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8 Features of a Civilization Writing

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1 8 Features of a Civilization Writing
Cities Arts & Architecture Public Works 8 Features of a Civilization Writing Well organized central governments Social Classes Complex Religions Job Specialization

2 Chinese called their land _______ meaning _______________. It was
Chap. 3 Sec. 3 Chinese called their land _______ meaning _______________. It was the most ______ of the early civilizations which led them to believe that ____ was the center of the _____ and the only source of civilization. Geography set barriers which limited the movement of people. _______ , _______and ________ divided China from the rest of the world. The contact they did have was some _____ and attacks by nomadic______. These groups accepted the __________ of the Chinese and were usually ________ into the advanced Chinese civilization. Zhongguo Middle Kingdom Isolated China Earth Jungles Deserts Oceans Trade Invaders Superiority absorbed

3 _________: east coast; valley of the _________ and Yangzi
Main regions of China: _________: east coast; valley of the _________ and Yangzi Rivers; excellent for_______. _________; Xinjiang, _________ and Manchuria; rugged and ____ climate; _____ live here. Chinese history began in the ________ Valley. People teamed to _____ and this led to the beginning of a strong ______ government. The name of the river came from _____(fine yellow soil) that it carried. It got the nickname "____________" because __________ caused destruction. Control of China was by ruling families called ________. They remained in power as long as they provided good ___________. If rulers became weak or corrupt they believed ______ would withdraw its support. Heartland Huang He Farming Outlying Mongolia harsh nomads Huang He Farm central Loess River of Sorrows flooding dynasties government heaven

4 United more than ____ city-states in China.
Chinese Achievement SHANG DYNASTY (1500 B.C B.C.) United more than ____ city-states in China. Used war ______ and advanced _____ to protect their kingdom. Captured new _______ and spread Chinese civilization. People began to keep ______ records for the first time. Over ____ characters made it hard to read and write. A _____ was invented based on phases of the ____ and_____ days a year. 200 Chariots weapons territories written 10,000 calendar moon 365¼

5 Control by this dynasty was the ______ in Chinese history.
ZHOU DYNASTY ( 1028 B.C.-256 B.C.) Control by this dynasty was the ______ in Chinese history. Copper and gold _____ used for the first time. Local _____ owned the land but owed _____ service and other support to the _____. China became the world's most ______ country during these years. Ruled by the “____________” the divine right to rule through orders from the ______. longest coins Princes military King populated Mandate of Heaven Gods

6 Name _____ derived from the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty.
QIN DYNASTY (256 B.C.-206 B.C.) Name _____ derived from the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty. Shih Huang Ti-"__________" captured new territories and set up the first Chinese ______. Completed work on the ___________ which guarded against invasion. System of _______ was simplified and a uniform set of _____ adopted. China First Emperor empire Great Wall writing weights

7 Empire expanded into Manchuria, ______ and central Asia.
HAN DYNASTY (206 B.C A.D.) Empire expanded into Manchuria, ______ and central Asia. Invented______, sundials and water __________. Doctors used a new method-__________ a piercing of the skin with needles to relieve pain. Wrote the world's first ________. Mongolia silk wheel & clock acupuncture dictionary

8 The Dynastic Cycle New Dynasty Brings peace Builds roads & canals
Gives land to peasants Protects people Old Dynasty Taxes people too much Stops protecting people Lets road & wall fall apart Treats people unfairly Problems Floods, earthquakes Peasants revolt Invaders attack empire Bandits raid in provinces New dynasty claims Mandate of Heaven Old dynasty loses Mandate of Heaven

9 1st School confucianism of Thought It is not a religion
Based on the teachings of China’s most influential philosopher He was concerned with social order & good government The best leader could rule by good moral example He stressed the importance of duty, responsibility, & filial piety The Analects Harmony resulted from people accepting their place in society 5 Relationships – father to son, elder brother to younger, husband to wife, ruler to subject, friend to friend

10 2nd School Legalism of Thought Grew out of the teachings of Hanfeizi
Also concerned with social order The only way to achieve this order was through strict laws & punishments Strength not goodness is a ruler’s greatest virtue So cruel that later generations despised it

11 3rd School Taoism of Thought
Focus was on the Tao “The Way” (the universe as a whole) Concerned with living in harmony with nature – Simple Life The best type of government is one that governs the least Emphasized the virtue of yielding – going with your natural course Believers rejected the unnatural ways of society – became hermits, mystics, artist, or poets Evolved into a popular religion with gods, goddesses, & magical practices (alchemy). Laozi

12 Buddhism Became another popular school of thought
Was hard to accept at first. No family loyalty, but loyalty to monks and nuns that gave up family life Introduced nirvana Was appealing because of the promise of escape from suffering. No personal salvation in other schools of thinking Buddhism absorbed Confucian & Taoist traditions in China

13 The Shang dynasty: 1600 - 1100 BC The first dynasty that we know about
According to legend, there was a Xia dynasty before them but archaeologists have not yet found any written records from this era. Writing on bronze vessels and oracle bones have survived from Shang times. States fought each other for land until the Shang kings gained control in northern China and set up large cities. Peasants grew food for everyone and craftspeople made tools, weapons, clothing, ornaments and household goods from bronze, silk, jade, clay and other materials. The royal family lived inside a walled palace with their advisers, and diviners who predicted the future. When a king died, servants and animals were sacrificed to go with him to Heaven.

14 The Zhou dynasty: c BC Warlike Zhou people from the Wei River Valley in the northwest conquered the Shang and began a dynasty that lasted for more than 800 years. Zhou rulers enlarged the Shang kingdom and gave land to their relatives and advisers. At first, these noblemen were loyal to the Zhou kings. But during the time of the Warring States, the local lords raised armies They forced many peasants to become foot soldiers, and competed with one another for power. The Zhou era brought important changes. Cities grew in size and number, and merchants began to carry trade goods between them. Metalworkers forged iron tools and weapons. The use of iron plows made farming easier and increased food production. Scholars reacted to the unsettled times by thinking of ways to make ancient China a more peaceful country.

15 The Qin dynasty: BC The powerful Qin conquered the six major kingdoms that remained at the end of the Warring States period. The king thanked his ancestors for his success and decided to drop the title wang, which meant "king." He renamed himself Shi (meaning "First“) Huangdi (meaning "emperor and divine ruler"). The First Emperor was very important because he unified ancient China by making strict laws, taxing everyone in the country and introducing one script for writing. He commanded his subjects to build roads and canals, and to join existing walls into one long defensive wall. Qin Shi Huangdi did not agree with the teachings of Confucius and other scholars, and ordered their books to be burned. The First Emperor paid magicians, called alchemists, for potions to help him live forever. After his death, his dynasty soon collapsed.

16 The Han dynasty: 206 BC - AD 220 Liu Bang, a government official, gained power and founded this dynasty, which lasted for more than 400 years. Han emperors strengthened the Qin system of government and extended ancient China's boundaries. They developed a civil service, based on the teachings of Confucius, to run the empire and keep records in a central place. Scholars who wanted to become government officials had to study very hard. The government organized the salt and iron mines, and state factories began mass-producing objects-from iron and steel farming tools to silk cloth and paper. Han emperors began to control the eastern end of the Silk Road that linked Asia and Europe. Buddhism started to spread throughout ancient China. The Han dynasty finally collapsed after a succession of weak child emperors and droughts and floods.

17 Social Classes scholars peasants artisans merchants
They made nothing, yet grew rich by trading goods. Used their skills to make things that people needed (weapons, tools, & cooking utensils) The country depended on them to produce food Respected by everyone because they could read & write

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