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Literature: What are we learning?

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1 Literature: What are we learning?
Language Arts Mrs. Catlett

2 Simple subject—is the key noun or pronoun that tells what the sentence is about.
Compound subject—is made up of two or more simple subjects that are joined by a conjunction and have the same verb. Who or what is the sentence talking about? Subject (front side)

3 Subject (Back side) Examples Simple subject Sarah went to the store.
Compound Sarah and Susan went to the store. Subject (Back side)

4 Predicate(front side)
Simple predicate—is the verb or verb phrase that shows the action in the sentence. Compound predicate—is made up of two or more simple predicates that are joined by a conjunction and have the same subject. What is the subject (who or what) doing in the sentence? Predicate(front side)

5 Predicate (Back side) Examples Simple predicate (verb)
Sarah went to the store. Compound Sarah ate and showered before school was cancelled. Predicate (Back side)

6 Noun (front side) Common noun—names a general class of people
Proper noun—specifies a particular person, place, thing, event, or idea. Proper nouns are always capitalized. Concrete noun—names an object that occupies space or that can be recognized by any of the sense. Abstract noun—names an idea a quality, or a characteristic. Noun (front side)

7 Noun (Back side) Examples Common noun. Her aunt took her to the store.
Proper noun Her aunt took her to visit the Vietnam War Memorial which represents for many a symbol of peace. Concrete noun Abstract noun Noun (Back side)

8 Action verb tells what someone or something is doing.
Transitive verb is followed by a direct object—that answer the question what? Or whom? Intransitive verb is not followed by a word that answers what? Or whom? Linking verbs links, or joins, the subject of a sentence with an adjective or nominative. Verb (front side)

9 Verb (Back side) Examples Action verb/transitive/direct object
Adam jogged home. Action verb/intransitive Adam jogged in the direction of his home. Linking verb The trucks were red. Verb (Back side)

10 Sentences (front side)
Simple sentence—has only one main clause and no subordinating clauses. Compound sentence—has two or more main clauses. Complex sentence—has at least one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. Compound-Complex Sentence—has two or more main clauses and one or more subordinate clauses. Sentences (front side)

11 Sentences (Back side) Examples Simple sentence
The bananas were ready to be picked. Compound Sentence Zach studied for his test, and Sarah stayed home sick. Sentences (Back side)

12 Sentences (Back side) Examples. Complex Sentence/subordinate clause
Because they did not study for the test, these students are going to fail the test. Compound-Complex Sentence After a long weekend, Carla and Sarah returned to college, but Sarah was able to sleep in the next day. Sentences (Back side)

13 The Simple Sentence A simple sentence has one independent clause (one subject and a verb): I live in San Francisco. Subject Verb

14 Compound Sentence You can make a compound sentence by joining two logically related independent clauses by using… - a semicolon - a coordinating conjunction - a transition

15 Compound Sentence A compound sentence contains two independent clauses that are joined together. She works in the city, but she lives in the suburbs. Independent Clause Independent Clause

16 Using a Semicolon Independent Clause ; Independent Clause
I love living in the city ; there are so many things to do. Independent Clause Independent Clause

17 Using a Coordinating Conjunction
Independent Clause ,coordinating conjunction Independent Clause He couldn’t watch the show , so he decided to tape it. Independent Clause Independent Clause

18 Coordinating Conjunctions
Logical Relationship Coordinating Conjunction Addition And Contrast But, yet Choice Or, nor Cause For Result So

19 FANBOYS For  F And  A Nor  N But  B Or  O Yet  Y So  S
Another way to remember these is… For  F And  A Nor  N But  B Or  O Yet  Y So  S

20 No comma- not an independent clause
CAUTION! Do NOT use a comma every time you use the words and, or, but, nor, for, so, yet. Use a comma only when the coordinating conjunction joins two independent clauses. Simple Sentence The necklace was beautiful but expensive. Independent Clause No comma- not an independent clause

21 Using a Transition Independent Clause ; transition , Independent Clause I love San Francisco ; however, I hate the traffic. Independent Clause Independent Clause Click here to see lists of transitions.

22 Subordinating Conjunction
Complex Sentences A complex sentence contains at least one independent clause and one dependent clause. John cannot set up his typewriter because the wall has no outlet. Independent Clause Subordinating Conjunction Dependent Clause

23 Example- Complex Sentence
A complex sentence contains at least one independent clause and one dependent clause. She will go to school in the city until she finds a job. Independent Clause Dependent Clause Subordinating Conjunction

24 Subordinating Conjunction
Complex Sentences Use a comma after a dependent clause if it begins the sentence. When I first moved to the city, I was afraid to drive the steep and narrow streets. Use a comma if the dependent clause is the first part of the sentence. Subordinating Conjunction Independent Clause

25 Common Subordinating Conjunctions(front side)
Subordinating conjunction joins two clauses in such a way as to make one grammatically dependent on the other. Example: We go to the park whenever Mom lets us. Common Subordinating Conjunctions(front side)

26 Common Subordinating conjunctions(back side)
after although as as if as long as as soon as as though because before if even though in order that since than though so that unless until when whenever where whereas wherever whether While Common Subordinating conjunctions(back side)

27 Relationship Transition
Addition Moreover Furthermore In addition besides Contrast However On the contrary In contrast On the other hand Result or Effect Consequently Accordingly Thus Hence Therefore As a result Reinforcement/Emphasis Indeed In fact

28 Relationship Transition
Exemplification For example For instance In particular Time Meanwhile (at the same time) Subsequently (after) Thereafter (after) Reinforcement/Emphasis Indeed In fact Exemplification For example For instance In particular

29 Clauses vs. phrases (front side)
A phrase is a group of words that acts in a sentence as a single part of speech. A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate and is used as a sentence or part of a sentence. Clauses vs. phrases (front side)

30 Clauses vs. Phrases(back side)
Types of phrases Prepositional phrase Verbal phrase Participle phrase Appositive phrase Infinitive phrase Gerund phrase Types of clauses Subordinate clause Adjective Adverb Noun Clauses vs. Phrases(back side)

31 Adjective phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies, or describes, a noun or a pronoun.
Example: The servers at the new restaurant are courteous. (phrase modifies servers) Adjective Phrases

32 Adverb phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
Example: The servers dress with a flamboyant flair. (modifies dress the verb) Example: The restaurant is popular with young people.(modifies popular an adjective) Example: The restaurant opens early in the morning. (modifes early an adverb) Adverb phrase

33 Infinitive is formed with the word to and a word that can act as a verb. Infinitives are often used as nouns. Infinitive phrases are a group of words that includes an infinitive and other words that complete its meaning. Example: To write is Alice’s ambition. To write a great novel was Alice’s ambition. Infinitive (phrases)

34 Participle/ Participial phrases
Participle is a verb from that can act as the main verb in a verb phrase or as an adjective to modify a noun or pronoun. Participial phrases are groups of words that includes a participle and other words that complete its meaning.’ Participles end in -ed, --ing, or en Example: His playing skill improves daily. Participle/ Participial phrases

35 Gerund is a verb from that ends in –ing and is used a a noun
Gerund is a verb from that ends in –ing and is used a a noun. Gerund phrases are groups of words that include a gerund and other words that complete its meaing. Example: Exercising on a bike is fun for all ages. Gerund (phrases)

36 An adjective clause is a subordinate (dependent clause) that modifies, or describes, a noun or a pronoun in the main clause of a complex sentence. Adjective clauses begin with relative pronouns (TW6): who(ever), whose, whom(ever), which(ever), where(ever), when(ever), and that Adjective Clause

37 Example: The Aqua-Lung, which divers strap on, holds oxygen.
Try these: Road maps, which show roadways, can be fascinating. Adjective Clause

38 An adverb clause is a subordinate clause (dependent clause) that often modifies the verb in the main clause of a complex sentence. It tells how, when, where, why, or under what conditions the action occurs. Adverb clauses begin with subordinating conjunctions(see next page) Adverb Clause

39 Example: After we won the meet, we shook hands with our opponents.
Adverb Clause

40 A noun clause is a subordinate clause (dependent clause) used as a noun. It (the clause) can be replaced with a pronoun (it, they, he, she, etc). Noun clauses begin with relative pronouns (TW6): who(ever), whose, whom(ever), which(ever), where(ever), when(ever), and that They also begin with how(ever), if, whether, why, what (ever) Noun Clause

41 Literary Elements

42 Plot Graphic Organizer
Climax Event(s) after the climax Event(s) leading up to climax Event(s) after the climax Event(s) leading up to climax Rising Action Falling Action Resolution Introduction

43 Allegory: A story in which the characters represent abstract qualities or ideas. For example, in westerns, the sheriff represents the good, and the outlaw represents evil.

44 Alliteration: The repetition of first consonants in a group of words as in “Peter Piper Picked a Peck of Pickled Peppers.”

45 Allusion: A reference to something or someone often literary
Allusion: A reference to something or someone often literary. For instance, if you were trying to instill confidence in a friend and said, “Use the force,” that would be an allusion to Stars Wars. The verb form of allusion is to allude.

46 Antagonist: A major character who opposes the protagonist in a story or play.

47 Archetype: A character who represents a certain type of person
Archetype: A character who represents a certain type of person. For example, Daniel Boone is an archetype of the early American frontiersman.

48 Assonance: The repetition of vowel sounds as in “Days wane away.”

49 Atmosphere: The overall feeling of a work, which is related to tone and mood.

50 Blank verse: Unrhymed lines of poetry usually in iambic pentameter
Blank verse: Unrhymed lines of poetry usually in iambic pentameter. Plenty of modern poetry is written in blank verse.

51 Characterization: The means by which an author establishes character
Characterization: The means by which an author establishes character. An author may directly describe the appearance and personality of character or show it through action or dialogue.

52 Climax: The point at which the action in a story or play reaches its emotional peak.

53 Conflict: The elements that create a plot
Conflict: The elements that create a plot. Traditionally, every plot is build from the most basic elements of a conflict and an eventual resolution. The conflict can be internal (within one character) or external (among or between characters, society, and/or nature).

54 Contrast: To explain how two things differ
Contrast: To explain how two things differ. To compare and contrast is to explain how two things are alike and how they are different.

55 Couplets: A pair of rhyming lines in a poem often set off from the rest of the poem. Shakespeare’s sonnets all end in couplets.

56 Denouement: The resolution of the conflict in a plot after the climax
Denouement: The resolution of the conflict in a plot after the climax. It also refers to the resolution of the action in a story or play after the principal drama is resolved—in other words, tying up the loose ends or wrapping up a story.

57 Dramatic Monologue: A poem with a fictional narrator addressed to someone who identity the audience knows, but who does not say anything.

58 Elegy: A poem mourning the dead.

59 End rhyme: Rhyming words that are at the ends of their respective lines—what we typically think of as normal rhyme.

60 Epic: A long poem narrating the adventures of a heroic figure—for example, Homer’s The Odyssey.

61 Fable: A story that illustrates a moral often using animals as the character—for example, The Tortoise and the Hare.

62 Figurative Language: Language that does not mean exactly what it says
Figurative Language: Language that does not mean exactly what it says. For example, you can call someone who is very angry “steaming.” Unless steam was actually coming out of your ears, you were using figurative language.

63 First Person Point of View:
First Person Point of View: The point of view of writing which the narrator refers to himself as “I.”

64 Foreshadowing: A technique in which an author gives clues about something that will happen later in the story.

65 Free Verse: Poetry with no set meter (rhythm) or rhyme scheme.

66 Genre:. A kind of style usually art or literature
Genre: A kind of style usually art or literature. Some literary genres are mysteries, westerns, and romances.

67 Hyperbole: A huge exaggeration
Hyperbole: A huge exaggeration. For example, “Dan’s the funniest guy on the planet!” or “That baseball card is worth a zillion dollars!”

68 Iambic pentameter: Ten-syllable lines in which every other syllable is stressed. For example: “With eyes like stars upon the brave night air.”

69 Imagery: The use of description that helps the reader imagine how something looks, sounds, feels, smells, or taste. Most of the time, it refers to appearance. For example, “The young bird’s white, feathered wings flutter as he made his way across the nighttime sky.”

70 Internal rhyme: A rhyme that occurs within one line such as “He’s King of the Swing.”

71 Irony: Language that conveys a certain ideas by saying just he opposite.

72 Literal Language: Language that means exactly what it says.

73 Lyric: A type of poetry that expresses the poet’s emotions
Lyric: A type of poetry that expresses the poet’s emotions. It often tells some sort of brief story, engaging the reading in the experience.

74 Metaphor: A comparison that doesn’t use “like” or “as”—such as “He’s a rock” or “I am an island.”

75 Meter: The pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in the lines of a poem.

76 Monologue: A long speech by one character in a play or story.

77 Mood: The emotional atmosphere of a given piece of writing.

78 Motif: A theme or pattern that recurs in a work.

79 Myth: A legend that embodies the beliefs of people and offers some explanation for natural and social phenomena.

80 Onomatopoeia: The use of words that sound like what they mean such as “buzz.”

81 Paradox:. A seeming contradiction
Paradox: A seeming contradiction. For example, “It was the best of times. It was the worst of times.”

82 Parody: A humorous, exaggerated imitation of another work.

83 Personification:. Giving inanimate object human characteristics
Personification: Giving inanimate object human characteristics. For example, “The flames reached for the child hovering in the corner.”

84 Plot: The action in the story.

85 Prose:. Writing organized into sentences and paragraphs
Prose: Writing organized into sentences and paragraphs. In other words, normal writing—not poetry.

86 Protagonist: The main character of a novel, play, or story.

87 Pun: The use of a word in a way that plays on its different meanings
Pun: The use of a word in a way that plays on its different meanings. For example, “Noticing the bunch of bananas, the hungry gorilla went ape.

88 Quatrain: A four-line stanza.

89 Rhetorical Question: A question not meant to be answered such as “Why can’t we just get along?”

90 Sarcasm: Language that conveys a certain idea by saying just he opposite such as if it’s raining outside and you say, “My what a beautiful day.”

91 Satire: A work that makes fun of something or someone.

92 Sensory imagery: Imagery that has to do with something you can see, hear, taste, smell, or feel. For example, “The stinging, salty air drenched his face.”

93 Simile: A comparison that uses “like” or “as” For example, “I’m as hungry as a wolf,” or “My love is like a rose.”

94 Soliloquy: A monologue in which a character expresses his or her thoughts to the audience and does not intend the other characters to hear them.

95 Sonnet: A fourteen-line poem written iambic pentameter
Sonnet: A fourteen-line poem written iambic pentameter. Different kinds of sonnets have different rhyme schemes.

96 Stanza: A section of poetry separated from the sections before and after it; a verse “paragraph.”

97 Subplot: A line of action secondary to the main story.

98 Symbolism:. The use of one things to represent another
Symbolism: The use of one things to represent another. For example, a dove is a symbol of peace.

99 Theme: The central idea of a work.

100 Tone: The author’s attitude toward his or her subject
Tone: The author’s attitude toward his or her subject. For example, a tone could be pessimistic, optimistic, or angry.

101 Voice: The narrative point of view whether it’s in the first, second, or third person.

102 Drama… …is a story told in front of an audience

103 Elements of Drama Playwright-the author of a play
Actors-the people who perform Acts-the units of action Scenes-parts of the acts

104 Elements of Drama Characterization-playwright’s technique for making believable characters

105 Dramatic Speech Dialogue-conversation between or among characters
Monologue-long speech by one single character (private thoughts)

106 Stage Directions Found in brackets [ ]
Describe scenery and how characters speak C, Center Stage L, Stage Left R, Stage Right U, Upstage or Rear D, Downstage or Front

107 Theater Where a play takes place

108 Set Construction on the stage that shows time/place
Could be called Scenery

109 Props Small movable items that the actors use to make actions look real

110 Informational Texts

111 FICTION Writing or story created from the imagination, not presented as fact, though it may be based on a true story or situation.

112 NONFICTION literature that is not fictional

113 What is “informational text”?
Informational texts are nonfiction texts that explain or convey information. Some examples are: Textbooks Encyclopedias Newspapers Magazine Web sites pamphlets

114 BROCHURE Pamphlet or booklet that describes or advertises something
Examples of Informational Texts: BROCHURE Pamphlet or booklet that describes or advertises something

115 ATLAS A collection of maps in book form
Examples of Informational Texts: ATLAS A collection of maps in book form

116 THESAURUS A book of synonyms, sometimes including contrasting words
Examples of Informational Texts: THESAURUS A book of synonyms, sometimes including contrasting words

117 Examples of Informational Texts:
ALMANAC A publication, usually an annual, containing useful facts and statistical information

118 Features of Informational Texts
It is important to be able to recognize features of informational texts….. Headings Sub-headings Index Table of Contents Glossary Graphic Features (photographs, diagrams, illustrations) Captions Topic/Main Idea Supporting Details

119 Headings and Sub-headings
Features of Informational Texts Headings and Sub-headings Titles of sections using bold print, different font sizes and colors These headings and sub-headings help to organize the text into sections

120 INDEX Features of Informational Texts  a list of items (as topics or names) given at the end of a printed work that gives for each item the page number where it may be found

121 Features of Informational Texts
TABLE OF CONTENTS A table of contents, usually headed simply "Contents," is a list of the parts of a book or document organized in the order in which the parts appear.

122 GLOSSARY a collection of specialized terms with their meaning
Features of Informational Texts GLOSSARY a collection of specialized terms with their meaning

123 Features of Informational Texts
GRAPHIC FEATURES  a graphic representation (as a picture, map, or graph) used especially for illustration graphic feature The Mona Lisa, by Italian painter Leonardo da Vinci, is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. caption

124 Features of Informational Texts
CAPTIONS the heading especially of an article or document;  the explanatory comment or designation accompanying a pictorial illustration APPLE

125 AUDIENCE A reading, listening, or viewing public
Features of Informational Texts A reading, listening, or viewing public Sometimes it may be important to understand who the intended audience is, especially if you are creating informational text.

126 Features of Informational Texts
CITATION A citation is a reference to a work, such as a book or a journal article - it provides the necessary information needed to locate the work. A book citation provides the author, title, publisher, publication place, and year of a work. Citations often appear at the end of the work in the form of a bibliography.

127 FACT A piece of information that can be shown or demonstrated to be true.

128 OPINION a judgment one holds as true

129 Writing

130 Main Idea Main Idea - is like the heart of the text or a paragraph.
It is the controlling idea. All the other supporting details in the text or within a paragraph should tell us more about the main idea.

131 General Versus Specific
The main idea is a general one. The supporting ideas in the passage are specific ones. Which word is the most general: Potato or Vegetable?

132 What about the topic? The topic is the general subject of a reading passage. To find the topic, just ask yourself: “Who or what is this passage about?” The topic can be expressed in a word or a phrase. WHO?

133 Supporting Details Supporting details prove the value of the main idea. What are they here? Homeless people have many problems. In winter, it’s hard to stay warm and it gets too hot in summer. It’s also hard to keep things safe without a home. Worst is the lack of privacy.

134 SUPPORTING DETAILS Examples and illustrations to the topic sentence or main idea of a piece of writing


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