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Std. IE 1k- Students will recognize the cumulative nature of scientific evidence Objective 1: Compare models of the solar systems Objective 2: Summarize.

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Presentation on theme: "Std. IE 1k- Students will recognize the cumulative nature of scientific evidence Objective 1: Compare models of the solar systems Objective 2: Summarize."— Presentation transcript:

1 Std. IE 1k- Students will recognize the cumulative nature of scientific evidence Objective 1: Compare models of the solar systems Objective 2: Summarize Kepler’s three laws of planetary motion Objective 3: Describe how Newton explained Kepler’s laws of motion

2  Geocentric – Earth centered model (Aristotle)  the sun, stars, and planets revolve around the Earth  Did not explain retrograde motion - the appearance of some planets moving backward

3  Epicycles – small circle movements (Ptolemy)  Heliocentric model - the sun the center (Nicolaus Copernicus)

4  What is the geocentric model?  Earth centered model  What is the heliocentric model?  Sun centered model  What is the movement of planets in small circles?  Epicycles  What is the appearance of planets moving backward in the sky?  Retrograde motion

5  Johannes Kepler discovered patterns which led him to develop 3 laws that explained planetary motion  1) Law of Ellipses  2) Law of Equal Areas  3) Law of Period

6  1 st law - States that each planet orbits the sun in a path called an ellipse (not a circle )  Elliptical orbits can vary in shape (elongated or circles)  Eccentricity – the degree of elongation of an elliptical orbit

7  2 nd law - states that equal areas are covered in equal amounts of time as an object orbits the sun  It describes the speed at which objects travel at different points in their orbits  Ex. Mars moves fastest in its elliptical orbit when it is closest to the sun

8  3 rd law – states the relationship between the average distance of a planet from the sun & the orbital period of the planet  Scientist can find out how far away the planets are from the sun by using this law  Orbital Period - the time required for a body to complete a single orbit

9  Which of Kepler’s laws states that equal areas are covered in equal amounts of time?  2 nd law – Law of Equal Area  Which of Kepler’s laws states that each planet orbits the sun in a path called an ellipse?  Law of Ellipses  What is the time required for a body to complete a single orbit?  Orbital Period

10  Newton used inertia to help explain Kepler’s laws.  Inertia - a moving body will remain in motion and resist a change in speed or direction until an outside force acts on it

11  Planets do not follow a straight path  Gravity = an outside force that cause the orbit to curve  Gravity exists between any two objects in the universe  Formation of curved orbits 1. Gravitational pull  sun pulls objects towards it 2. Inertia  keeps the object moving in a straight line

12  What exists between any 2 objects in the universe?  Gravity  What is a body remaining in motion unless acted on by an outside force called?  Inertia  What is pulling the planets toward the sun?  Gravity  What gives planets their curved orbits?  Inertia and gravitational pull


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