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Chapter 5 in text book Pages 152 to 185.  Charles V…  Hapsburg King (Spain, Am. Colonies, parts of Italy, Austria, & Netherlands)  Devout Catholic.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 in text book Pages 152 to 185.  Charles V…  Hapsburg King (Spain, Am. Colonies, parts of Italy, Austria, & Netherlands)  Devout Catholic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 in text book Pages 152 to 185

2  Charles V…  Hapsburg King (Spain, Am. Colonies, parts of Italy, Austria, & Netherlands)  Devout Catholic  Fought Muslims  Opposed Lutherans  Agreed to the Peace of Augsburg in 1555 Allowed German princes to choose a religion for their territory  1556, divided empire & retired in a monastery Ferdinand (brother) – Austria & the Holy Roman Empire Philip II (son) – Spain, Spanish Netherlands, & Am. Colonies

3  1580 – King of Portugal died w/out heir  Philip was the king’s nephew & seized Portugal  Including territories in Africa, India, & East Indies  Claimed b/t ¼ & 1/5 of every shipload of treasure from the American Colonies  Built large army & navy with wealth. Built palaces.  Became great patron of the arts  Defended Catholism against the protestants and Muslims (attacked Queen Elizabeth I)

4  El Greco (“the Greek”)  Born in Crete  Brilliant clashing colors, distorted human figure, & had symbolic emotional expressions in paintings  Showed deep Catholic faith of Spain  Painted saints & martyrs  Diego Velazquez  50 years after El Greco  Used rich colors  Painted the pride of the Spanish monarchy  Court painter to Philip IV of Spain

5  Miguel de Cervantes  1605, Wrote Don Quixote de la Mancha  Birth of modern European novel  Story… poor Spanish nobleman went crazy after reading too many books about heroic knights & then dressed up as a knight & mistook windmills for giants

6  Wealth from Americas caused economic problems  Severe Inflation…  Rise in the price of goods & services  Taxes…  1500, Spain expelled the Jews & Moors  Lost valuable artist & businesses  Nobles didn’t have to pay taxes & tax burden fell on the lower class – Spain never developed a middle class  Guilds…  Dominated business markets  Used old-fashion methods to produce products  Spanish cloth & manufactured goods more expensive than those made somewhere else

7  Wars…  Borrowed money from German & Italian bankers  Silver from Americas sent to pay loans  Philip had to declare Spain bankrupt three times  Dutch Revolt…  Had little in common with Spanish rulers  Netherlands were mostly Calvinist & had a very productive middle class  Philip raised taxes on the Dutch & tried to crush the Protestant faiths  Dutch fought Spain for 11 years  1579, 7 northern provinces (Protestant) became independent  10 southern provinces were Catholic & remained with Spain

8  Practiced religious toleration  NOT a kingdom, but a republic  United Provinces of the Netherlands  Each province elected a governor – power depended upon the merchants & landowners

9  1600’s had the best banks, but also the best artist in Europe  Rembrandt van Rijn  Portraits of the wealthy middle-class merchants  Group portraits  Used sharp contrast of light and shadows  Jan Vermeer  Had domestic indoor settings  Often painted women doing everyday activities

10  Stable government  Economic growth  Replaced Italians as the bankers of Europe  Had largest fleet of ships in the world  ,800 ships  Created the Dutch East India Company  Dominated the Asian spice market & Indian Ocean trade

11  Rulers wanted to be absolute monarchs  Kings/Queens who held all of the power within their states’ boundaries  Goal was to control every aspect of society  Believed in divine right  Idea that God created the monarchy & that the monarch acted as God’s representative here on Earth  Answered only to God, not to subjects

12  Feudalism declines & cities grow  Political, economic, legal, & social system of the middle ages in Europe  National kingdoms centralize authority  Growing middle-class usually backed monarchs  Church authority broke down = monarchs got greater control

13  17 th century – continuous warfare  Gov’t built huge armies & increased taxes  Widespread unrest & peasants revolted  Monarchs increased their power & regulated everything from religious worship to social gatherings  Created new gov’t bureaucracies to control the country’s economy  No longer limited by nobles & representative bodies

14  1559, King of France Henry II died  4 sons – 3 ruled & were incompetent  King Francis II – 15 years old; died 1560  King Charles IX – 10 years old; died 1574  King Henry III – 24 years old; died 1589  Power came from mother Catherine de Medicis  Wars between French Catholics & the Huguenots (French Protestants) caused great struggles for the French Monarchs  8 religious wars from 1562 to 1598

15  Descendant of King Louis IX  1 st marriage was to Margaret the daughter of King Henry II & Catherine.  No children from this marriage  1589 – Catherine & King Henry III dies; Prince Henry of Navarre inherited the throne  took the name King Henry IV  1st king of the Bourbon dynasty  Gave up protestant beliefs & became Catholic for his country  Created the Edict of Nantes – Huguenots could live in peace in France & set up their own houses of worship

16  Devote reign to rebuilding France & its prosperity  Wanted peace for his country, but some hated him for giving up his protestant faith  2 nd marriage to Marie de Medici  1610 – a man jumped into Henry’s carriage and stabbed him to death  His son Louis XIII took over the throne  9 years old; Marie (mother) guided him  Weak king  Appointed strong minister; Cardinal Richelieu

17  Essentially the ruler of France  Was the leader of Catholic church in France  Moved against the Huguenots  Didn’t allow Protestant cities to have protective walls  Weakened the nobles’ power  Forced them to take down fortified castles  Wanted France to be the strongest state in Europe  Greatest obstacle – Hapsburg rulers Spain, Austria, Netherlands, parts of Holy Roman Empire  Caused France to go to war 30 years’ war

18  Son of Louis XIII  1643 – became king at the age of 14  True ruler was Richelieu’s successor Cardinal Mazarin  Ended 30 years’ war in 1648  Nobles hated Mazarin b/c of higher taxes & more power to the centralized government  Nobles led riots against Mazarin & threatened the life of Louis XIV  Noble’s rebellion eventually failed

19  Cardinal Mazarin died  At 22 years old Louis took control of gov’t  Weakened noble’s power & excluded them from councils  Increased power of gov’t agents  Devoted to helping France attain economic, political, & cultural brilliance Jean Baptiste Colbert – minister of finance Believed in mercantilism Made France self-sufficient & expanded manufacturing Increased taxes on imports Encouraged people to move to New France, fur trade $$$$

20  1658 – Louis XIV canceled Edict of Nantes  Thousands of Huguenot artisans & businesses left  Surrounded himself with luxury  Built the Palace at Versailles – 11 miles SW of Paris (Page 166 in text)  In 2003 dollars cost est. $2.5 billion 36,000 laborers 6,000 horses  Great patronage of the arts  Made opera & ballet more popular  Stated purpose of art was to glorify the king & promote values that supported his absolute rule

21  1660 – France was most powerful country in Europe  1667 – invaded Spanish Netherlands  Gained 12 towns  1672 – he led army into Dutch Netherlands  Dutch flooded countryside on purpose  1678 – Treaty of Nijmegen ended war France gained several towns  End of 1680’s – European alliance formed to stop France; weak countries came together to balance power in Europe

22  War of Spanish Succession –  1700 – King of Spain Charles II died childless  Throne promised to Louis XIV’s grandson who was 16 years old; Philip of Anjou (Philip V-King of Spain)  1701 – Several European nations didn’t want the French Bourbons to have this much control…WAR!  Treaty of Utrecht ended the war in 1714…  Grandson remained King of Spain  Great Britain took Gibraltar from Spain  France gave Great Britain Nova Scotia & Newfoundland  Austrian Hapsburgs took Spanish Netherlands & Spanish lands in Italy  Prussia & Savoy were recognized as kingdoms

23  1715 – Died in bed  This prompted rejoicing throughout France  POSTITIVES - France ranked above all in art, literature, & statesmanship, military leader of Europe, strong American colonial empire  NEGATIVES – constant wars, debt due to Versailles, resentment over taxes, abuse of power plagued his heirs – led to revolution

24  Peace of Augsburg (1555) – Churches in Germany could be either Catholic or Lutheran – NOT Calvinist  1608 – Lutherans join the Protestant Union  1609 – Catholic German Princes formed the Catholic League  1618 – Ferdinand II closed Protestant churches in the Czech kingdom of Bohemia & they revolted  German Protestant Princes also saw this as a chance to go after the Catholic emperor  So begins the 30 years’ war…

25  Conflict over religion, territory, and power among European ruling families; 1618 to 1648  PHASE ONE – Hapsburg Triumphs  First 12 years Hapsburg armies from Austria & Spain crushed Protestant troops Allowed to plunder/rob & destroy everything in their path  Stopped Czech uprising  Defeated German protestants helping Czechs  PHASE TWO – Hapsburg Defeats  Protestants of Sweden drove Hapsburg troops out of North Germany & changed the tide of war (1630)  1635 – French troops (Catholic) joined Protestants so Hapsburgs wouldn’t have more control than France

26  1648 – Ended the 30 years war  Weakened Hapsburg states of Spain & Austria  Strengthened France b/c they received German territory  German Princes became independent of the Holy Roman emperor  Europe became a group of equal, independent states – abandoned the Catholic Empire  New peace negotiations – all participants meet to settle problems & decide terms of peace  Still used today

27  After war several states were seriously weakened  Hapsburgs of Austria worked to become absolute monarchs  Reconquered Bohemia & wiped out Protestantism  Created a new Czech nobility that pledged loyalty to the Hapsburgs  Centralized gov’t & created army  Reconquered Hungary from the Ottoman Empire  Charles VI becomes Hapsburg ruler  Controlled Czechs, Hungarians, Italians, Croatians, & Germans

28  Charles VI eldest daughter (Maria) would be heir to all of his Hapsburg territories  While in power…  She decreased the power of the nobility  Limited amount of labor that nobles could force peasants to do  Faced years of war – main enemy was Prussia over land  Her most famous child was Marie Antoinette – wife of Louis XVI of France

29  Frederick William inherited title of elector of Brandenburg  AKA - The Great Elector/King Frederick William I  His son started to use the term “king”  After 30 years war, decided to have strong army (best in Europe) to ensure safety  Weakened representative assemblies  The Junkers (Prussia’s nobility) resisted growing power of king  They were then given exclusive right to be officers in army

30  Son of King Frederick William I  Loved music, philosophy, & poetry – not military  While in power…  Softened some of his father’s laws  Became an aggressor in foreign affairs  Encouraged religious toleration & legal reform  Died without a son to succeed him

31  Maria Theresa made alliance with France  Alliance = Austria, France, & Russia  Frederick II signed treaty with Britain  Alliance = Prussia & Britain  1756 – Frederick attacked Saxony (Austrian ally) and eventually every European nation was involved  War didn’t change Europe’s borders  France lost colonies in North America  Britain gained sole domination of India

32  1533 – came to power when he was 3 years old  The boyars (nobles) fought for power & tried to control Ivan  At 16 he seized power & crowned himself “czar”  Means Caesar  1 st Russian ruler to officially use the title  Married Anastasia (1 st of 8 wives) related to a boyar family The Romanovs

33  GOOD PERIOD, 1547 to 1560 –  Won great victories  Added lands to Russia  Gave Russia code of laws  Ruled justly  RULE BY TERROR, began in 1560 –  After Anastasia died; he accused Boyars of poisoning her  Organized his own police force who hunted down & killed those Ivan thought were traitors; he then gave their land to other nobles  Thousands were killed  1581 – had fight with oldest son which resulted in the son’s death  Ivan’s 2 nd son took throne 3 years later after his death Had a stroke while playing chess

34  Ivan’s 2 nd son, Czar Feodor I, took throne but was physically & mentally incapable of ruling  Ruled a short time & died without an heir  Time of Troubles –  Boyars struggled for power  Heirs of czars died mysteriously  Impostors tried to claim throne  1613 – Russian representatives met to chose the next czar; Michael Romanov – grandnephew of Ivan’s wife  Began the Romanov dynasty which ruled for 300 years 

35  AKA – Czar Peter I  Originally shared throne with ½ brother  Until the age of 24  REFORMS –  Bought Russian Orthodox Church under gov’t control  Abolished Office of Patriarch (head of church); Holy Synod would run church under Peter’s direction  Reduced power of landowners  Hired European officers to teach his army new tactics Imposed very high taxes to pay for military

36  GOAL #1 – to learn about European customs & manufacturing techniques. To Westernize Russia  To achieve goal he…  Introduced potatoes  Started 1 st Russian newspaper  Women were allowed to attend social gatherings  Nobles had to give up their traditional clothing for Western European fashions  Education: School of Navigation Schools for art & science

37  GOAL #2 – To have a seaport that would make it easier to travel west.  Fought Sweden 21 years to gain a piece of the Baltic coast  Built a new city on swampy land  Named it St. Petersburg after his patron saint  After completed, nobles were forced from their homes to make new ones in the new capital  Peter died in 1725 with Russia finally being a strong European power

38  Queen Elizabeth I died in 1603 with no heir  Her cousin James Stuart took throne – King James I  Ruler of Scotland & England Countries are not united until 1707 even though they have same ruler  1625, James I dies & his son Charles I takes throne  All of these absolute monarchs had financial troubles due to lavish lifestyles & wars with Spain and France

39  Charles I requested money from Parliament & they made him sign document that stated...  No imprisonment without due cause  No new taxes without Parliament’s approval  Soldiers would not be housed in the king’s private homes  No martial law in peacetime  For the 1 st time the law was higher than the absolute ruler  1629 – Charles ignored it & dissolved Parliament  To get funds he imposed fees, fines, & taxes

40  Charles needed $ & had to call upon Parliament  They passed laws to limit royal power  Charles tried to arrest Parliament leaders, but they escaped  A mob of Londoners stormed the palace & Charles escaped to north England where he raised an army  War between Charles I & his supporters (The Royalist/Cavaliers) vs. opponents of King Charles I (Puritan supporters of Parliament/Roundheads)  1642 to 1649

41  Oliver Cromwell – Puritan general  took control in 1644  By 1647 he held Charles I as prisoner  1649 – Charles I was put on trial for treason against Parliament  He was found guilty  Sentenced to death by public beheading  Never before had a reigning monarch faced a public trial and execution  Cromwell took control of the throne

42  1649 – abolished monarch & House of Lords and established a commonwealth; republican form of gov’t – then became a military dictator  Crushed an uprising in Ireland, seized lands & homes and then gave them to English soldiers  Created laws that promoted Puritan morality & abolished “sinful” activities…  Theater, Sporting Events, & Dancing  Had religious toleration for all Christians with the exception of Catholics  Even allowed the Jews back into England

43  Cromwell died in 1658 & his gov’t collapsed  1659 – Parliament put the oldest son of Charles I on the throne  Restored monarchy & rule is called the “Restoration”  1679 – Parliament passed habeas corpus  “to have the body”  Gave every prisoner the right to obtain a writ or document ordering that they be brought before a judge to specify charges  Now a monarch couldn’t put people in jail just because  Had no children & his brother James II took throne in 1685

44  Offended subjects b/c of his Catholic beliefs  Had an older daughter, Mary, that was protestant & a new son who was Catholic  Parliament didn’t want a Catholic monarchy & convinced Mary and her husband William of Orange (prince of Netherlands) to overthrow her father, James II  James II fled to France when Williams army came into London  Glorious Revolution – bloodless overthrow


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