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Literature: What are we learning? Language Arts Mrs. Catlett.

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2 Literature: What are we learning? Language Arts Mrs. Catlett

3 Subject (front side) Simple subject—is the key noun or pronoun that tells what the sentence is about. Compound subject—is made up of two or more simple subjects that are joined by a conjunction and have the same verb. –Who or what is the sentence talking about?

4 Subject (Back side) Examples Simple subject –Sarah went to the store. Compound –Sarah and Susan went to the store.

5 Predicate(front side) Simple predicate—is the verb or verb phrase that shows the action in the sentence. Compound predicate—is made up of two or more simple predicates that are joined by a conjunction and have the same subject. –What is the subject (who or what) doing in the sentence?

6 Predicate (Back side) Examples Simple predicate (verb) –Sarah went to the store. Compound –Sarah ate and showered before school was cancelled.

7 Noun (front side) Common noun—names a general class of people Proper noun—specifies a particular person, place, thing, event, or idea. Proper nouns are always capitalized. Concrete noun—names an object that occupies space or that can be recognized by any of the sense. Abstract noun—names an idea a quality, or a characteristic.

8 Noun (Back side) Examples Common noun. –Her aunt took her to the store. Proper noun –Her aunt took her to visit the Vietnam War Memorial which represents for many a symbol of peace. Concrete noun Abstract noun

9 Verb (front side) Action verb tells what someone or something is doing. Transitive verb is followed by a direct object—that answer the question what? Or whom? Intransitive verb is not followed by a word that answers what? Or whom? Linking verbs links, or joins, the subject of a sentence with an adjective or nominative.

10 Verb (Back side) Examples Action verb/transitive/direct object –Adam jogged home. Action verb/intransitive –Adam jogged in the direction of his home. Linking verb The trucks were red.

11 Sentences (front side) Simple sentence—has only one main clause and no subordinating clauses. Compound sentence—has two or more main clauses. Complex sentence—has at least one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. Compound-Complex Sentence—has two or more main clauses and one or more subordinate clauses.

12 Sentences (Back side) Examples Simple sentence –The bananas were ready to be picked. Compound Sentence –Zach studied for his test, and Sarah stayed home sick.

13 Sentences (Back side) Examples. Complex Sentence/subordinate clause –Because they did not study for the test, these students are going to fail the test. Compound-Complex Sentence After a long weekend, Carla and Sarah returned to college, but Sarah was able to sleep in the next day.

14 The Simple Sentence A simple sentence has one independent clause (one subject and a verb): I live in San Francisco. Subject Verb

15 Compound Sentence You can make a compound sentence by joining two logically related independent clauses by using… - a semicolon - a coordinating conjunction - a transition

16 Compound Sentence A compound sentence contains two independent clauses that are joined together. She works in the city, but she lives in the suburbs. Independent Clause

17 Using a Semicolon Independent Clause ; Independent Clause I love living in the city ; there are so many things to do. Independent Clause

18 Using a Coordinating Conjunction Independent Clause,coordinating conjunction Independent Clause He couldn’t watch the show, so he decided to tape it. Independent Clause

19 Coordinating Conjunctions Logical RelationshipCoordinating Conjunction AdditionAnd ContrastBut, yet ChoiceOr, nor CauseFor ResultSo

20 FANBOYS For  F And  A Nor  N But  B Or  O Yet  Y So  S Another way to remember these is…

21 CAUTION! Do NOT use a comma every time you use the words and, or, but, nor, for, so, yet. Use a comma only when the coordinating conjunction joins two independent clauses. Independent Clause No comma- not an independent clause The necklace was beautiful but expensive. Simple Sentence

22 Using a Transition Independent Clause ; transition, Independent Clause I love San Francisco ; however, I hate the traffic. Independent Clause Click here to see lists of transitions.

23 John cannot set up his typewriter because the wall has no outlet. Complex Sentences A complex sentence contains at least one independent clause and one dependent clause. Independent Clause Dependent Clause Subordinating Conjunction

24 Example- Complex Sentence A complex sentence contains at least one independent clause and one dependent clause. She will go to school in the city until she finds a job. Independent Clause Dependent Clause Subordinating Conjunction

25 When I first moved to the city, I was afraid to drive the steep and narrow streets. Complex Sentences Use a comma after a dependent clause if it begins the sentence. Subordinating Conjunction Independent Clause Use a comma if the dependent clause is the first part of the sentence.

26 Common Subordinating Conjunctions(front side) Subordinating conjunction joins two clauses in such a way as to make one grammatically dependent on the other. Example: –We go to the park whenever Mom lets us.

27 Common Subordinating conjunctions(back side) afteralthoughas as ifas long asas soon as as thoughbecausebefore ifeven thoughin order that sincethanthough so thatunlessuntil whenwheneverwhere whereaswhereverwhether While

28 RelationshipTransition AdditionMoreover Furthermore In addition besides Reinforcement/EmphasisIndeed In fact ContrastHowever On the contrary In contrast On the other hand Result or EffectConsequently Accordingly Thus Hence Therefore As a result

29 Reinforcement/EmphasisIndeed In fact ExemplificationFor example For instance In particular ExemplificationFor example For instance In particular TimeMeanwhile (at the same time) Subsequently (after) Thereafter (after) RelationshipTransition

30 Clauses vs. phrases (front side) A phrase is a group of words that acts in a sentence as a single part of speech. A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate and is used as a sentence or part of a sentence.

31 Clauses vs. Phrases(back side) Types of phrases –Prepositional phrase –Verbal phrase –Participle phrase –Appositive phrase –Infinitive phrase –Gerund phrase Types of clauses –Subordinate clause Adjective Adverb Noun

32 Adjective Phrases Adjective phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies, or describes, a noun or a pronoun. Example: The servers at the new restaurant are courteous. (phrase modifies servers)

33 Adverb phrase Adverb phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Example: The servers dress with a flamboyant flair. (modifies dress the verb) Example: The restaurant is popular with young people.(modifies popular an adjective) Example: The restaurant opens early in the morning. (modifes early an adverb)

34 Infinitive (phrases) Infinitive is formed with the word to and a word that can act as a verb. Infinitives are often used as nouns. Infinitive phrases are a group of words that includes an infinitive and other words that complete its meaning. Example: To write is Alice’s ambition. To write a great novel was Alice’s ambition.

35 Participle/ Participial phrases Participle is a verb from that can act as the main verb in a verb phrase or as an adjective to modify a noun or pronoun. Participial phrases are groups of words that includes a participle and other words that complete its meaning.’ Participles end in -ed, --ing, or en Example: His playing skill improves daily.

36 Gerund (phrases) Gerund is a verb from that ends in –ing and is used a a noun. Gerund phrases are groups of words that include a gerund and other words that complete its meaing. Example: Exercising on a bike is fun for all ages.

37 Adjective Clause An adjective clause is a subordinate (dependent clause) that modifies, or describes, a noun or a pronoun in the main clause of a complex sentence. Adjective clauses begin with relative pronouns (TW6): who(ever), whose, whom(ever), which(ever), where(ever), when(ever), and that

38 Adjective Clause Example: The Aqua-Lung, which divers strap on, holds oxygen. Try these: 1.Road maps, which show roadways, can be fascinating.

39 Adverb Clause An adverb clause is a subordinate clause (dependent clause) that often modifies the verb in the main clause of a complex sentence. It tells how, when, where, why, or under what conditions the action occurs. Adverb clauses begin with subordinating conjunctions(see next page)

40 Adverb Clause Example: After we won the meet, we shook hands with our opponents.

41 Noun Clause A noun clause is a subordinate clause (dependent clause) used as a noun. It (the clause) can be replaced with a pronoun (it, they, he, she, etc). Noun clauses begin with relative pronouns (TW6): who(ever), whose, whom(ever), which(ever), where(ever), when(ever), and that They also begin with how(ever), if, whether, why, what (ever)

42 Literary Elements

43 Plot Graphic Organizer Introduction Event(s) leading up to climax Climax Event(s) after the climax Resolution Rising Action Falling Action

44 Allegory: A story in which the characters represent abstract qualities or ideas. For example, in westerns, the sheriff represents the good, and the outlaw represents evil.

45 Alliteration: The repetition of first consonants in a group of words as in “Peter Piper Picked a Peck of Pickled Peppers.”

46 Allusion: A reference to something or someone often literary. For instance, if you were trying to instill confidence in a friend and said, “Use the force,” that would be an allusion to Stars Wars. The verb form of allusion is to allude.

47 Antagonist: A major character who opposes the protagonist in a story or play.

48 Archetype: A character who represents a certain type of person. For example, Daniel Boone is an archetype of the early American frontiersman.

49 Assonance: The repetition of vowel sounds as in “Days wane away.”

50 Atmosphere: The overall feeling of a work, which is related to tone and mood.

51 Blank verse: Unrhymed lines of poetry usually in iambic pentameter. Plenty of modern poetry is written in blank verse.

52 Characterization: The means by which an author establishes character. An author may directly describe the appearance and personality of character or show it through action or dialogue.

53 Climax: The point at which the action in a story or play reaches its emotional peak.

54 Conflict: The elements that create a plot. Traditionally, every plot is build from the most basic elements of a conflict and an eventual resolution. The conflict can be internal (within one character) or external (among or between characters, society, and/or nature).

55 Contrast: To explain how two things differ. To compare and contrast is to explain how two things are alike and how they are different.

56 Couplets: A pair of rhyming lines in a poem often set off from the rest of the poem. Shakespeare’s sonnets all end in couplets.

57 Denouement: The resolution of the conflict in a plot after the climax. It also refers to the resolution of the action in a story or play after the principal drama is resolved—in other words, tying up the loose ends or wrapping up a story.

58 Dramatic Monologue: A poem with a fictional narrator addressed to someone who identity the audience knows, but who does not say anything.

59 Elegy: A poem mourning the dead.

60 End rhyme: Rhyming words that are at the ends of their respective lines— what we typically think of as normal rhyme.

61 Epic: A long poem narrating the adventures of a heroic figure— for example, Homer’s The Odyssey.

62 Fable: A story that illustrates a moral often using animals as the character—for example, The Tortoise and the Hare.

63 Figurative Language: Language that does not mean exactly what it says. For example, you can call someone who is very angry “steaming.” Unless steam was actually coming out of your ears, you were using figurative language.

64 First Person Point of View:The point of view of writing which the narrator refers to himself as “I.”

65 Foreshadowing: A technique in which an author gives clues about something that will happen later in the story.

66 Free Verse: Poetry with no set meter (rhythm) or rhyme scheme.

67 Genre: A kind of style usually art or literature. Some literary genres are mysteries, westerns, and romances.

68 Hyperbole: A huge exaggeration. For example, “Dan’s the funniest guy on the planet!” or “That baseball card is worth a zillion dollars!”

69 Iambic pentameter: Ten-syllable lines in which every other syllable is stressed. For example: “With eyes like stars upon the brave night air.”

70 Imagery: The use of description that helps the reader imagine how something looks, sounds, feels, smells, or taste. Most of the time, it refers to appearance. For example, “The young bird’s white, feathered wings flutter as he made his way across the nighttime sky.”

71 Internal rhyme: A rhyme that occurs within one line such as “He’s King of the Swing.”

72 Irony: Language that conveys a certain ideas by saying just he opposite.

73 Literal Language: Language that means exactly what it says.

74 Lyric: A type of poetry that expresses the poet’s emotions. It often tells some sort of brief story, engaging the reading in the experience.

75 Metaphor: A comparison that doesn’t use “like” or “as”—such as “He’s a rock” or “I am an island.”

76 Meter: The pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in the lines of a poem.

77 Monologue: A long speech by one character in a play or story.

78 Mood: The emotional atmosphere of a given piece of writing.

79 Motif: A theme or pattern that recurs in a work.

80 Myth: A legend that embodies the beliefs of people and offers some explanation for natural and social phenomena.

81 Onomatopoeia: The use of words that sound like what they mean such as “buzz.”

82 Paradox: A seeming contradiction. For example, “It was the best of times. It was the worst of times.”

83 Parody: A humorous, exaggerated imitation of another work.

84 Personification: Giving inanimate object human characteristics. For example, “The flames reached for the child hovering in the corner.”

85 Plot: The action in the story.

86 Prose: Writing organized into sentences and paragraphs. In other words, normal writing—not poetry.

87 Protagonist: The main character of a novel, play, or story.

88 Pun: The use of a word in a way that plays on its different meanings. For example, “Noticing the bunch of bananas, the hungry gorilla went ape.

89 Quatrain: A four-line stanza.

90 Rhetorical Question: A question not meant to be answered such as “Why can’t we just get along?”

91 Sarcasm: Language that conveys a certain idea by saying just he opposite such as if it’s raining outside and you say, “My what a beautiful day.”

92 Satire: A work that makes fun of something or someone.

93 Sensory imagery: Imagery that has to do with something you can see, hear, taste, smell, or feel. For example, “The stinging, salty air drenched his face.”

94 Simile: A comparison that uses “like” or “as” For example, “I’m as hungry as a wolf,” or “My love is like a rose.”

95 Soliloquy: A monologue in which a character expresses his or her thoughts to the audience and does not intend the other characters to hear them.

96 Sonnet: A fourteen-line poem written iambic pentameter. Different kinds of sonnets have different rhyme schemes.

97 Stanza: A section of poetry separated from the sections before and after it; a verse “paragraph.”

98 Subplot: A line of action secondary to the main story.

99 Symbolism: The use of one things to represent another. For example, a dove is a symbol of peace.

100 Theme: The central idea of a work.

101 Tone: The author’s attitude toward his or her subject. For example, a tone could be pessimistic, optimistic, or angry.

102 Voice: The narrative point of view whether it’s in the first, second, or third person.

103 Drama … … is a story told in front of an audience

104 Elements of Drama Playwright-the author of a play Actors-the people who perform Acts-the units of action Scenes-parts of the acts

105 Elements of Drama Characterization- playwright ’ s technique for making believable characters

106 Dramatic Speech Dialogue- conversation between or among characters Monologue-long speech by one single character (private thoughts)

107 Stage Directions Found in brackets [ ] Describe scenery and how characters speak C, Center Stage L, Stage Left R, Stage Right U, Upstage or Rear D, Downstage or Front

108 Theater Where a play takes place

109 Set Construction on the stage that shows time/place Could be called Scenery

110 Props Small movable items that the actors use to make actions look real

111 Informational Texts

112 FICTION Writing or story created from the imagination, not presented as fact, though it may be based on a true story or situation.

113 NONFICTION literature that is not fictional

114 What is “informational text”? Informational texts are nonfiction texts that explain or convey information. Some examples are: –Textbooks –Encyclopedias –Newspapers –Magazine –Web sites –pamphlets

115 BROCHURE Pamphlet or booklet that describes or advertises something Examples of Informational Texts:

116 ATLAS A collection of maps in book form Examples of Informational Texts:

117 THESAURUS A book of synonyms, sometimes including contrasting words Examples of Informational Texts:

118 ALMANAC A publication, usually an annual, containing useful facts and statistical information Examples of Informational Texts:

119 Features of Informational Texts It is important to be able to recognize features of informational texts….. –Headings –Sub-headings –Index –Table of Contents –Glossary –Graphic Features (photographs, diagrams, illustrations) –Captions –Topic/Main Idea –Supporting Details

120 Headings and Sub-headings Titles of sections using bold print, different font sizes and colors These headings and sub-headings help to organize the text into sections Features of Informational Texts

121 INDEX a list of items (as topics or names) given at the end of a printed work that gives for each item the page number where it may be found Features of Informational Texts

122 TABLE OF CONTENTS A table of contents, usually headed simply "Contents," is a list of the parts of a book or document organized in the order in which the parts appear. Features of Informational Texts

123 GLOSSARY a collection of specialized terms with their meaning Features of Informational Texts

124 GRAPHIC FEATURES a graphic representation (as a picture, map, or graph) used especially for illustration The Mona Lisa, by Italian painter Leonardo da Vinci, is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world.Mona Lisa ItalianLeonardo da VinciWestern world graphic feature caption Features of Informational Texts

125 CAPTIONS the heading especially of an article or document; the explanatory comment or designation accompanying a pictorial illustration APPLE Features of Informational Texts

126 AUDIENCE A reading, listening, or viewing public Sometimes it may be important to understand who the intended audience is, especially if you are creating informational text. Features of Informational Texts

127 CITATION A citation is a reference to a work, such as a book or a journal article - it provides the necessary information needed to locate the work. A book citation provides the author, title, publisher, publication place, and year of a work. Citations often appear at the end of the work in the form of a bibliography. Features of Informational Texts

128 FACT A piece of information that can be shown or demonstrated to be true.

129 OPINION a judgment one holds as true

130 Writing

131 Main Idea Main Idea - is like the heart of the text or a paragraph. It is the controlling idea. All the other supporting details in the text or within a paragraph should tell us more about the main idea. ma

132 General Versus Specific The main idea is a general one. The supporting ideas in the passage are specific ones. Which word is the most general: Potato or Vegetable?

133 What about the topic? The topic is the general subject of a reading passage. To find the topic, just ask yourself: “Who or what is this passage about?” The topic can be expressed in a word or a phrase. WHO?

134 Supporting Details Supporting details prove the value of the main idea. What are they here? Homeless people have many problems. In winter, it’s hard to stay warm and it gets too hot in summer. It’s also hard to keep things safe without a home. Worst is the lack of privacy.

135 SUPPORTING DETAILS Examples and illustrations to the topic sentence or main idea of a piece of writing

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