionary America 1 Unit 2: Revolutionary America 1. Explain the Patriot slogan, “no taxation without representation”.The slogan explains colonist complaints about unfair British taxes and urges other colonist to take actionColonist wanted direct representation in Parliament if the British government was going to impose taxes on them.Parliament should not take from any man any part of his property, without his consent in person or by representation.
111764 The Sugar Act British Actions Colonists’ Reaction Tax on molasses and sugarTax to pay for the French and Indian war and British standing army to protect colonistSamuel Adams founds the Committees of Correspondence to improve communication among the colonies
121765 Stamp Act British Actions Colonists’ Reaction Taxes on official stamp, or seal when colonist bought paper itemsTax on newspapers, licenses, and colonial paper productsA series of resolutions published stating that the Stamp Act violated the rights of colonist
131710 The Boston Massacre British Actions Colonists’ Reaction British soldiers fire into a crowd of colonist, killing five menColonist protest and bring the soldiers to trial
141775 The Boston Tea Party British Actions Colonists’ Reaction The Tea Tax passed making British tea cheaper than colonial teaColonist protested by dumping shipments of British tea into Boston Harbor
151774 The Intolerable Acts British Actions Colonists’ Reaction Boston Harbor is closed, and British troops are required to be quartered by colonistColonists’ resentment towards British builds
161775 Lexington and Concord pages British ActionsColonists’ ReactionBritish force march on Concord to confiscate colonial militia weaponsWhen British troops arrived in Lexington they met armed colonial minutemenPatriot captain John Parker yelled “don’t fire unless you are fired upon”Suddenly a shot rang outNo one knows who fired this “shot heard round the world”
17Unit 2: 3. How did the words of political thinkers such as Patrick Henry and Thomas Paine maintain the morale and resolve of American Patriots?Patrick Henry words “give me liberty, or give me death” encouraged colonist to support the Patriot cause.Thomas Paine’s Common Sense argued that because the king had abused his power that citizens should have the right to self rule.
18The king had violated colonists’ rights by passing unfair laws Unit 2: 4. What reasons did the authors of the Declaration of Independence give for declaring the colonies free from British control?All men possess the unalienable rights of “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”The king had violated colonists’ rights by passing unfair lawsThe king had broken the social contract with the colonist
19Battle of Yorktown – last major battle of the American Revolution. Unit 2: 5. Explain the significance of the following events associated with the American Revolution:Battle of Bunker Hill – while the Patriots lost, they proved they could take on the Redcoats. The British suffered heavy losses.Battle of Saratoga – was a turning point in the Revolutionary War. British General Burgoyne was forced to surrender.Battle of Yorktown – last major battle of the American Revolution.Treaty of Paris 1783 – Great Britain recognized the independence of the U.S. ; set U.S. borders and granted Americans rights to settle and trade west of the original thirteen colonies.
20Unit 3: Creating a Nation 1 Unit 3: Creating a Nation 1. Explain the effects of the following discussions during the Constitutional Convention:Great Compromise – the Great Compromise combined the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan creating bicameral legislation, representation in lower house based on population, representation in the upper house equal3/5 Compromise – Delegates agreed to count each slave as three-fifths a person when determining representation.
21Strengths of Constitution Articles of Confederation Unit 3: Creating a Nation 2. What shortcomings in the Articles of Confederation were resolved in the U.S. Constitution?Strengths of ConstitutionArticles of ConfederationMost power held by national governmentThree branches of governmentLegislative branch has many powersExecutive branch led by presidentJudicial branch to review the lawsFirm system of checks and balancesMost power held by statesOne branch of governmentLegislative branch has few powersNo executive branchNo judicial systemNo system of checks and balances
22Articles of Confederation Unit 3: Creating a Nation 3. How did states’ rights compare under the Articles of Confederation and the U.S. Constitution?Articles of ConfederationConstitutionMost power held by statesStates were individual sovereign units in a common arrangementAn allianceMost power held by national governmentDual sovereignty, balance of power between federal and state government
23Articles of Confederation Unit 3: Creating a Nation 3. How did states’ rights compare under the Articles of Confederation and the U.S. Constitution?Articles of ConfederationConstitutionEach state had one vote in congressCongress could settle conflicts among statesCongress could ask states for money and soldiers, but states could refuseGovernment did not have a president or national courtState must obey federal governmentStates have control over government functionsStates have the power to create and oversee civil and criminal lawsThe Constitution in general expanded voting rights for white men while limiting suffrage for African Americans and women.
24Unit 3: Creating a Nation 3 Unit 3: Creating a Nation 3. How did states’ rights compare under the Articles of Confederation and the U.S. Constitution?Under the Articles of Confederation – states were loosely joined together without a strong central government.Under the Constitution – each state must obey the authority of the federal government.
25John Locke Baron de Montesquieu Unit 3 4. Identify contributions of European Enlightenment thinkers such as John Locke and Baron de Montesquieu on the development of the U.S. Constitution:John LockeBaron de MontesquieuLocke believed that a social contract existed between political rulers and the people they ruled.Locke thought people had natural rights such as equality and liberty.Montesquieu argued that the only way to achieve liberty was through the separation of government powers.
26Unit 3: Creating a Nation 5 Unit 3: Creating a Nation 5. Which rights are guaranteed citizens within the Bill of Rights?The right:to have freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly and petitionto bear armsto have no soldier quartered in your houseTo have a warrant issued to search you housenot be tried for the same crime twiceto a speedy and public trialto know the charges against youto trial by jury, to post bail, no cruel or unusual punishmentfor courts and congress to decide citizen rightsfor congress to delegate powers to keep a balance of powers between state and federal governments
27Established executive departments and cabinet Unit 3: Creating a Nation 6. Describe 3 precedents established by President Washington:Established executive departments and cabinetEstablished the federal court system by passing the Judiciary Act of 1789Held cabinet meetings
28Unit 3: Creating a Nation 7 Unit 3: Creating a Nation 7. Describe 2 controversies during President Adam’s administration:The XYZ Affair – Adams sent diplomats to France to negotiate a treaty to protect U.S. shipping. The French diplomats asked for a bribe. Adams and American public was outraged.The Alien and Sedition Acts – laws that forbid anyone from publishing or voicing an opinion against the Federal Government. They were said to protect the U.S., but the Federalist intended them to crush opposition to War.
29Democratic-Republican Unit 4: A New Nation 1. Identify 3 key differences between the Federalist and the Democratic-Republicans:FederalistDemocratic-RepublicanRule by wealthy classStrong federal governmentEmphasis on manufacturingLoose interpretation of the ConstitutionBritish AllianceUrbanRule by the people (farmers or Arians)Strong state governmentsEmphasis on agricultureStrict interpretation of the ConstitutionFrench AllianceRural
30Established contact with many Native American groups (tribes) Unit 4: A New Nation 2. List three key achievements of the Lewis and Clark Expedition.Established contact with many Native American groups (tribes)Collected valuable information about western plants and animalsLearned about western lands and paths across the Rocky Mountains/Continental Divide
31Addition of new states to the U.S. Conflict with Native Americans Unit 4: A New Nation 3. What were three long term effects of purchasing Louisiana from France?Addition of new states to the U.S.Conflict with Native AmericansWestward Expansion and SettlementPopulation Growth (Increase in Immigrants)
32Unit 4: A New Nation 4. How did the Indian Removal Act impact the Cherokee and Seminole Nations? The Indian Removal Act forced the Cherokee people to give up their land and begin the 800 mile march known as The Trail of Tears. During the march, the Cherokee suffered form disease, hunger and harsh weather. Almost ¼ of the 18,000 Cherokee died on the march.The Seminoles under the leader Osceola resisted the Indian Removal Act. Some 4,000 Seminole were removed and hundreds others were killed. Eventually, the U.S. Officials decided to give up the fight. The small group of Seminole that had resisted removal and their descendants live in Florida today.
33Unit 4: A New Nation 5. How did the Tariff of Abominations increase tensions between the North and the South?Because their economies differed the higher tariffs helped the industrial north, but hurt the agricultural south.
34Economy based on agriculture Unit 4: A New Nation 5. How did the Tariff of Abominations increase tensions between the North and the South?NorthSouthEconomy based on manufacturingSupport for tariffs – American goods could be sold at lower prices than could British goodsEconomy based on agricultureOpposition to tariffs, which increased the cost of imported goods
35States did not have the power to tax federal institutions Unit 4: A New Nation 6. McCulloch v. Maryland ruled on the National Bank, but what was the broader interpretation?States did not have the power to tax federal institutionsFederal v. State authorityLed to the Panic of 1837, because Jackson ordered Americans to use only gold or silver(federal money), instead of paper state bank notes to buy government owned land.
36All groups faced discrimination and poor treatment. Unit 5: A Growing Nation 1. Describe the consequences of westward expansion on the following minority groups.All groups faced discrimination and poor treatment.Mexican Americans and Native Americans faced legal, economic and social discrimination. They found it difficult to protect their rights. Settlers tended to ignore the rights of minority groups.
37Native Americans Hispanics Unit 5: A Growing Nation 1. Describe the consequences of westward expansion on the following minority groups.Native AmericansHispanicsMissions under Spanish rule carried out huge farming operations using the labor of Native Americans. Some willingly and some by force.Under U.S. rule the elements of life changed little. They continued to herd animals and do much of the hard physical labor on ranches.Loss of land and water rightsLoss of land and water rights.Mexican land owners had to go to court to prove they owned the land and water rights. They had to pay for court cost, witnesses, and interpreters, attorneys, and any additional legal expenses.
38Chinese African Americans Unit 5: A Growing Nation 1. Describe the consequences of westward expansion on the following minority groups.ChineseAfrican AmericansChinese workers were not welcomed and the targets of violent attacks.Some African Americans like Biddy Mason were able to purchase land and prosper.Discrimination was still a major issue.
39Economic Growth – businesses and industries transformed the economy Unit 5: A Growing Nation 2. List three results of the California Gold Rush.Immigrants move to California - from China, Europe, and Mexico; they were drawn by the lure of wealthPopulation Explosion – the increase in population made California eligible for statehoodEconomic Growth – businesses and industries transformed the economy
40Unit 5: A Growing Nation 3. What impact did technology have on westward movement? Page 400 Steamboats and railroads led the Transportation Revolution. They made travel and the transporting goods to market easier and less costly. Cities and towns sprang up around railroad junctions.
41Mormons - Mormons mainly traveled west in search of religious freedom Unit 5: A Growing Nation 4. Identify three groups of American settlers who moved west of the Mississippi river and describe their reasons for doing so.Mountain Men/Trappers – In the early 1800’s, American’s rushed to the west to trap beaver because the “high hat” made of soft beaver pelts became a popular fashion in the east and Europe.Pioneer Families – In the 1840’s, settlers were lured to Oregon because of its rich resources and mild climateMormons - Mormons mainly traveled west in search of religious freedom
42Unit 5: A Growing Nation 5. How did westward expansion increase tension between the North and the South?President John Tyler, a pro-slavery Whig, wanted to increase the power of the southern slave states by annexing Texas. Southerners feared the loss of Texas, a possible new slave state.Northern abolitionist feared the spread of slavery to southwestern lands.
43Unit 6: A Changing Nation 1 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 1. How did the Industrial Revolution increase differences between the North and the South?Northern politicians passed higher tariffs on foreign goods to protect American companies from less expensive foreign imports.
44Whitney’s interchangeable parts - led to mass production Unit 6: A Changing Nation 2. Name three inventions of the industrial Revolution and explain the importance of each.Arkwright’s water frame – lowered cost, increased speed, led to textile millsSlater’s export of British textile machine designs – led to American textile millsWhitney’s interchangeable parts - led to mass production
45Advantages Disadvantages Unit 6: A Changing Nation 3. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of urban living as a result of the Industrial Revolution.AdvantagesDisadvantagesNew JobsEntertainmentEnriched cultural lifeBetter TransportationOvercrowdingUnsafe housingLack of public servicesUnhealthy conditions led to disease and epidemicsCrimeFire dangerNo permanent police force
46Unit 6: A Changing Nation 4 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 4. Explain how the law of supply and demand impacted cotton prices after the invention of the cotton gin.The cotton gin made processing cotton easier and quicker; increased production of cotton as a cash crop and led to an economic boom.
47Unit 6: A Changing Nation 5 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 5. How did immigration influence the industrial revolution and westward expansion?Many immigrants went to the Midwest to farm; others filled the need for cheap labor in towns and cities, especially in the northwest.
48Education reform created opportunities for women. Unit 6: A Changing Nation 6. Describe the main ideas and effects associated with the movements listed below:Educational Reform :Education reform created opportunities for women.Catharine Beecher started an all-female academy.Women’s colleges opened, the first in 1821.Education reform also helped people with special needs.Thomas Gallaudet opened a school for the hearing impaired in 1817; a school for the blind opened in 1831.
49Church membership increased significantly during this period. Unit 6: A Changing Nation 6. Describe the main ideas and effects associated with the movements listed below:Second Great Awakening :Second Great Awakening was a Christian renewal movement during 1790s and early 1800s.These ideas angered some traditional ministers, like Boston’s Lyman Beecher.Church membership increased significantly during this period.
50Unit 6: A Changing Nation 6 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 6. Describe the main ideas and effects associated with the movements listed below:Transcendentalism (pages ) – the belief that people could transcend, or rise above, material things in life. Transcendentalists also believed that people should depend on themselves and on their insights, rather than on outside authorities.
51Unit 6: A Changing Nation 6 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 6. Describe the main ideas and effects associated with the movements listed below:Women’s Rights :Women’s concerns became a national issue when women took a more active and leading role in reform and abolition.Some men also began to fight for women’s rights.Some women believed they did not need new rights.Some people thought that women lacked the physical or mental strength to survive without men’s protection.
52Unit 6: A Changing Nation 7 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 7. List two examples of slave codes and explain why Southerners believed they would prevent rebellion.Some Slave codes laws prohibited slaves from traveling far from their homes.Literacy laws in most southern states prohibited the education of slaves.These laws were probably passed to keep slaves isolated, illiterate and powerless; this would help to prevent slaves from escaping
53Frederick Douglass (page 460) : Wrote his autobiography Unit 6: A Changing Nation 8. Describe the key contributions of abolitionists listed below:Frederick Douglass (page 460) :Wrote his autobiographyStarted a newspaper called the North StarWas an advisor to President LincolnWas a Public SpeakerPersuaded black soldiers to fight for the North
54William Lloyd Garrison (page 455) Unit 6: A Changing Nation 8. Describe the key contributions of abolitionists listed below:William Lloyd Garrison (page 455)published an abolitionist newspaper, the Liberator, and helped found the American Anti-Slavery Society.
55Unit 6: A Changing Nation 8 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 8. Describe the key contributions of abolitionists listed below:Grimke Sisters :Sarah Grimke wrote pamphlet in 1838 arguing for equal rights for women.Angelina Grimke refused to promise to obey her husband during their marriage ceremony.
56an escaped slave, led her family and more than 300 slaves to freedom. Unit 6: A Changing Nation 8. Describe the key contributions of abolitionists listed below:Harriet Tubmanan escaped slave, led her family and more than 300 slaves to freedom.
57In the north most people like abolitionist supported the rebellion. Unit 6: A Changing Nation 9. What impact did Nat Turner’s Rebellion have on southern and Northern attitudes and beliefs about slavery?In the south people were frightened and angered by the rebellion. The south began to have stricter slave codes.In the north most people like abolitionist supported the rebellion.
58Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1. Describe how the events and individuals brought the nation closer to war:Uncle Tom’s Cabin: was a fiction novel that informed people about the evils of slavery. It educated people about the hardships of enslaved African Americans, and increased sympathy and support for the abolitionist movement.
59Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1. Describe how the events and individuals brought the nation closer to war:Fugitive Slave Act:allowed slave owners to go into the north to recapture their runaway slaves.
60Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1. Describe how the events and individuals brought the nation closer to war:Bleeding Kansas:Pro-slave owners and anti-slave owners openly attacked each others leaving several dead behind.
61Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1. Describe how the events and individuals brought the nation closer to war:Dred Scott v. Sanford: Slaves were declared by the court decision to be property giving slave owners broad powers to take their slaves where ever they wanted.
62Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1. Describe how the events and individuals brought the nation closer to war:John Brown: With a small band of followers, captured Harpers Ferry Arsenal in an attempt to create a slave uprising. Brown was executed by the government.
63Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1. Describe how the events and individuals brought the nation closer to war:Election of 1860: Abraham Lincoln, although declaring he would not seek the abolition of slavery in the south, was perceived by southerners as a hard core abolitionist that was committed to the abolitionist cause.
64Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1. Describe how the events and individuals brought the nation closer to war:
65Lincoln Douglas Opposed slavery Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 2. Describe the opposing viewpoints expressed in the Lincoln-Douglas Debates and how the debates impacted the presidential election of 1860.LincolnDouglasOpposed slaveryBelieved African Americans entitled to rights listed in the Declaration of IndependenceOpposed Lincoln’s viewsSaid making states free states would lead to warBelieved citizens should decide slavery question
66Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 3 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 3. How did the Kansas-Nebraska Act represent an attempt at compromise on expansion of slavery in the West?As the United States was being torn apart in the 1850s over the issue of slavery, the Kansas-Nebraska Act was devised as a compromise.It was hoped it would reduce tensions and perhaps provide a solution to the slavery issue (popular sovereignty).Yet when it was passed into law in 1854, it had the opposite effect. It led to increased violence in Kansas, and it hardened positions across the nation.
67With the opening of the West came new territories. Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 4. How did the admission of new states to the Union threaten the balance of power between the sectional interest of Congress?With the opening of the West came new territories.The Missouri Compromise line would certainly mean more free states.The Compromise of 1850 meant there were now more free states.Hopefully the Kansas –Nebraska Act would make the South happy.The fact is the North would soon control both houses and the executive branch.They could pass any laws without the fear of a veto.
68When Lincoln was elected, the South seceded. Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 5. In you own words, explain why the South seceded following the Election of 1860.When Lincoln was elected, the South seceded.They seceded because they believed they had no say in the government.Though the North controlled both houses of congress, at least the president didn’t support the North. James Buchanan was a Northerner with Southern sympathies.With Lincoln as President the Southern way of life (slavery) was doomed.
69Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 1 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 1. Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the North and the South at the start of the Civil War.-The Union strengths were having a large population, the population was roughly 22 million at the time, this means that they had enough people to work in factories but be in the war as well. The North also had factories to make weapons, railroads, and a strong navy. -The south didn't have this big of a population but they had a home field advantage while fighting the war. South had a motivation to fight because they don’t want to lose their land, property, good soldiers and leaders of the army.
70U.S.A. C.S.A. NORTH Take Richmond the Capital Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 2. Compare and Contrast the military strategies of the U.S.A. and the C.S.A. during the Civil War.U.S.A.C.S.A.NORTHTake Richmond the CapitalDivide the South by controlling the Mississippi River.Blockade the South and cut off supplies.The North had to win the war.SOUTHProlong the war.Fight a defensive War. Hopefully the North will get tired of fighting.Get help from Britain and France .South only has to survive.
71Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 3 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 3. Describe Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation and its effects on the war.While it didn't technically set anyone free, the Proclamation was part of Lincoln's strategy to demoralize the South, and it worked. Poorer Southern whites resented that they were now fighting a war to protect wealthy plantation owners who were desperate to hold onto their "property." And as word of the Proclamation spread, slaves left those plantations en masse. Their exodus even helped turn the tide in the siege of Vicksburg, a vital Union win.Additionally, France and England, which had been secretly helping the South, could not officially recognize a country that still enslaved other human beings. Europe also could not provoke a country that, according to the Emancipation Proclamation, was now fighting slavery.
72Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 4 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 4. Describe the importance of the following Civil War Battles:First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas): The first battle of Bull Run made it clear that this war was going to last longer than anyone thought
73The Battle of Vicksburg also divided the South Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 4. Describe the importance of the following Civil War Battles:Battle of Vicksburg :The battle of Vicks gave the North complete control of the Mississippi.The Battle of Vicksburg also divided the SouthFinally, Grant was free to travel east and take on Lee.
74Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 4 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 4. Describe the importance of the following Civil War Battles:Battle of Antietam :Lincoln was looking for an opportunity to issue the Emancipation Proclamation.So far in the war against Lee there were no victories.Though the North did not win an out right victory, it was the first time Lee was forced to retreat.The Battle of Antietam was the bloodiest single day of the war.As a result of the success at Antietam Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation.
75Battle of Gettysburg was the turning point of the Civil War. Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 4. Describe the importance of the following Civil War Battles:Battle of Gettysburg :Battle of Gettysburg was the turning point of the Civil War.The war was not over, but it was just a matter of time.
76Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 4 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 4. Describe the importance of the following Civil War Battles:
77Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 4 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 4. Describe the importance of the following Civil War Battles:
78Eventually, he realized that slavery must be completely abolished. Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 5. How did Lincoln’s goals change during the course of the Civil War?At the beginning of the war, Lincoln just wanted to stop the spread of slavery into the new territories.Eventually, he realized that slavery must be completely abolished.
79Black Americans also did many non-combat jobs for the military. Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 6. Describe three ways African-Americans contributed to Union war efforts?A significant number of African-American regiments were formed by the end of the war, and participated actively in several battles. African Americans suffered tremendous casualty rates, partly because the South refused to accept them as prisoners; most captured blacks were killed outright.Black Americans also did many non-combat jobs for the military.Black Americans also did many non-combat jobs for industry
80How do you integrate former slaves into this society. Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 7. What challenges faced the south during Reconstruction?The South face the challenge of building a new society not based on slavery.How do you integrate former slaves into this society.What do you replace the plantation system with?
81Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 8 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 8. How did Lincoln’s assassination alter Reconstruction plans for the South?After the Civil War congress was controlled by a group called the "Radical Republicans." Lincoln was able to control them and had proposed a plan for reconstruction that looked to treating the South more like a lost brother returning home. Lincoln looked to reconstruction as a time of healing.The Radical Republicans, however, looked at reconstruction as an opportunity to teach the South a lesson and to punish them.
82Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 9 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 9. Describe three ways the southern states denied freedmen their civil rights?1. Southerners denied newly freedmen the right to vote. They passed poll taxes and instituted the grandfather clause.2. Southerners passed Jim Crow Laws that separated whites and blacks. Separate (segregated) schools, restaurants, bathrooms, to keep their lives apart.3. Hate groups like the Ku Klux Klan terrorized African Americans and scalawags.