Presentation on theme: "Literature: What are we learning?"— Presentation transcript:
1Literature: What are we learning? Language ArtsMrs. Catlett
2Simple subject—is the key noun or pronoun that tells what the sentence is about. Compound subject—is made up of two or more simple subjects that are joined by a conjunction and have the same verb.Who or what is the sentence talking about?Subject (front side)
3Subject (Back side) Examples Simple subject Sarah went to the store. CompoundSarah and Susan went to the store.Subject (Back side)
4Predicate(front side) Simple predicate—is the verb or verb phrase that shows the action in the sentence.Compound predicate—is made up of two or more simple predicates that are joined by a conjunction and have the same subject.What is the subject (who or what) doing in the sentence?Predicate(front side)
5Predicate (Back side) Examples Simple predicate (verb) Sarah went to the store.CompoundSarah ate and showered before school was cancelled.Predicate (Back side)
6Noun (front side) Common noun—names a general class of people Proper noun—specifies a particular person, place, thing, event, or idea. Proper nouns are always capitalized.Concrete noun—names an object that occupies space or that can be recognized by any of the sense.Abstract noun—names an idea a quality, or a characteristic.Noun (front side)
7Noun (Back side) Examples Common noun. Her aunt took her to the store. Proper nounHer aunt took her to visit the Vietnam War Memorial which represents for many a symbol of peace.Concrete nounAbstract nounNoun (Back side)
8Action verb tells what someone or something is doing. Transitive verb is followed by a direct object—that answer the question what? Or whom?Intransitive verb is not followed by a word that answers what? Or whom?Linking verbs links, or joins, the subject of a sentence with an adjective or nominative.Verb (front side)
9Verb (Back side) Examples Action verb/transitive/direct object Adam jogged home.Action verb/intransitiveAdam jogged in the direction of his home.Linking verbThe trucks were red.Verb (Back side)
10Sentences (front side) Simple sentence—has only one main clause and no subordinating clauses.Compound sentence—has two or more main clauses.Complex sentence—has at least one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.Compound-Complex Sentence—has two or more main clauses and one or more subordinate clauses.Sentences (front side)
11Sentences (Back side) Examples Simple sentence The bananas were ready to be picked.Compound SentenceZach studied for his test, and Sarah stayed home sick.Sentences (Back side)
12Sentences (Back side) Examples. Complex Sentence/subordinate clause Because they did not study for the test, these students are going to fail the test.Compound-Complex SentenceAfter a long weekend, Carla and Sarah returned to college, but Sarah was able to sleep in the next day.Sentences (Back side)
13The Simple SentenceA simple sentence has one independent clause (one subject and a verb):I live in San Francisco.SubjectVerb
14Compound SentenceYou can make a compound sentence by joining two logically related independent clauses by using…- a semicolon- a coordinating conjunction- a transition
15Compound SentenceA compound sentence contains two independent clauses that are joined together.She works in the city, but she lives in the suburbs.Independent ClauseIndependent Clause
16Using a Semicolon Independent Clause ; Independent Clause I love living in the city ; there are so many things to do.Independent ClauseIndependent Clause
17Using a Coordinating Conjunction Independent Clause ,coordinating conjunction Independent ClauseHe couldn’t watch the show , so he decided to tape it.Independent ClauseIndependent Clause
19FANBOYS For F And A Nor N But B Or O Yet Y So S Another way to remember these is…For FAnd ANor NBut BOr OYet YSo S
20No comma- not an independent clause CAUTION!Do NOT use a comma every time you use the words and, or, but, nor, for, so, yet. Use a comma only when the coordinating conjunction joins two independent clauses.Simple SentenceThe necklace was beautiful but expensive.Independent ClauseNo comma- not an independent clause
21Using a TransitionIndependent Clause ; transition , Independent ClauseI love San Francisco ; however, I hate the traffic.Independent ClauseIndependent ClauseClick here to see lists of transitions.
22Subordinating Conjunction Complex SentencesA complex sentence contains at least one independent clause and one dependent clause.John cannot set up his typewriterbecause the wall has no outlet.Independent ClauseSubordinating ConjunctionDependent Clause
23Example- Complex Sentence A complex sentence contains at least one independent clause and one dependent clause.She will go to school in the cityuntil she finds a job.Independent ClauseDependent ClauseSubordinating Conjunction
24Subordinating Conjunction Complex SentencesUse a comma after a dependent clause if it begins the sentence.When I first moved to the city,I was afraid to drive the steep and narrow streets.Use a comma if the dependent clause is the first part of the sentence.Subordinating ConjunctionIndependent Clause
25Common Subordinating Conjunctions(front side) Subordinating conjunction joins two clauses in such a way as to make one grammatically dependent on the other.Example:We go to the park whenever Mom lets us.Common Subordinating Conjunctions(front side)
26Common Subordinating conjunctions(back side) after although asas if as long as as soon asas though because beforeif even though in order thatsince than thoughso that unless untilwhen whenever wherewhereas wherever whetherWhileCommon Subordinating conjunctions(back side)
27Relationship Transition AdditionMoreoverFurthermoreIn additionbesidesContrastHowever On the contraryIn contrast On the other handResult or EffectConsequently AccordinglyThus HenceTherefore As a resultReinforcement/EmphasisIndeedIn fact
28Relationship Transition ExemplificationFor exampleFor instanceIn particularTimeMeanwhile (at the same time)Subsequently (after)Thereafter (after)Reinforcement/EmphasisIndeedIn factExemplificationFor exampleFor instanceIn particular
29Clauses vs. phrases (front side) A phrase is a group of words that acts in a sentence as a single part of speech.A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate and is used as a sentence or part of a sentence.Clauses vs. phrases (front side)
30Clauses vs. Phrases(back side) Types of phrasesPrepositional phraseVerbal phraseParticiple phraseAppositive phraseInfinitive phraseGerund phraseTypes of clausesSubordinate clauseAdjectiveAdverbNounClauses vs. Phrases(back side)
31Adjective phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies, or describes, a noun or a pronoun. Example: The servers at the new restaurant are courteous. (phrase modifies servers)Adjective Phrases
32Adverb phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Example: The servers dress with a flamboyant flair. (modifies dress the verb)Example: The restaurant is popular with young people.(modifies popular an adjective)Example: The restaurant opens early in the morning. (modifes early an adverb)Adverb phrase
33Infinitive is formed with the word to and a word that can act as a verb. Infinitives are often used as nouns. Infinitive phrases are a group of words that includes an infinitive and other words that complete its meaning. Example: To write is Alice’s ambition. To write a great novel was Alice’s ambition.Infinitive (phrases)
34Participle/ Participial phrases Participle is a verb from that can act as the main verb in a verb phrase or as an adjective to modify a noun or pronoun. Participial phrases are groups of words that includes a participle and other words that complete its meaning.’ Participles end in -ed, --ing, or en Example: His playing skill improves daily.Participle/ Participial phrases
35Gerund is a verb from that ends in –ing and is used a a noun Gerund is a verb from that ends in –ing and is used a a noun. Gerund phrases are groups of words that include a gerund and other words that complete its meaing. Example: Exercising on a bike is fun for all ages.Gerund (phrases)
36An adjective clause is a subordinate (dependent clause) that modifies, or describes, a noun or a pronoun in the main clause of a complex sentence.Adjective clauses begin with relative pronouns (TW6): who(ever), whose, whom(ever), which(ever), where(ever), when(ever), and thatAdjective Clause
37Example: The Aqua-Lung, which divers strap on, holds oxygen. Try these:Road maps, which show roadways, can be fascinating.Adjective Clause
38An adverb clause is a subordinate clause (dependent clause) that often modifies the verb in the main clause of a complex sentence. It tells how, when, where, why, or under what conditions the action occurs.Adverb clauses begin with subordinating conjunctions(see next page)Adverb Clause
39Example: After we won the meet, we shook hands with our opponents. Adverb Clause
40A noun clause is a subordinate clause (dependent clause) used as a noun. It (the clause) can be replaced with a pronoun (it, they, he, she, etc).Noun clauses begin with relative pronouns (TW6): who(ever), whose, whom(ever), which(ever), where(ever), when(ever), and thatThey also begin with how(ever), if, whether, why, what (ever)Noun Clause
42Plot Graphic Organizer ClimaxEvent(s) after the climaxEvent(s) leading up to climaxEvent(s) after the climaxEvent(s) leading up to climaxRising ActionFalling ActionResolutionIntroduction
43Allegory: A story in which the characters represent abstract qualities or ideas. For example, in westerns, the sheriff represents the good, and the outlaw represents evil.
44Alliteration: The repetition of first consonants in a group of words as in “Peter Piper Picked a Peck of Pickled Peppers.”
45Allusion: A reference to something or someone often literary Allusion: A reference to something or someone often literary. For instance, if you were trying to instill confidence in a friend and said, “Use the force,” that would be an allusion to Stars Wars. The verb form of allusion is to allude.
46Antagonist: A major character who opposes the protagonist in a story or play.
47Archetype: A character who represents a certain type of person Archetype: A character who represents a certain type of person. For example, Daniel Boone is an archetype of the early American frontiersman.
48Assonance: The repetition of vowel sounds as in “Days wane away.”
49Atmosphere: The overall feeling of a work, which is related to tone and mood.
50Blank verse: Unrhymed lines of poetry usually in iambic pentameter Blank verse: Unrhymed lines of poetry usually in iambic pentameter. Plenty of modern poetry is written in blank verse.
51Characterization: The means by which an author establishes character Characterization: The means by which an author establishes character. An author may directly describe the appearance and personality of character or show it through action or dialogue.
52Climax: The point at which the action in a story or play reaches its emotional peak.
53Conflict: The elements that create a plot Conflict: The elements that create a plot. Traditionally, every plot is build from the most basic elements of a conflict and an eventual resolution. The conflict can be internal (within one character) or external (among or between characters, society, and/or nature).
54Contrast: To explain how two things differ Contrast: To explain how two things differ. To compare and contrast is to explain how two things are alike and how they are different.
55Couplets: A pair of rhyming lines in a poem often set off from the rest of the poem. Shakespeare’s sonnets all end in couplets.
56Denouement: The resolution of the conflict in a plot after the climax Denouement: The resolution of the conflict in a plot after the climax. It also refers to the resolution of the action in a story or play after the principal drama is resolved—in other words, tying up the loose ends or wrapping up a story.
57Dramatic Monologue: A poem with a fictional narrator addressed to someone who identity the audience knows, but who does not say anything.
59End rhyme: Rhyming words that are at the ends of their respective lines—what we typically think of as normal rhyme.
60Epic: A long poem narrating the adventures of a heroic figure—for example, Homer’s The Odyssey.
61Fable: A story that illustrates a moral often using animals as the character—for example, The Tortoise and the Hare.
62Figurative Language: Language that does not mean exactly what it says Figurative Language: Language that does not mean exactly what it says. For example, you can call someone who is very angry “steaming.” Unless steam was actually coming out of your ears, you were using figurative language.
63First Person Point of View: First Person Point of View: The point of view of writing which the narrator refers to himself as “I.”
64Foreshadowing: A technique in which an author gives clues about something that will happen later in the story.
65Free Verse: Poetry with no set meter (rhythm) or rhyme scheme.
66Genre:. A kind of style usually art or literature Genre: A kind of style usually art or literature. Some literary genres are mysteries, westerns, and romances.
67Hyperbole: A huge exaggeration Hyperbole: A huge exaggeration. For example, “Dan’s the funniest guy on the planet!” or “That baseball card is worth a zillion dollars!”
68Iambic pentameter: Ten-syllable lines in which every other syllable is stressed. For example: “With eyes like stars upon the brave night air.”
69Imagery: The use of description that helps the reader imagine how something looks, sounds, feels, smells, or taste. Most of the time, it refers to appearance. For example, “The young bird’s white, feathered wings flutter as he made his way across the nighttime sky.”
70Internal rhyme: A rhyme that occurs within one line such as “He’s King of the Swing.”
71Irony: Language that conveys a certain ideas by saying just he opposite.
72Literal Language: Language that means exactly what it says.
73Lyric: A type of poetry that expresses the poet’s emotions Lyric: A type of poetry that expresses the poet’s emotions. It often tells some sort of brief story, engaging the reading in the experience.
74Metaphor: A comparison that doesn’t use “like” or “as”—such as “He’s a rock” or “I am an island.”
75Meter: The pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in the lines of a poem.
76Monologue: A long speech by one character in a play or story.
77Mood: The emotional atmosphere of a given piece of writing.
78Motif: A theme or pattern that recurs in a work.
79Myth: A legend that embodies the beliefs of people and offers some explanation for natural and social phenomena.
80Onomatopoeia: The use of words that sound like what they mean such as “buzz.”
81Paradox:. A seeming contradiction Paradox: A seeming contradiction. For example, “It was the best of times. It was the worst of times.”
82Parody: A humorous, exaggerated imitation of another work.
83Personification:. Giving inanimate object human characteristics Personification: Giving inanimate object human characteristics. For example, “The flames reached for the child hovering in the corner.”
85Prose:. Writing organized into sentences and paragraphs Prose: Writing organized into sentences and paragraphs. In other words, normal writing—not poetry.
86Protagonist: The main character of a novel, play, or story.
87Pun: The use of a word in a way that plays on its different meanings Pun: The use of a word in a way that plays on its different meanings. For example, “Noticing the bunch of bananas, the hungry gorilla went ape.
113What is “informational text”? Informational texts are nonfiction texts that explain or convey information. Some examples are:TextbooksEncyclopediasNewspapersMagazineWeb sitespamphlets
114BROCHURE Pamphlet or booklet that describes or advertises something Examples of Informational Texts:BROCHUREPamphlet or booklet that describes or advertises something
115ATLAS A collection of maps in book form Examples of Informational Texts:ATLASA collection of maps in book form
116THESAURUS A book of synonyms, sometimes including contrasting words Examples of Informational Texts:THESAURUSA book of synonyms, sometimes including contrasting words
117Examples of Informational Texts: ALMANACA publication, usually an annual, containing useful facts and statistical information
118Features of Informational Texts It is important to be able to recognize features of informational texts…..HeadingsSub-headingsIndexTable of ContentsGlossaryGraphic Features (photographs, diagrams, illustrations)CaptionsTopic/Main IdeaSupporting Details
119Headings and Sub-headings Features of Informational TextsHeadings and Sub-headingsTitles of sections using bold print, different font sizes and colorsThese headings and sub-headings help to organize the text into sections
120INDEXFeatures of Informational Texts a list of items (as topics or names) given at the end of a printed work that gives for each item the page number where it may be found
121Features of Informational Texts TABLE OF CONTENTSA table of contents, usually headed simply "Contents," is a list of the parts of a book or document organized in the order in which the parts appear.
122GLOSSARY a collection of specialized terms with their meaning Features of Informational TextsGLOSSARYa collection of specialized terms with their meaning
123Features of Informational Texts GRAPHIC FEATURES a graphic representation (as a picture, map, or graph) used especially for illustrationgraphicfeatureThe Mona Lisa, by Italian painter Leonardo da Vinci, is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world.caption
124Features of Informational Texts CAPTIONSthe heading especially of an article or document; the explanatory comment or designation accompanying a pictorial illustrationAPPLE
125AUDIENCE A reading, listening, or viewing public Features of Informational TextsA reading, listening, or viewing publicSometimes it may be important to understand who the intended audience is, especially if you are creating informational text.
126Features of Informational Texts CITATIONA citation is a reference to a work, such as a book or a journal article - it provides the necessary information needed to locate the work. A book citation provides the author, title, publisher, publication place, and year of a work.Citations often appear at the end of the work in the form of a bibliography.
127FACTA piece of information that can be shown or demonstrated to be true.
130Main Idea Main Idea - is like the heart of the text or a paragraph. It is the controlling idea.All the other supporting details in the text or within a paragraph should tell us more about the main idea.
131General Versus Specific The main idea is a general one.The supporting ideas in the passage are specific ones.Which word is the most general:Potato or Vegetable?
132What about the topic?The topic is the general subject of a reading passage.To find the topic, just ask yourself: “Who or what is this passage about?”The topic can be expressed in a word or a phrase.WHO?
133Supporting DetailsSupporting details prove the value of the main idea. What are they here?Homeless people have many problems. In winter, it’s hard to stay warm and it gets too hot in summer. It’s also hard to keep things safe without a home. Worst is the lack of privacy.
134SUPPORTING DETAILSExamples and illustrations to the topic sentence or main idea of a piece of writing