Presentation on theme: "Chapter 27.3 The Inner Planets"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 27.3 The Inner Planets Std. 1a- Students know how the sun, the terrestrial planets, and the gas planets may have been established during the formation of the solar systemStd. 4d- Students know the differing greenhouse conditions on Earth, Mars and VenusObjective 1: Identify the characteristics of the inner planetsObjective 2: Summarize the features that allow Earth to sustain life
2 The Inner Planets Planets closest to the sun are: All similar to Earth Mercury EarthVenus MarsAll similar to EarthMetallic cores and consist mostly of rock# of moons vary from 0-2
3 1) Mercury Planet closest to the sun (no moons) Orbits (day) the sun every 88 daysRotates (year) every 59 daysHeavily crateredSlow rotation and no atmosphere causes a large temperature range (Day: 427°C and Night: -173°C)Orbit = dayRotates = yearMade mostly of nickel and ironOne the most dense planet in the solar systemVery thin atmosphereMetric: 3.7 m/s2English: 12.1 ft/s2By Comparison: If you weigh 100 pounds on Earth, you would weigh 38 pounds on Mercury.Equatorial Circumference Metric: 15,329.1 km
4 2) Venus 2nd planet from the sun (no moons) Orbits the sun every 225 daysRotates every 243 daysSame size, mass and density as EarthHottest planet in the solar systemCalled the morning star because beside the moon it is the bright object in the skySize: Equatorial circumference Metric: 38,024.6 kmEarth: 40,030.2 kmDensity: Metric: 5.427 g/cm3 Earth = Metric: 5.513 g/cm3
5 Venus’s Atmosphere96% carbon dioxide causing a greenhouse effect that heats the surface to 464 degrees CHottest planet in the solar systemSulfur dioxide droplets in the upper atmosphere creates clouds which reflect sunlightIt is the brightest object in the night sky (aside from the moon and sun)Atmosphere = Carbon Dioxide, NitrogenGravity Metric: 8.87 m/s2English: 29.1 ft/s2By Comparison: If you weigh 100 pounds on Earth, you would weigh 91 pounds on Venus.
6 Venus’s Surface Factors Venus rotates retrograde (east to west) compared with Earth's prograde (west to east) rotation. On Earth, Jupiter and Saturn, lightning is associated with water clouds, but on Venus, it is associated with clouds of sulfuric acid.Venus is named for the ancient Roman goddess of love and beauty. (Venus is the Roman counterpart to the Greek goddess Aphrodite.) It is believed Venus was named for the most beautiful of the ancient gods because it shone the brightest of the five planets known to ancient astronomersIt is thought that Venus was completely resurfaced by volcanic activity 300 to 500 million years ago. More than 1,000 volcanoes or volcanic centers larger than 20 km (12 miles) in diameter dot the surface.Has mountains, volcanoes, lava plains and sand dunesLots of volcanic activity
7 Objective 1: Identify the characteristics of the inner planets How many moons do the inner planets have?0-2 moonsWhich planet has the same mass and density as Earth?VenusWhat % of Venus’ s atmosphere is carbon dioxide?96%
8 Earth 3rd planet from the sun (1 moon) Rotation 365 ¼ days Weathering and erosion continues to change Earth’s surfaceEarth's diameter is just a few hundred kilometers larger than that of Venus.We are enveloped by an atmosphere that consists of 78 percent nitrogen, 21 percent oxygen and 1 percent other ingredients. The four seasons are a result of Earth's axis of rotation being tilted degrees with respect to the plane of Earth's orbit around the sun. During part of the year, the northern hemisphere is tilted toward the sun and the southern hemisphere is tilted away, producing summer in the north and winter in the south.Our planet's rapid rotation and molten nickel-iron core give rise to a magnetic field,All of the planets, except for Earth, were named after Greek and Roman gods and goddesses. However, the name Earth is an English/German word, which simply means the ground: eor(th)e and ertha (Old English) and erde (German).
9 Water on Earth Life on Earth Atmosphere and distance from the sun allows water to exist in solid, liquid and gas statesLife on EarthEarth maintained a moderate temperature during formation = it can support life
10 Mars 4th planet from the sun Orbital period 687 days Rotates every 24 hours2 moons – Deimos and PhobosSame tilt as Earth – has similar seasons to EarthEquatorial circumference: 21,296.9 kmEarth: 40,030.2 kmDensity: Metric: 3.934 g/cm3Mass: x 1023 kgGravity:Metric: 3.71 m/s2English: 12.2 ft/s2By Comparison: If you weigh 100 pounds on Earth, you would weigh 38 pounds on Mars.Mars is a rocky body about half the size of Earth.
11 Active volcanoes = unknown Seismic activity has been detected Martian VolcanoesOlympus Mons - Largest volcano is 3 times as tall as Mt. EverestThe base is the size of NebraskaReasons for large volcanoes - no moving tectonic platesActive volcanoes = unknownSeismic activity has been detectedMars was named by the Romans for their god of war because of its red, bloodlike color. Other civilizations also named this planet from this attribute; for example, the Egyptians named it "Her Desher," meaning "the red one."Volcanism was active more than 3 billion years ago, but some of the giant shield volcanoes are younger, having formed between 1 and 2 billion years ago. Mars has the largest volcanic mountain in the solar system, Olympus Mons, as well as a spectacular equatorial canyon system, Valles Marineris.
12 Mars Earth Water on Mars Pressure and temperature on Mars are too low for water to exist in liquid formFeatures caused by erosion indicate that water did exist in the pastWater on Mars is trapped by polar icecapsScientists believe that Mars experienced huge floods about 3.5 billion years ago. Though we do not know where the ancient flood water came from, how long it lasted or where it went,In 2002, NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter detected hydrogen-rich polar deposits, indicating large quantities of water ice close to the surface.In 2004, the Mars Exploration Rover named Opportunity found structures and minerals indicating that liquid water was once present at its landing site.
13 Objective 2: Summarize the features that allow Earth to sustain life Why can Earth support life?Earth maintained a moderate temperature during formationWhat is Mars’s largest volcano?Olympus MonsWhy does Mars have large volcanoes?No moving tectonic platesWhy can’t water on Mars exist in liquid form?Pressure and temperature is too low