# Chapter 3: Matter and Its Changes

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Chapter 3: Matter and Its Changes

Section 1: Physical Properties and Changes
Physical property—any characteristic of matter that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the matter: a physical change makes physical properties change, but their identity remains the same.

Any characteristic that can be observed or measured is a physical property.
Length can be measured.

Any characteristic that can be observed or measured is a physical property.
Mass (amount of material in an object) can be measured.

Any characteristic that can be observed or measured is a physical property.
Volume is a measure of how much space an object takes up;

Any characteristic that can be observed or measured is a physical property.
i.      Density is the amount of mass a material has for a given volume. The same open suitcase on each side. When close d they have the same volume. But ONE is more dense. Which one? Would they be the same on a triple beam balance?

Circle the picture that is more Dense.

Circle the picture that is more Dense?

It is not always easy to know by looking at objects
It is not always easy to know by looking at objects. A Coke can and Diet Coke can look alike. If we dropped them both in water (displacement) then the water should rise the same amount for both cans: meaning that they have the same volume.

Physical appearances can be observed (5 senses)

Solid, liquid, gas and plasma are four states of matter
Solid, liquid, gas and plasma are four states of matter. An object’s state of matter depends on its temperature and pressure.

Solid, liquid, gas and plasma are four states of matter
Solid, liquid, gas and plasma are four states of matter. An object’s state of matter depends on its temperature and pressure. Melting point—temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid (ice melting) Boiling point—temperature at which a liquid becomes a gas (water boiling) B.Physical properties can be used to identify, classify, and separate substances.

Matter is made up of moving particles
Matter is made up of moving particles. Matter in the plasma phase have the most energy, gas has less than plasma, liquid has less energy than gas, and solids have less energy than liquids.

Plasma Plasma is a state of matter similar to gas in which a certain portion of the particles are ionized. Heating a gas may ionize (reduce the number of electrons in) its molecules or atoms, thus turning it into a plasma, which contains charged particles: positive ions and negative electrons..

Like gas, plasma does not have a definite shape or a definite volume unless enclosed in a container;
Unlike gas, under the influence of a magnetic field, it may form structures such as filaments. A common plasma are stars.

Section 2: Chemical Properties and Changes
Chemical Property—characteristic that gives a substance the ability to undergo a change that results in a new substance 1.      Flammability 2.      Reacts with oxygen, light, water, or other substances

Chemical change—change in the identity of a substance due to its chemical properties.
1.      Signs of a chemical change include the production of bubbles, heat, light, smoke, sounds or color changes. 2.      Chemical changes are not reversible using physical means.

Law of conservation of mass—mass is never lost or gained in a chemical reaction.
1.      When material is burned, residue is less massive than original material 2.      Ash, smoke, and gases escaped into the air—(they are still considered matter.) 3.      Their mass was not lost, only relocated.

Example—Physical Change
Before After change Which one has the greater mass?

Example Chemical Reaction
Before During (fire,smoke) After change

Logs burning Cutting paper Crushing an aspirin
Is it a chemical or physical change? Sugar dissolving in tea Logs burning Cutting paper Crushing an aspirin

Metal rusting Lighter fluid burining An egg rotting An egg breaking

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