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Absolute monarchs in Europe

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1 Absolute monarchs in Europe
Chapter 5 in text book Pages 152 to 185

2 Spain’s Empire & European Absolutism
Charles V… Hapsburg King (Spain, Am. Colonies, parts of Italy, Austria, & Netherlands) Devout Catholic Fought Muslims Opposed Lutherans Agreed to the Peace of Augsburg in 1555 Allowed German princes to choose a religion for their territory 1556, divided empire & retired in a monastery Ferdinand (brother) – Austria & the Holy Roman Empire Philip II (son) – Spain, Spanish Netherlands, & Am. Colonies

3 King philip II 1580 – King of Portugal died w/out heir
Philip was the king’s nephew & seized Portugal Including territories in Africa, India, & East Indies Claimed b/t ¼ & 1/5 of every shipload of treasure from the American Colonies Built large army & navy with wealth. Built palaces. Became great patron of the arts Defended Catholism against the protestants and Muslims (attacked Queen Elizabeth I)

4 Spanish Art & Literature
El Greco (“the Greek”) Born in Crete Brilliant clashing colors, distorted human figure, & had symbolic emotional expressions in paintings Showed deep Catholic faith of Spain Painted saints & martyrs Diego Velazquez 50 years after El Greco Used rich colors Painted the pride of the Spanish monarchy Court painter to Philip IV of Spain

5 Miguel de Cervantes 1605, Wrote Don Quixote de la Mancha
Birth of modern European novel Story… poor Spanish nobleman went crazy after reading too many books about heroic knights & then dressed up as a knight & mistook windmills for giants

6 Spanish empire weakens
Wealth from Americas caused economic problems Severe Inflation… Rise in the price of goods & services Taxes… 1500, Spain expelled the Jews & Moors Lost valuable artist & businesses Nobles didn’t have to pay taxes & tax burden fell on the lower class – Spain never developed a middle class Guilds… Dominated business markets Used old-fashion methods to produce products Spanish cloth & manufactured goods more expensive than those made somewhere else

7 Wars… Dutch Revolt… Borrowed money from German & Italian bankers
Silver from Americas sent to pay loans Philip had to declare Spain bankrupt three times Dutch Revolt… Had little in common with Spanish rulers Netherlands were mostly Calvinist & had a very productive middle class Philip raised taxes on the Dutch & tried to crush the Protestant faiths Dutch fought Spain for 11 years 1579, 7 northern provinces (Protestant) became independent 10 southern provinces were Catholic & remained with Spain

8 Independent Dutch prosper
Practiced religious toleration NOT a kingdom, but a republic United Provinces of the Netherlands Each province elected a governor – power depended upon the merchants & landowners

9 Dutch art 1600’s had the best banks, but also the best artist in Europe Rembrandt van Rijn Portraits of the wealthy middle-class merchants Group portraits Used sharp contrast of light and shadows Jan Vermeer Had domestic indoor settings Often painted women doing everyday activities

10 Dutch trading empire Stable government Economic growth
Replaced Italians as the bankers of Europe Had largest fleet of ships in the world ,800 ships Created the Dutch East India Company Dominated the Asian spice market & Indian Ocean trade

11 Theory of absolutism Rulers wanted to be absolute monarchs
Kings/Queens who held all of the power within their states’ boundaries Goal was to control every aspect of society Believed in divine right Idea that God created the monarchy & that the monarch acted as God’s representative here on Earth Answered only to God, not to subjects

12 Europe’s monarchs gain power
Feudalism declines & cities grow Political, economic, legal, & social system of the middle ages in Europe National kingdoms centralize authority Growing middle-class usually backed monarchs Church authority broke down = monarchs got greater control

13 Crises lead to absolutism
17th century – continuous warfare Gov’t built huge armies & increased taxes Widespread unrest & peasants revolted Monarchs increased their power & regulated everything from religious worship to social gatherings Created new gov’t bureaucracies to control the country’s economy No longer limited by nobles & representative bodies

14 French Monarchy 1559, King of France Henry II died
4 sons – 3 ruled & were incompetent King Francis II – 15 years old; died 1560 King Charles IX – 10 years old; died 1574 King Henry III – 24 years old; died 1589 Power came from mother Catherine de Medicis Wars between French Catholics & the Huguenots (French Protestants) caused great struggles for the French Monarchs 8 religious wars from 1562 to 1598

15 Henry of Navarre – Henry IV
Descendant of King Louis IX 1st marriage was to Margaret the daughter of King Henry II & Catherine. No children from this marriage 1589 – Catherine & King Henry III dies; Prince Henry of Navarre inherited the throne took the name King Henry IV 1st king of the Bourbon dynasty Gave up protestant beliefs & became Catholic for his country 1598- Created the Edict of Nantes – Huguenots could live in peace in France & set up their own houses of worship

16 Devote reign to rebuilding France & its prosperity
Wanted peace for his country, but some hated him for giving up his protestant faith 2nd marriage to Marie de Medici 1610 – a man jumped into Henry’s carriage and stabbed him to death His son Louis XIII took over the throne 9 years old; Marie (mother) guided him Weak king Appointed strong minister; Cardinal Richelieu

17 Cardinal Richelieu Essentially the ruler of France
Was the leader of Catholic church in France Moved against the Huguenots Didn’t allow Protestant cities to have protective walls Weakened the nobles’ power Forced them to take down fortified castles Wanted France to be the strongest state in Europe Greatest obstacle – Hapsburg rulers Spain, Austria, Netherlands, parts of Holy Roman Empire Caused France to go to war 30 years’ war

18 Louis XIV Comes to power
Son of Louis XIII 1643 – became king at the age of 14 True ruler was Richelieu’s successor Cardinal Mazarin Ended 30 years’ war in 1648 Nobles hated Mazarin b/c of higher taxes & more power to the centralized government Nobles led riots against Mazarin & threatened the life of Louis XIV Noble’s rebellion eventually failed

19 1661 - Cardinal Mazarin died
At 22 years old Louis took control of gov’t Weakened noble’s power & excluded them from councils Increased power of gov’t agents Devoted to helping France attain economic, political, & cultural brilliance Jean Baptiste Colbert – minister of finance Believed in mercantilism Made France self-sufficient & expanded manufacturing Increased taxes on imports Encouraged people to move to New France, fur trade $$$$

20 1658 – Louis XIV canceled Edict of Nantes
Thousands of Huguenot artisans & businesses left Surrounded himself with luxury Built the Palace at Versailles – 11 miles SW of Paris (Page 166 in text) In 2003 dollars cost est. $2.5 billion 36,000 laborers 6,000 horses Great patronage of the arts Made opera & ballet more popular Stated purpose of art was to glorify the king & promote values that supported his absolute rule

21 Louis XIV’s disastrous wars
1660 – France was most powerful country in Europe 1667 – invaded Spanish Netherlands Gained 12 towns 1672 – he led army into Dutch Netherlands Dutch flooded countryside on purpose 1678 – Treaty of Nijmegen ended war France gained several towns End of 1680’s – European alliance formed to stop France; weak countries came together to balance power in Europe

22 War of Spanish Succession –
1700 – King of Spain Charles II died childless Throne promised to Louis XIV’s grandson who was 16 years old; Philip of Anjou (Philip V-King of Spain) 1701 – Several European nations didn’t want the French Bourbons to have this much control…WAR! Treaty of Utrecht ended the war in 1714… Grandson remained King of Spain Great Britain took Gibraltar from Spain France gave Great Britain Nova Scotia & Newfoundland Austrian Hapsburgs took Spanish Netherlands & Spanish lands in Italy Prussia & Savoy were recognized as kingdoms

23 Louis XIV’s Death & Legacy
1715 – Died in bed This prompted rejoicing throughout France POSTITIVES - France ranked above all in art, literature, & statesmanship, military leader of Europe, strong American colonial empire NEGATIVES – constant wars, debt due to Versailles, resentment over taxes, abuse of power plagued his heirs – led to revolution

24 Thirty Years’ War Peace of Augsburg (1555) – Churches in Germany could be either Catholic or Lutheran – NOT Calvinist 1608 – Lutherans join the Protestant Union 1609 – Catholic German Princes formed the Catholic League 1618 – Ferdinand II closed Protestant churches in the Czech kingdom of Bohemia & they revolted German Protestant Princes also saw this as a chance to go after the Catholic emperor So begins the 30 years’ war…

25 PHASE ONE – Hapsburg Triumphs
Conflict over religion, territory, and power among European ruling families; 1618 to 1648 PHASE ONE – Hapsburg Triumphs First 12 years Hapsburg armies from Austria & Spain crushed Protestant troops Allowed to plunder/rob & destroy everything in their path Stopped Czech uprising Defeated German protestants helping Czechs PHASE TWO – Hapsburg Defeats Protestants of Sweden drove Hapsburg troops out of North Germany & changed the tide of war (1630) 1635 – French troops (Catholic) joined Protestants so Hapsburgs wouldn’t have more control than France

26 Peace of Westphalia 1648 – Ended the 30 years war
Weakened Hapsburg states of Spain & Austria Strengthened France b/c they received German territory German Princes became independent of the Holy Roman emperor Europe became a group of equal, independent states – abandoned the Catholic Empire New peace negotiations – all participants meet to settle problems & decide terms of peace Still used today

27 Austria Grows Stronger
After war several states were seriously weakened Hapsburgs of Austria worked to become absolute monarchs Reconquered Bohemia & wiped out Protestantism Created a new Czech nobility that pledged loyalty to the Hapsburgs Centralized gov’t & created army Reconquered Hungary from the Ottoman Empire Charles VI becomes Hapsburg ruler Controlled Czechs, Hungarians, Italians, Croatians, & Germans

28 Maria Theresa Charles VI eldest daughter (Maria) would be heir to all of his Hapsburg territories While in power… She decreased the power of the nobility Limited amount of labor that nobles could force peasants to do Faced years of war – main enemy was Prussia over land Her most famous child was Marie Antoinette – wife of Louis XVI of France

29 Rise of Prussia Frederick William inherited title of elector of Brandenburg AKA - The Great Elector/King Frederick William I His son started to use the term “king” After 30 years war, decided to have strong army (best in Europe) to ensure safety Weakened representative assemblies The Junkers (Prussia’s nobility) resisted growing power of king They were then given exclusive right to be officers in army

30 Frederick the Great Son of King Frederick William I
Loved music, philosophy, & poetry – not military While in power… Softened some of his father’s laws Became an aggressor in foreign affairs Encouraged religious toleration & legal reform Died without a son to succeed him

31 The Seven years’ war Maria Theresa made alliance with France
Alliance = Austria, France, & Russia Frederick II signed treaty with Britain Alliance = Prussia & Britain 1756 – Frederick attacked Saxony (Austrian ally) and eventually every European nation was involved War didn’t change Europe’s borders France lost colonies in North America Britain gained sole domination of India

32 Ivan IV – Ivan the terrible
1533 – came to power when he was 3 years old The boyars (nobles) fought for power & tried to control Ivan At 16 he seized power & crowned himself “czar” Means Caesar 1st Russian ruler to officially use the title Married Anastasia (1st of 8 wives) related to a boyar family The Romanovs

33 RULE BY TERROR, began in 1560 –
GOOD PERIOD, 1547 to – Won great victories Added lands to Russia Gave Russia code of laws Ruled justly RULE BY TERROR, began in 1560 – After Anastasia died; he accused Boyars of poisoning her Organized his own police force who hunted down & killed those Ivan thought were traitors; he then gave their land to other nobles Thousands were killed 1581 – had fight with oldest son which resulted in the son’s death Ivan’s 2nd son took throne 3 years later after his death Had a stroke while playing chess

34 Rise of the Romanovs Ivan’s 2nd son, Czar Feodor I, took throne but was physically & mentally incapable of ruling Ruled a short time & died without an heir Time of Troubles – Boyars struggled for power Heirs of czars died mysteriously Impostors tried to claim throne 1613 – Russian representatives met to chose the next czar; Michael Romanov – grandnephew of Ivan’s wife Began the Romanov dynasty which ruled for 300 years

35 Peter the great AKA – Czar Peter I
Originally shared throne with ½ brother Until the age of 24 REFORMS – Bought Russian Orthodox Church under gov’t control Abolished Office of Patriarch (head of church); Holy Synod would run church under Peter’s direction Reduced power of landowners Hired European officers to teach his army new tactics Imposed very high taxes to pay for military

36 GOAL #1 – to learn about European customs & manufacturing techniques
GOAL #1 – to learn about European customs & manufacturing techniques. To Westernize Russia To achieve goal he… Introduced potatoes Started 1st Russian newspaper Women were allowed to attend social gatherings Nobles had to give up their traditional clothing for Western European fashions Education: School of Navigation Schools for art & science

37 GOAL #2 – To have a seaport that would make it easier to travel west.
Fought Sweden 21 years to gain a piece of the Baltic coast Built a new city on swampy land Named it St. Petersburg after his patron saint After completed, nobles were forced from their homes to make new ones in the new capital Peter died in 1725 with Russia finally being a strong European power

38 The English monarchy Queen Elizabeth I died in 1603 with no heir
Her cousin James Stuart took throne – King James I Ruler of Scotland & England Countries are not united until 1707 even though they have same ruler 1625, James I dies & his son Charles I takes throne All of these absolute monarchs had financial troubles due to lavish lifestyles & wars with Spain and France

39 Petition of Right Charles I requested money from Parliament & they made him sign document that stated... No imprisonment without due cause No new taxes without Parliament’s approval Soldiers would not be housed in the king’s private homes No martial law in peacetime For the 1st time the law was higher than the absolute ruler 1629 – Charles ignored it & dissolved Parliament To get funds he imposed fees, fines, & taxes

40 English Civil War Charles needed $ & had to call upon Parliament
They passed laws to limit royal power Charles tried to arrest Parliament leaders, but they escaped A mob of Londoners stormed the palace & Charles escaped to north England where he raised an army War between Charles I & his supporters (The Royalist/Cavaliers) vs. opponents of King Charles I (Puritan supporters of Parliament/Roundheads) 1642 to 1649

41 Oliver Cromwell – Puritan general
took control in 1644 By 1647 he held Charles I as prisoner 1649 – Charles I was put on trial for treason against Parliament He was found guilty Sentenced to death by public beheading Never before had a reigning monarch faced a public trial and execution Cromwell took control of the throne

42 Cromwell’s rule 1649 – abolished monarch & House of Lords and established a commonwealth; republican form of gov’t – then became a military dictator Crushed an uprising in Ireland, seized lands & homes and then gave them to English soldiers Created laws that promoted Puritan morality & abolished “sinful” activities… Theater, Sporting Events, & Dancing Had religious toleration for all Christians with the exception of Catholics Even allowed the Jews back into England

43 Charles II reigns Cromwell died in 1658 & his gov’t collapsed
1659 – Parliament put the oldest son of Charles I on the throne Restored monarchy & rule is called the “Restoration” 1679 – Parliament passed habeas corpus “to have the body” Gave every prisoner the right to obtain a writ or document ordering that they be brought before a judge to specify charges Now a monarch couldn’t put people in jail just because Had no children & his brother James II took throne in 1685

44 James II Offended subjects b/c of his Catholic beliefs
Had an older daughter, Mary, that was protestant & a new son who was Catholic Parliament didn’t want a Catholic monarchy & convinced Mary and her husband William of Orange (prince of Netherlands) to overthrow her father, James II James II fled to France when Williams army came into London Glorious Revolution – bloodless overthrow

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