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1.  To dwell in the past is foolish. To forget the past is a disgrace. 2.

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Presentation on theme: "1.  To dwell in the past is foolish. To forget the past is a disgrace. 2."— Presentation transcript:

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2  To dwell in the past is foolish. To forget the past is a disgrace. 2

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5  Vast changes in culture and ways of life  Rational thinking - new attitudes and a new curiosity about the world  Science embraced as a means of understanding the world  Scientists developed new views about the universe  New forms - painting, music, literature and architecture  Advances - medicine and the study of anatomy  Printing press - major impact on the quality of life  The need to learn to read and write became critical for a new economy 5

6  Trade - key to prosperity, status and power  Expansion and exploration of the New World - start of a profitable commerce in trade  Competition grew fierce and a commercial revolution resulted  Voyages were undertaken to conquer new territories  The spice trade with China, India and Japan - critical to the growing economy  Entrepreneurs and capitalists - key roles in the commercial revolution  Mercantilism rose  The commercial revolution brought about major change in the quality of European life 6

7  New technologies made it possible for ocean explorations to the New World  Explorations of the world - led by the Portuguese and Spanish to open new trade routes  North America was apportioned among Old World Empires  English settlers arrived in North America and began to build colonies 7

8  Spanish and Portuguese founded large empires in the Americas  Native Americans were subdued, repressed, murdered and decimated by disease and their civilizations destroyed  To make explorations profitable, Spain and Portugal began bringing slaves to America and established the plantation system 8

9  The empires of the Old World grew big and rich, reaping harvests from their exploitation of New World resources  Monarchs rule with absolute power over their subjects  Nations increased their power and solidified their "nationhood” - nationalism  Religious passions lead to holy wars  The Ottoman Empire becomes powerful in Eastern Europe  Russia rises as a new power 9

10  The Reformation occurs as a result of complaints about the corruption in the Catholic Church  The Catholic and Protestant churches battle for power, resulting in the Thirty Years' War  Protestantism spreads across Europe and breaks into many sects  Islam divides into different sects 10

11 1. Does art reflect the values of the society or does society reflect the ideas of the artists? 2. What is power? 3. How are economic resources distributed? 4. What impact does trade have on a society? 5. What happens when cultures collide? 6. What does it mean to be civilized? 7. Are modern civilizations more “civilized” than ancient ones? 8. What are the significant symbols and icons of civilizations/cultures? 9. What causes change over time? 10. How does the evaluation of past events help us to make future decisions? 11. How can we know if we weren’t there? 12. How am I connected to those in the past? 13. Can an individual make a difference in history? 14. Why do people fight? 15. Is conflict inevitable? desirable? avoidable? 16. What is worth fighting for? 17. What is revolution? 18. Is new technology always better than that which it will replace? 11

12  knowledge of the past helps one understand the present and make decisions about the future.  conflict resolution can involve aggression, compromise, cooperation, and change.  decisions concerning the allocation and use of economic resources impact individuals and groups.  relationships are affected by economic transactions.  global societies are diverse, creating varied perspectives, contributions, and challenges.  scientific and technological developments affect people’s lives, the environment and transform societies. 12

13  This lesson will discuss the three main reasons why Italy transformed from a group of competing city-states to the home of the birth of the Renaissance. 13

14  Renaissance - historical period beginning in the late 14TH century.  People started taking an interest in the learnings of earlier times, specifically in the cultures of Ancient Greece and Rome.  As the French word 'Renaissance' implies, it was a rebirth in the appreciation and study of these classical times.  It was also a rebirth in the interest of the individual and the human capacity to learn, otherwise known as humanism. 14

15  The great Italian city-states of Florence, Venice, Milan, and the Papal states centered in Rome.  Wealth, creativity, intelligence. 15

16  Location, location, location!  Italy is located directly in the middle of Eastern and Western Europe – perfect for trade.  Trade - spread her new ideas all over the continent.  Overseas trade, spurred on by the Crusades, had brought great wealth to Italy.  Italy is the home to ancient Rome and many of the Greek beliefs that Rome held.  Inspiration from the ruins of Rome that surrounded Italy. 16

17  Dark Ages - suffer through life and wait for some eternal reward.  Humanism - live now like my ancestors did in the ancient glorious Roman Empire.  Petrarch - citizen Italy - Father of Humanism.  Exchange the stuffiness of old medieval ideals for the beautiful, human-oriented works of Ancient Rome - specifically those of Cicero and Virgil. 17

18  Unlike most of Europe, feudalism, or the idea of wealth through land ownership, never gained a firm hold in Italy.  Italy, specifically northern Italy, was urban, while the rest of Europe was mostly rural.  Fortune in Italy – not land ownership but commerce and trade.  This gave rise to a wealthy merchant class. 18

19  The Bubonic Plague struck Italy in the 1300s, decimating over 60% of her population.  This brought more wealth to the common class.  Because there were fewer laborers, the surviving workers could demand more money.  Decimation of the population - wealthy merchant class – business slows down.  This freed their money up to be spent on more interesting things, like the arts, architecture, and literature.  Medici family of Florence, a banking family who financially backed many Renaissance artists, the greatest of these being Michelangelo himself. 19

20  Florence - grew powerful due to the trade of wool.  Venice - gained power through trade at sea.  Milan - strong monarchy and was ruled by a powerful line of dukes.  Papal States - funded by the Catholic Church centered in Rome. 20

21  Different governing style than that of the other European countries.  She did not rule over her household with an iron fist.  She did not unite her city-states under one kingdom or one supreme head.  Much more independent, each forming their own sovereign city-states, making their own decisions, and having their own forms of government. 21

22  City-States - habit of fighting and causing some real trouble.  The beginning period of the Italian Renaissance was marked with warfare between the city-states – both the wealthy ones & the smaller ones.  Not fought by the actual citizens of Italy but were instead fought by mercenaries – condottieri.  Soldiers for hire - northern countries of Europe, specifically Germany and Switzerland.  The city-states with the most money could hire the most soldiers.  Florence, Venice, Milan, and Rome quickly absorbed the smaller ones into their folds. 22

23  Florence, Milan, and Venice emerged as the most dominant players.  At sea, there were also many battles with the weaker city-states of Pisa and even Genoa.  Wealthier Venice reigned supreme, giving her hegemony - domination and absolute rule over the Italian seas.  Papal States of Rome were also growing and changing.  The Pope - responsibility of the Catholic Church but also ruled Rome.  As the wealth of the city-states increased, the Pope became more of a politician than a spiritual leader.  Corruption infiltrated the Church - money followed the corruption, giving Rome her place as one of the wealthy city-states of Italy. 23

24  Peace of Lodi in  Truce - period of peace reigned over these cities.  Without the need to spend money on war, the city-states focus on the culture of the arts, ancient Latin, architecture, and the humanistic ideals.  Beauty of Michelangelo, the wisdom of Leonardo, and the architecture of Brunelleschi. 24

25  Italy - birthplace of the Renaissance.  Historical period beginning in the late 14th century.  People again started taking interest in the learning of the earlier times during Greece and Rome.  French word 'Renaissance’ - rebirth of these ideals.  Italy was the perfect place for the birth of the Renaissance.  Reason #1 - location.  Reason #2 - wealthy merchant class.  Reason #3 - wealthy and powerful city-states of Florence, Venice, Milan, and the Papal States in Rome.  Spread her ideals past her boundaries to Northern Europe but also to history and to our modern world. 25

26  How can you connect the history of the Renaissance to other world events and to the world you live in today?  Reflect on what you have learned and consider what this study means to you personally and as citizens of a democracy.  I did not know that…  I couldn’t believe that…  If I were _____, I think I…  If I were _____, I wish I…  This incident reminds me of a time when…  This incident reminds me of a book in which…  This incident reminds me of an experience that…  When I read ______, I…  I think that…  This person, ______, is similar to _____ because…  This event is ______, is similar to because… 26

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