Presentation on theme: "8 Features of a Civilization Writing"— Presentation transcript:
18 Features of a Civilization Writing CitiesArts & ArchitecturePublic Works8 Features of a CivilizationWritingWell organized central governmentsSocial ClassesComplex ReligionsJob Specialization
2Chinese called their land _______ meaning _______________. It was Chap. 3 Sec. 3Chinese called their land _______ meaning _______________. It wasthe most ______ of the early civilizations which led them to believe that____ was the center of the _____ and the only source of civilization.Geography set barriers which limited the movement of people. _______ , _______and ________ divided China from the rest ofthe world. The contact they did have was some _____ and attacks bynomadic______. These groups accepted the __________ of the Chineseand were usually ________ into the advanced Chinese civilization.ZhongguoMiddle KingdomIsolatedChinaEarthJunglesDesertsOceansTradeInvadersSuperiorityabsorbed
3_________: east coast; valley of the _________ and Yangzi Main regions of China:_________: east coast; valley of the _________ and YangziRivers; excellent for_______._________; Xinjiang, _________ and Manchuria; ruggedand ____ climate; _____ live here.Chinese history began in the ________ Valley. People teamed to_____ and this led to the beginning of a strong ______ government. Thename of the river came from _____(fine yellow soil) that it carried. It got thenickname "____________" because __________ caused destruction.Control of China was by ruling families called ________. They remained in power as long as they provided good ___________. If rulers became weak or corrupt they believed ______ would withdraw its support.HeartlandHuang HeFarmingOutlyingMongoliaharshnomadsHuang HeFarmcentralLoessRiver of Sorrowsfloodingdynastiesgovernmentheaven
4United more than ____ city-states in China. Chinese AchievementSHANG DYNASTY (1500 B.C B.C.)United more than ____ city-states in China.Used war ______ and advanced _____ to protect theirkingdom. Captured new _______ and spread Chinesecivilization.People began to keep ______ records for the first time. Over____ characters made it hard to read and write.A _____ was invented based on phases of the ____and_____ days a year.200Chariotsweaponsterritorieswritten10,000calendarmoon365¼
5Control by this dynasty was the ______ in Chinese history. ZHOU DYNASTY ( 1028 B.C.-256 B.C.)Control by this dynasty was the ______ in Chinese history.Copper and gold _____ used for the first time. Local _____ owned the land but owed _____ service and other support to the _____. China became the world's most ______ country during these years. Ruled by the “____________” the divine right to rule through orders from the ______.longestcoinsPrincesmilitaryKingpopulatedMandate of HeavenGods
6Name _____ derived from the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty. QIN DYNASTY (256 B.C.-206 B.C.)Name _____ derived from the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty.Shih Huang Ti-"__________" captured new territories and set up the first Chinese ______.Completed work on the ___________ which guarded against invasion. System of _______ was simplified and a uniform setof _____ adopted.ChinaFirst EmperorempireGreat Wallwritingweights
7Empire expanded into Manchuria, ______ and central Asia. HAN DYNASTY (206 B.C A.D.)Empire expanded into Manchuria, ______ and central Asia.Invented______, sundials and water __________.Doctors used a new method-__________ a piercing of the skin with needles to relieve pain. Wrote the world's first ________.Mongoliasilkwheel & clockacupuncturedictionary
8The Dynastic Cycle New Dynasty Brings peace Builds roads & canals Gives land to peasantsProtects peopleOld DynastyTaxes people too muchStops protecting peopleLets road & wall fall apartTreats people unfairlyProblemsFloods, earthquakesPeasants revoltInvaders attack empireBandits raid in provincesNew dynasty claims Mandate of HeavenOld dynasty loses Mandate of Heaven
91st School confucianism of Thought It is not a religion Based on the teachings of China’s most influential philosopherHe was concerned with social order & good governmentThe best leader could rule by good moral exampleHe stressed the importance of duty, responsibility, & filial pietyThe AnalectsHarmony resulted from people accepting their place in society5 Relationships – father to son, elder brother to younger, husband to wife, ruler to subject, friend to friend
102nd School Legalism of Thought Grew out of the teachings of Hanfeizi Also concerned with social orderThe only way to achieve this order was through strict laws & punishmentsStrength not goodness is a ruler’s greatest virtueSo cruel that later generations despised it
113rd School Taoism of Thought Focus was on the Tao “The Way” (the universe as a whole)Concerned with living in harmony with nature – Simple LifeThe best type of government is one that governs the leastEmphasized the virtue of yielding – going with your natural courseBelievers rejected the unnatural ways of society –became hermits, mystics, artist, or poetsEvolved into a popular religion with gods, goddesses,& magical practices (alchemy).Laozi
12Buddhism Became another popular school of thought Was hard to accept at first. No family loyalty, but loyalty to monks and nuns that gave up family lifeIntroduced nirvanaWas appealing because of the promise of escape from suffering. No personal salvation in other schools of thinkingBuddhism absorbed Confucian & Taoist traditions in China
13The Shang dynasty: 1600 - 1100 BC The first dynasty that we know about According to legend, there was a Xia dynasty before them but archaeologists have not yet found any written records from this era.Writing on bronze vessels and oracle bones have survived from Shang times.States fought each other for land until the Shang kings gained control in northern China and set up large cities.Peasants grew food for everyone and craftspeople made tools, weapons, clothing, ornaments and household goods from bronze, silk, jade, clay and other materials.The royal family lived inside a walled palace with their advisers, and diviners who predicted the future.When a king died, servants and animals were sacrificed to go with him to Heaven.
14The Zhou dynasty: c BCWarlike Zhou people from the Wei River Valley in the northwest conquered the Shang and began a dynasty that lasted for more than 800 years.Zhou rulers enlarged the Shang kingdom and gave land to their relatives and advisers. At first, these noblemen were loyal to the Zhou kings. But during the time of the Warring States, the local lords raised armiesThey forced many peasants to become foot soldiers, and competed with one another for power.The Zhou era brought important changes. Cities grew in size and number, and merchants began to carry trade goods between them. Metalworkers forged iron tools and weapons. The use of iron plows made farming easier and increased food production.Scholars reacted to the unsettled times by thinking of ways to make ancient China a more peaceful country.
15The Qin dynasty: BCThe powerful Qin conquered the six major kingdoms that remained at the end of the Warring States period.The king thanked his ancestors for his success and decided to drop the title wang, which meant "king."He renamed himself Shi (meaning "First“) Huangdi (meaning "emperor and divine ruler").The First Emperor was very important because he unified ancient China by making strict laws, taxing everyone in the country and introducing one script for writing.He commanded his subjects to build roads and canals, and to join existing walls into one long defensive wall.Qin Shi Huangdi did not agree with the teachings of Confucius and other scholars, and ordered their books to be burned.The First Emperor paid magicians, called alchemists, for potions to help him live forever.After his death, his dynasty soon collapsed.
16The Han dynasty: 206 BC - AD 220Liu Bang, a government official, gained power and founded this dynasty, which lasted for more than 400 years.Han emperors strengthened the Qin system of government and extended ancient China's boundaries.They developed a civil service, based on the teachings of Confucius, to run the empire and keep records in a central place.Scholars who wanted to become government officials had to study very hard.The government organized the salt and iron mines, and state factories began mass-producing objects-from iron and steel farming tools to silk cloth and paper.Han emperors began to control the eastern end of the Silk Road that linked Asia and Europe.Buddhism started to spread throughout ancient China.The Han dynasty finally collapsed after a succession of weak child emperors and droughts and floods.
17Social Classes scholars peasants artisans merchants They made nothing, yet grew rich by trading goods.Used their skills to make things that people needed (weapons, tools, & cooking utensils)The country depended on them to produce foodRespected by everyone because they could read & write