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1.  To dwell in the past is foolish. To forget the past is a disgrace. 2.

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Presentation on theme: "1.  To dwell in the past is foolish. To forget the past is a disgrace. 2."— Presentation transcript:

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2  To dwell in the past is foolish. To forget the past is a disgrace. 2

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4  The period of distrust between the Soviet Union and United States was known as the Cold War.  Learn about the origins of the era, essential events and the shaping of the national security state. 4

5  The Cold War - period of economic, political and military tension between the United States and Soviet Union - 1945 to 1991.  End of the Second World War - complications arose - shifting of international power.  The Soviet Union wanted to acquire additional territory.  The United States attempted to limit the gains desired by the Soviets.  This battle of ideologies resulted in › increased national security › diplomatic tension › proxy wars between the two powerful nations. 5

6  Start of the Cold War - Potsdam Conference in the summer of 1945.  Purpose - discuss the realignment of post-war Europe.  Discussions broke down into threats.  The United States and Soviet Union agreed upon the division of Berlin.  Soviets & Joseph Stalin wanted to acquire Poland - buffer against future attacks.  President Harry Truman rejected Stalin's demands, citing the right of self-determination in the case of Poland.  Truman then revealed his master card: the atomic bomb.  Upon learning of the destructive weapon, Stalin ordered a crash program - speed arms development and counter the atomic bomb. 6

7  September 1945 - limit Soviet economic reconstruction - Truman suspended the Lend-Lease Act - monetary and military aid from the USA to beleaguered nations during the Second World War.  Aid helped - Britain, France and the Soviet Union economically survive the war years.  Plan backfired - Soviets decided to acquire satellite states (Warsaw Pact) to make up for the lost funding. 7

8  Soviet expansion - heightened fear from both the US government & the general American public.  Trepidation increased – US Diplomat to Moscow George Kennan's 'Long Telegram (X-Article).  Kennan - trusted adviser to Truman - policy of containment.  National security state - byproduct of Kennan's recommendations.  Growing fear of expansion of communism. 8

9  1947 - Truman Doctrine – issued to combat the Soviet menace.  Called for money to be transferred to third world nations - Greece and Turkey - attempt to prevent communist expansion & gain allies in the battle against communism.  The Truman Doctrine - synonymous with the Marshall Plan.  The Marshall Plan encouraged funding to reconstruct European nations devastated by the Second World War.  The hope was to prevent Soviet subversion into the weakened governments. 9

10  Truman also passed the National Security Act of 1947.  The legislation led to the creation of the Air Force, National Security Council, Central Intelligence Agency and Department of Defense.  All of this was done in an effort to combat the Soviet Union and communism. 10

11  Containment - foremost tool of the United States in combating the Soviet Union.  Drafted by Kennan/approved by Truman in 1947 - called for action to be taken against international communist expansion.  Fictional fence being erected around the Soviet Union by the USA.  Keeping communism from spreading into different countries.  Containment was eventually enlarged as the United States suspected communism in places such as Laos, Germany, Vietnam, Korea and Cuba. 11

12  Other notable Cold War events during Truman Presidency (1945-1953).  North Atlantic Treaty Organization, or NATO, in 1949 symbolized the unity against communist expansion by Britain, Canada and the US.  Development of hydrogen bomb by US.  Severing diplomatic ties with Mao Zedong's communist China. 12

13  Passage of National Security Council Report-68, or NSC-68.  Called for significant military enlargement by the United States.  Truman Administration believed the Soviet Union totally disregarded international authority with its nuclear weapons testing,  Reason – exert itself throughout the world.  NSC-68 authorized military expenditures that included the development of surface- to-air missile sites.  The rapid buildup and response of the United States would be tested in Korea. 13

14  In summary, the Cold War began in 1945 and was a period of tension between the United States and Soviet Union.  President Harry Truman fueled the fire by using the atomic bomb as leverage and issuing the Truman Doctrine to fund democracy in third world nations.  The containment policy was developed by George Kennan - foremost strategy of battling international communist aggression.  Upon learning of the Soviet Union's nuclear program, the United States passed NSC-68, which enlarged funding toward anti- communism programs. 14

15  How can you connect the history of the Cold War to other world events and to the world you live in today?  Reflect on what you have learned and consider what this study means to you personally and as citizens of a democracy.  I did not know that…  I couldn’t believe that…  If I were _____, I think I…  If I were _____, I wish I…  This incident reminds me of a time when…  This incident reminds me of a book in which…  This incident reminds me of an experience that…  When I read ______, I…  I think that…  This person, ______, is similar to _____ because…  This event is ______, is similar to because… 15

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