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CEOCE 8 th Grade. Unit 1: Colonizing America 1. How did colonial settlement affect existing Native American populations? Native Americans did not have.

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Presentation on theme: "CEOCE 8 th Grade. Unit 1: Colonizing America 1. How did colonial settlement affect existing Native American populations? Native Americans did not have."— Presentation transcript:

1 CEOCE 8 th Grade

2 Unit 1: Colonizing America 1. How did colonial settlement affect existing Native American populations? Native Americans did not have built-in immunities like the Europeans so diseases that were brought to the Americas by Europeans were deadly. In North America the Native American population north of Mexico was about 10 million when Columbus arrived. This number would drop to less than a million.

3 Unit 1: Colonizing America 2. How did slavery develop and expand in the Americas? Native Americans were dying of European diseases, so colonist turned to enslaved Africans for labor on their plantations. Africans had already developed immunity to European diseases. They were a cheap labor supply. As farmers begin to rely less on indentured servants, they needed more slaves to work their farms. Slave traders (triangular trade) placed many slaves on ships as possible to increase profits, which created terrifying and deadly conditions of passage (middle passage).

4 Unit 1: Colonizing America 3. What difficulties were encountered in establishing early colonial settlements? Early colonial settlements encountered a lack of preparation, disease-carrying mosquitoes, famine, and conflict with Native Americans.

5 Unit 1: Colonizing America What were the main economic activities of the following colonial regions? SouthernMiddleNew England 1.Cash Crops grown on large plantations 2.Agriculture – tobacco, rice, and indigo 3.Exported materials like tar and wood to New England colonies to build ships 4.Slavery provided the main workforce for the labor-intensive cash crops grown on plantations 1.Staple Crops included wheat, barley, and oats 2.Merchant trade to Britain and West Indies (triangular trade) 3.Skilled labor such as blacksmiths and carpenters 4.Slaves worked on farms and in big cities as skilled labors 1.Merchants selling trade goods mainly to Britain 2.Fishing – cod, mackerel, and halibut 3.Shipbuilding jobs 4.Skilled craftspeople such as blacksmiths, weaving, and printing 5.Few slaves, some indentured servants

6 Unit 1: Colonizing America 5. List examples of colonial self-government. Monarch – ultimate authority over all English colonies Privy Council – royal advisors; set English colonial policies Governors – appointed by Crown or proprietors, or elected by people; served as head of colonial government; assisted by advisory council Assemblies – elected representatives; assisted in making laws and setting policies; had to get approval from advisory council and governor Town Meetings – center of politics in New England; decided local issues Courts – provided control over local affairs; protected individual freedoms

7 Unit 1: Colonizing America 6. What role did religion play in shaping colonial life? Many American colonist experienced “a great awakening” in their religious lives. This Great Awakening was a religious movement that swept through the colonies in the 1730’s and 1740’s which changed colonial religion. The Great Awakening (Jonathan Edwards)sermons about spiritual equality of all people inspired colonist to begin demanding more political equality. In the 1700’s, many colonist were influenced by the Enlightenment movement (John Locke) which spread the idea that reason and logic could improve society. Enlightenment thinkers formed ideas on how government should work.

8 Unit 1: Colonizing America 7. How did the British and French relationships with Native Americans differ? British 1. The British had rapid growing settlements in the English Colonies French 1.The French settlements were smaller and less threatening

9 Unit 1: Colonizing America 8. How did British policies change towards its American colonies following the French and Indian War? Following the French and Indian War, Britain continued to keep a standing army in North America to protect the colonist from Indian attacks. To pay for the army Parliament passed the Sugar Act, which set duties on molasses and sugar imported to the colonist. Britain began a crackdown on smugglers Parliament changed the colonies’ legal system by giving greater powers to the vice-admiralty courts (British Courts) which colonist were guilty until proven innocent Britain continued to impose tax and currency regulations

10 Unit 2: Revolutionary America 1. Explain the Patriot slogan, “no taxation without representation”. The slogan explains colonist complaints about unfair British taxes and urges other colonist to take action Colonist wanted direct representation in Parliament if the British government was going to impose taxes on them. Parliament should not take from any man any part of his property, without his consent in person or by representation.

11 1764 The Sugar Act British Actions Tax on molasses and sugar Tax to pay for the French and Indian war and British standing army to protect colonist Colonists’ Reaction Samuel Adams founds the Committees of Correspondence to improve communication among the colonies

12 1765 Stamp Act British Actions Taxes on official stamp, or seal when colonist bought paper items Tax on newspapers, licenses, and colonial paper products Colonists’ Reaction A series of resolutions published stating that the Stamp Act violated the rights of colonist

13 1710 The Boston Massacre British Actions British soldiers fire into a crowd of colonist, killing five men Colonists’ Reaction Colonist protest and bring the soldiers to trial

14 1775 The Boston Tea Party British Actions The Tea Tax passed making British tea cheaper than colonial tea Colonists’ Reaction Colonist protested by dumping shipments of British tea into Boston Harbor

15 1774 The Intolerable Acts British Actions Boston Harbor is closed, and British troops are required to be quartered by colonist Colonists’ Reaction Colonists’ resentment towards British builds

16 1775 Lexington and Concord pages British Actions British force march on Concord to confiscate colonial militia weapons Colonists’ Reaction When British troops arrived in Lexington they met armed colonial minutemen Patriot captain John Parker yelled “don’t fire unless you are fired upon” Suddenly a shot rang out No one knows who fired this “shot heard round the world”

17 Unit 2: 3. How did the words of political thinkers such as Patrick Henry and Thomas Paine maintain the morale and resolve of American Patriots? Patrick Henry words “give me liberty, or give me death” encouraged colonist to support the Patriot cause. Thomas Paine’s Common Sense argued that because the king had abused his power that citizens should have the right to self rule.

18 Unit 2: 4. What reasons did the authors of the Declaration of Independence give for declaring the colonies free from British control? 1.All men possess the unalienable rights of “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” 2.The king had violated colonists’ rights by passing unfair laws 3.The king had broken the social contract with the colonist

19 Unit 2: 5. Explain the significance of the following events associated with the American Revolution: Battle of Bunker Hill – while the Patriots lost, they proved they could take on the Redcoats. The British suffered heavy losses. Battle of Saratoga – was a turning point in the Revolutionary War. British General Burgoyne was forced to surrender. Battle of Yorktown – last major battle of the American Revolution. Treaty of Paris 1783 – Great Britain recognized the independence of the U.S. ; set U.S. borders and granted Americans rights to settle and trade west of the original thirteen colonies.

20 Unit 3: Creating a Nation 1. Explain the effects of the following discussions during the Constitutional Convention: Great Compromise – the Great Compromise combined the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan creating bicameral legislation, representation in lower house based on population, representation in the upper house equal 3/5 Compromise – Delegates agreed to count each slave as three-fifths a person when determining representation.

21 Unit 3: Creating a Nation 2. What shortcomings in the Articles of Confederation were resolved in the U.S. Constitution? Strengths of Constitution 1.Most power held by national government 2.Three branches of government 3.Legislative branch has many powers 4.Executive branch led by president 5.Judicial branch to review the laws 6.Firm system of checks and balances Articles of Confederation 1.Most power held by states 2.One branch of government 3.Legislative branch has few powers 4.No executive branch 5.No judicial system 6.No system of checks and balances

22 Unit 3: Creating a Nation 3. How did states’ rights compare under the Articles of Confederation and the U.S. Constitution? Articles of Confederation Most power held by states States were individual sovereign units in a common arrangement An alliance Constitution Most power held by national government Dual sovereignty, balance of power between federal and state government

23 Unit 3: Creating a Nation 3. How did states’ rights compare under the Articles of Confederation and the U.S. Constitution? Articles of Confederation Each state had one vote in congress Congress could settle conflicts among states Congress could ask states for money and soldiers, but states could refuse Government did not have a president or national court Constitution State must obey federal government States have control over government functions States have the power to create and oversee civil and criminal laws The Constitution in general expanded voting rights for white men while limiting suffrage for African Americans and women.

24 Unit 3: Creating a Nation 3. How did states’ rights compare under the Articles of Confederation and the U.S. Constitution? Under the Articles of Confederation – states were loosely joined together without a strong central government. Under the Constitution – each state must obey the authority of the federal government.

25 Unit 3 4. Identify contributions of European Enlightenment thinkers such as John Locke and Baron de Montesquieu on the development of the U.S. Constitution: John Locke Locke believed that a social contract existed between political rulers and the people they ruled. Locke thought people had natural rights such as equality and liberty. Baron de Montesquieu Montesquieu argued that the only way to achieve liberty was through the separation of government powers.

26 Unit 3: Creating a Nation 5. Which rights are guaranteed citizens within the Bill of Rights? The right: 1.to have freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly and petition 2.to bear arms 3.to have no soldier quartered in your house 4.To have a warrant issued to search you house 5.not be tried for the same crime twice 6. to a speedy and public trial 7.to know the charges against you 8.to trial by jury, to post bail, no cruel or unusual punishment 9.for courts and congress to decide citizen rights 10.for congress to delegate powers to keep a balance of powers between state and federal governments

27 Unit 3: Creating a Nation 6. Describe 3 precedents established by President Washington: 1.Established executive departments and cabinet 2.Established the federal court system by passing the Judiciary Act of Held cabinet meetings

28 Unit 3: Creating a Nation 7. Describe 2 controversies during President Adam’s administration: 1.The XYZ Affair – Adams sent diplomats to France to negotiate a treaty to protect U.S. shipping. The French diplomats asked for a bribe. Adams and American public was outraged. 2.The Alien and Sedition Acts – laws that forbid anyone from publishing or voicing an opinion against the Federal Government. They were said to protect the U.S., but the Federalist intended them to crush opposition to War.

29 Unit 4: A New Nation 1. Identify 3 key differences between the Federalist and the Democratic-Republicans: Federalist Rule by wealthy class Strong federal government Emphasis on manufacturing Loose interpretation of the Constitution British Alliance Urban Democratic-Republican Rule by the people (farmers or Arians) Strong state governments Emphasis on agriculture Strict interpretation of the Constitution French Alliance Rural

30 Unit 4: A New Nation 2. List three key achievements of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. 1.Established contact with many Native American groups (tribes) 2.Collected valuable information about western plants and animals 3.Learned about western lands and paths across the Rocky Mountains/Continental Divide

31 Unit 4: A New Nation 3. What were three long term effects of purchasing Louisiana from France? 1.Addition of new states to the U.S. 2.Conflict with Native Americans 3.Westward Expansion and Settlement 4.Population Growth (Increase in Immigrants)

32 Unit 4: A New Nation 4. How did the Indian Removal Act impact the Cherokee and Seminole Nations? The Indian Removal Act forced the Cherokee people to give up their land and begin the 800 mile march known as The Trail of Tears. During the march, the Cherokee suffered form disease, hunger and harsh weather. Almost ¼ of the 18,000 Cherokee died on the march. The Seminoles under the leader Osceola resisted the Indian Removal Act. Some 4,000 Seminole were removed and hundreds others were killed. Eventually, the U.S. Officials decided to give up the fight. The small group of Seminole that had resisted removal and their descendants live in Florida today.

33 Unit 4: A New Nation 5. How did the Tariff of Abominations increase tensions between the North and the South? Because their economies differed the higher tariffs helped the industrial north, but hurt the agricultural south.

34 Unit 4: A New Nation 5. How did the Tariff of Abominations increase tensions between the North and the South? North Economy based on manufacturing Support for tariffs – American goods could be sold at lower prices than could British goods South Economy based on agriculture Opposition to tariffs, which increased the cost of imported goods

35 Unit 4: A New Nation 6. McCulloch v. Maryland ruled on the National Bank, but what was the broader interpretation? States did not have the power to tax federal institutions Federal v. State authority Led to the Panic of 1837, because Jackson ordered Americans to use only gold or silver(federal money), instead of paper state bank notes to buy government owned land.

36 Unit 5: A Growing Nation 1. Describe the consequences of westward expansion on the following minority groups. All groups faced discrimination and poor treatment. Mexican Americans and Native Americans faced legal, economic and social discrimination. They found it difficult to protect their rights. Settlers tended to ignore the rights of minority groups.

37 Unit 5: A Growing Nation 1. Describe the consequences of westward expansion on the following minority groups. Native Americans Missions under Spanish rule carried out huge farming operations using the labor of Native Americans. Some willingly and some by force. Under U.S. rule the elements of life changed little. They continued to herd animals and do much of the hard physical labor on ranches. Loss of land and water rights Hispanics Loss of land and water rights. Mexican land owners had to go to court to prove they owned the land and water rights. They had to pay for court cost, witnesses, and interpreters, attorneys, and any additional legal expenses.

38 Unit 5: A Growing Nation 1. Describe the consequences of westward expansion on the following minority groups. Chinese Chinese workers were not welcomed and the targets of violent attacks. African Americans Some African Americans like Biddy Mason were able to purchase land and prosper. Discrimination was still a major issue.

39 Unit 5: A Growing Nation 2. List three results of the California Gold Rush. 1.Immigrants move to California - from China, Europe, and Mexico; they were drawn by the lure of wealth 2.Population Explosion – the increase in population made California eligible for statehood 3.Economic Growth – businesses and industries transformed the economy

40 Unit 5: A Growing Nation 3. What impact did technology have on westward movement? Page 400 Steamboats and railroads led the Transportation Revolution. They made travel and the transporting goods to market easier and less costly. Cities and towns sprang up around railroad junctions.

41 Unit 5: A Growing Nation 4. Identify three groups of American settlers who moved west of the Mississippi river and describe their reasons for doing so. 1.Mountain Men/Trappers – In the early 1800’s, American’s rushed to the west to trap beaver because the “high hat” made of soft beaver pelts became a popular fashion in the east and Europe. 2.Pioneer Families – In the 1840’s, settlers were lured to Oregon because of its rich resources and mild climate 3.Mormons - Mormons mainly traveled west in search of religious freedom

42 Unit 5: A Growing Nation 5. How did westward expansion increase tension between the North and the South? President John Tyler, a pro-slavery Whig, wanted to increase the power of the southern slave states by annexing Texas. Southerners feared the loss of Texas, a possible new slave state. Northern abolitionist feared the spread of slavery to southwestern lands.

43 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 1. How did the Industrial Revolution increase differences between the North and the South? Northern politicians passed higher tariffs on foreign goods to protect American companies from less expensive foreign imports.

44 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 2. Name three inventions of the industrial Revolution and explain the importance of each. 1.Arkwright’s water frame – lowered cost, increased speed, led to textile mills 2.Slater’s export of British textile machine designs – led to American textile mills 3.Whitney’s interchangeable parts - led to mass production

45 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 3. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of urban living as a result of the Industrial Revolution. Advantages New Jobs Entertainment Enriched cultural life Better Transportation Disadvantages Overcrowding Unsafe housing Lack of public services Unhealthy conditions led to disease and epidemics Crime Fire danger No permanent police force

46 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 4. Explain how the law of supply and demand impacted cotton prices after the invention of the cotton gin. The cotton gin made processing cotton easier and quicker; increased production of cotton as a cash crop and led to an economic boom.

47 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 5. How did immigration influence the industrial revolution and westward expansion? Many immigrants went to the Midwest to farm; others filled the need for cheap labor in towns and cities, especially in the northwest.

48 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 6. Describe the main ideas and effects associated with the movements listed below: Educational Reform : Education reform created opportunities for women. Catharine Beecher started an all-female academy. Women’s colleges opened, the first in Education reform also helped people with special needs. Thomas Gallaudet opened a school for the hearing impaired in 1817; a school for the blind opened in 1831.

49 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 6. Describe the main ideas and effects associated with the movements listed below: Second Great Awakening : Second Great Awakening was a Christian renewal movement during 1790s and early 1800s. These ideas angered some traditional ministers, like Boston’s Lyman Beecher. Church membership increased significantly during this period.

50 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 6. Describe the main ideas and effects associated with the movements listed below: Transcendentalism (pages ) – the belief that people could transcend, or rise above, material things in life. Transcendentalists also believed that people should depend on themselves and on their insights, rather than on outside authorities.

51 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 6. Describe the main ideas and effects associated with the movements listed below: Women’s Rights : Women’s concerns became a national issue when women took a more active and leading role in reform and abolition. Some men also began to fight for women’s rights. Some women believed they did not need new rights. Some people thought that women lacked the physical or mental strength to survive without men’s protection.

52 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 7. List two examples of slave codes and explain why Southerners believed they would prevent rebellion. 1.Some Slave codes laws prohibited slaves from traveling far from their homes. 2.Literacy laws in most southern states prohibited the education of slaves. 3.These laws were probably passed to keep slaves isolated, illiterate and powerless; this would help to prevent slaves from escaping

53 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 8. Describe the key contributions of abolitionists listed below: Frederick Douglass (page 460) : Wrote his autobiography Started a newspaper called the North Star Was an advisor to President Lincoln Was a Public Speaker Persuaded black soldiers to fight for the North

54 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 8. Describe the key contributions of abolitionists listed below: William Lloyd Garrison (page 455) published an abolitionist newspaper, the Liberator, and helped found the American Anti-Slavery Society.

55 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 8. Describe the key contributions of abolitionists listed below: Grimke Sisters : Sarah Grimke wrote pamphlet in 1838 arguing for equal rights for women. Angelina Grimke refused to promise to obey her husband during their marriage ceremony.

56 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 8. Describe the key contributions of abolitionists listed below: Harriet Tubman an escaped slave, led her family and more than 300 slaves to freedom.

57 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 9. What impact did Nat Turner’s Rebellion have on southern and Northern attitudes and beliefs about slavery? In the south people were frightened and angered by the rebellion. The south began to have stricter slave codes. In the north most people like abolitionist supported the rebellion.

58 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1. Describe how the events and individuals brought the nation closer to war: Uncle Tom’s Cabin: was a fiction novel that informed people about the evils of slavery. It educated people about the hardships of enslaved African Americans, and increased sympathy and support for the abolitionist movement.

59 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1. Describe how the events and individuals brought the nation closer to war: Fugitive Slave Act: allowed slave owners to go into the north to recapture their runaway slaves.

60 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1. Describe how the events and individuals brought the nation closer to war: Bleeding Kansas: Pro-slave owners and anti-slave owners openly attacked each others leaving several dead behind.

61 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1. Describe how the events and individuals brought the nation closer to war: Dred Scott v. Sanford: Slaves were declared by the court decision to be property giving slave owners broad powers to take their slaves where ever they wanted.

62 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1. Describe how the events and individuals brought the nation closer to war: John Brown: With a small band of followers, captured Harpers Ferry Arsenal in an attempt to create a slave uprising. Brown was executed by the government.

63 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1. Describe how the events and individuals brought the nation closer to war: Election of 1860: Abraham Lincoln, although declaring he would not seek the abolition of slavery in the south, was perceived by southerners as a hard core abolitionist that was committed to the abolitionist cause.

64 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1. Describe how the events and individuals brought the nation closer to war:

65 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 2. Describe the opposing viewpoints expressed in the Lincoln- Douglas Debates and how the debates impacted the presidential election of Lincoln Opposed slavery Believed African Americans entitled to rights listed in the Declaration of Independence Douglas Opposed Lincoln’s views Said making states free states would lead to war Believed citizens should decide slavery question

66 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 3. How did the Kansas-Nebraska Act represent an attempt at compromise on expansion of slavery in the West? As the United States was being torn apart in the 1850s over the issue of slavery, the Kansas-Nebraska Act was devised as a compromise. It was hoped it would reduce tensions and perhaps provide a solution to the slavery issue (popular sovereignty). Yet when it was passed into law in 1854, it had the opposite effect. It led to increased violence in Kansas, and it hardened positions across the nation.

67 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 4. How did the admission of new states to the Union threaten the balance of power between the sectional interest of Congress? With the opening of the West came new territories. The Missouri Compromise line would certainly mean more free states. The Compromise of 1850 meant there were now more free states. Hopefully the Kansas –Nebraska Act would make the South happy. The fact is the North would soon control both houses and the executive branch. They could pass any laws without the fear of a veto.

68 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 5. In you own words, explain why the South seceded following the Election of When Lincoln was elected, the South seceded. They seceded because they believed they had no say in the government. Though the North controlled both houses of congress, at least the president didn’t support the North. James Buchanan was a Northerner with Southern sympathies. With Lincoln as President the Southern way of life (slavery) was doomed.

69 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 1. Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the North and the South at the start of the Civil War. -The Union strengths were having a large population, the population was roughly 22 million at the time, this means that they had enough people to work in factories but be in the war as well. The North also had factories to make weapons, railroads, and a strong navy. -The south didn't have this big of a population but they had a home field advantage while fighting the war. South had a motivation to fight because they don’t want to lose their land, property, good soldiers and leaders of the army.

70 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 2. Compare and Contrast the military strategies of the U.S.A. and the C.S.A. during the Civil War. U.S.A. NORTH Take Richmond the Capital Divide the South by controlling the Mississippi River. Blockade the South and cut off supplies. The North had to win the war. C.S.A. SOUTH Prolong the war. Fight a defensive War. Hopefully the North will get tired of fighting. Get help from Britain and France. South only has to survive.

71 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 3. Describe Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation and its effects on the war. While it didn't technically set anyone free, the Proclamation was part of Lincoln's strategy to demoralize the South, and it worked. Poorer Southern whites resented that they were now fighting a war to protect wealthy plantation owners who were desperate to hold onto their "property." And as word of the Proclamation spread, slaves left those plantations en masse. Their exodus even helped turn the tide in the siege of Vicksburg, a vital Union win. Additionally, France and England, which had been secretly helping the South, could not officially recognize a country that still enslaved other human beings. Europe also could not provoke a country that, according to the Emancipation Proclamation, was now fighting slavery.

72 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 4. Describe the importance of the following Civil War Battles: First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas): The first battle of Bull Run made it clear that this war was going to last longer than anyone thought

73 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 4. Describe the importance of the following Civil War Battles: Battle of Vicksburg : The battle of Vicks gave the North complete control of the Mississippi. The Battle of Vicksburg also divided the South Finally, Grant was free to travel east and take on Lee.

74 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 4. Describe the importance of the following Civil War Battles: Battle of Antietam : Lincoln was looking for an opportunity to issue the Emancipation Proclamation. So far in the war against Lee there were no victories. Though the North did not win an out right victory, it was the first time Lee was forced to retreat. The Battle of Antietam was the bloodiest single day of the war. As a result of the success at Antietam Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation.

75 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 4. Describe the importance of the following Civil War Battles: Battle of Gettysburg : Battle of Gettysburg was the turning point of the Civil War. The war was not over, but it was just a matter of time.

76 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 4. Describe the importance of the following Civil War Battles:

77

78 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 5. How did Lincoln’s goals change during the course of the Civil War? At the beginning of the war, Lincoln just wanted to stop the spread of slavery into the new territories. Eventually, he realized that slavery must be completely abolished.

79 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 6. Describe three ways African-Americans contributed to Union war efforts? A significant number of African-American regiments were formed by the end of the war, and participated actively in several battles. African Americans suffered tremendous casualty rates, partly because the South refused to accept them as prisoners; most captured blacks were killed outright. Black Americans also did many non-combat jobs for the military. Black Americans also did many non-combat jobs for industry

80 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 7. What challenges faced the south during Reconstruction? The South face the challenge of building a new society not based on slavery. How do you integrate former slaves into this society. What do you replace the plantation system with?

81 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 8. How did Lincoln’s assassination alter Reconstruction plans for the South? After the Civil War congress was controlled by a group called the "Radical Republicans." Lincoln was able to control them and had proposed a plan for reconstruction that looked to treating the South more like a lost brother returning home. Lincoln looked to reconstruction as a time of healing. The Radical Republicans, however, looked at reconstruction as an opportunity to teach the South a lesson and to punish them.

82 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 9. Describe three ways the southern states denied freedmen their civil rights? 1. Southerners denied newly freedmen the right to vote. They passed poll taxes and instituted the grandfather clause. 2. Southerners passed Jim Crow Laws that separated whites and blacks. Separate (segregated) schools, restaurants, bathrooms, to keep their lives apart. 3. Hate groups like the Ku Klux Klan terrorized African Americans and scalawags.


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