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The Industrial Revolution

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Presentation on theme: "The Industrial Revolution"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Industrial Revolution 1700-1900
Chapter 9 Pages

2 The Beginnings of Industrialization
Section 1

3 Revolution??? Industrial Revolution? Before Revolution?
Increased output of _____________________________ goods that began in ____________________ in the middle 1700’s Spread to rest of Europe & North America Before Revolution? People wove _________________ by __________________ People made _________________ by ___________________

4 Agriculture Paves the Way…
Wealthy landowners bought up _________________, enclosed the land with __________________, & then experimented __________________ farmers were forced to become ___________ farmers or they gave up farming & moved to _______________ Led to more _____________________________________& harvesting methods = more ______________________________ __________________– invented the _____________in 1701. Allowed farmers to ___________seeds in well-spaced rows at specific __________________ = boosted crop yields Before this, farmers just _____________________ seeds on _____________ the ground

5 Rotating Crops One of the best developments by _____________________________ farmers Improvement on the _______________________ system Planted _______________________ crops in different fields each year to keep _____________________ in the soil (4-field system)

6 Why it Began in England? Large population of ________________________
Extensive ____________________ resources Water power & __________________ _______________ to construct machines, tools, & buildings __________________ for transportation __________________ for merchant ships Expanding economy, business men invested _______ Highly developed ____________________________ ________________________ stability ____________________ passed to encourage & protect business _____________________________

7 Inventions in Textile Industry
_________________ – created a “_________________” made of ________________ that had a ___________ shaped design & ______________ was attached. It __________________ a weaver’s work in a day. ________________________– invented a spinning wheel, “__________________________”, that let a worker to uses ______ threads at a time _________________________ – invented the water frame that used __________________ instead of hand power to move the ____________________________

8 _____________________ – “______________________” made thread stronger, ______________ , & more consistent. It used __________________________. _____________________________– power loom sped up the ______________________ process _____________________– “_____________________”, machine used to remove the ________________ from the raw cotton. This ___________________________ the amount of cotton that could be cleaned in a day.

9 Improvements in Transportation
________________________– made the ______________________ work faster & more efficient while burning _________________________ ________________________________ – built a steamboat “______________________” & it made it’s first successful trip in _______________ & was then used as a ferry on _______________________________ _______________________– improved ____________ in England by putting a layer of ________________ down for drainage & then put crushed rocks on top. “_____________________________” roads.

10 The Railway Age Begins _______________________________– built the world’s first _______________________ line. __________ miles long & used _______ locomotives. Also invented the “_________________” steam engine that could haul ______ tons at _________ miles per hour (very fast for 1830) Major effects of the locomotive…. _____________________________ transportation Spurred _____________________________ growth Boosted England’s agriculture & ________________ industries Created _______________________for railroad workers & miners Encouraged people to _____________, ________________, & take __________________ further away from home

11 Industrialization Section 2

12 Industrial Cities Rise
________________________ - after 1800, more people living in ________________ than _______________ areas b/c of the growth of ________________ jobs that paid more Cities built ______________, usually near _______________ _______________________ – most important city & became Europe’s ________________________ city Factories were built _________________to each other b/c they all were near _____________ (____________) for power

13 Living Conditions No _____________________ plans, no ______________ codes, no ___________________codes Whole families lived in ________________ room ______________ spread fast b/c dark & dirty conditions Avg. life span in city – _______ years, rural areas – _______ years Cities lacked adequate housing, ____________________, & ________________________ ________________ streets had no _________________ & ________________________heaps were left on them Wealthy merchants & factory owners lived lavish lifestyles, built _______________ in the ________________

14 Factory Working Conditions
Average person worked ________ hours a day, ________ days a week Factories were not ________ well & very __________ Many ____________________ by machines ______________________ had the most dangerous job – the work made their life span _________ years shorter due to the conditions Cheapest sources of labor were __________________________________________

15 The Middle Class Factory owners, ________________, & merchants
_______________ workers, professionals, business people, & _____________________ farmers ____________________________________… Government employees, doctors, lawyers, & managers of factories, mines, & shops Low-Middle Class… Factory overseers, skilled workers; ___________________, mechanical ___________________, & printers

16 Positive Effects of Ind. Rev.
Created ______________ for workers Contributed to the _______________ of the nation Encouraged _______________________ progress & ______________________________ Increased the production of ____________________ Raised the _________________________________________ __________________________________________ Better ______________________________ Cheaper mass-produced ____________________________ Expanded _________________________ opportunities

17 Industrialization Spreads
Section 3

18 In the United States Had the same _______________needed as in England
Began with the __________ industry just like England _____________________________ & 4 others mechanized every stage in the manufacturing of ____________ and set up a factory in _________________________________. Became _________________ center & model for other cities Rural young single _______________ left homes for jobs to make higher wages working _______ hours a day _____ days a week

19 The _____________________ experienced most of the industrial growth in the 1800’s
Most of the U.S. was _____________________ until after the _________________ (1865) then experienced the industrial boom due to… Wealth of natural resources: _______, coal, ___________ Lots of new inventions: electric _______________, telephone Growing __________________ population Cities near _______________________ also grew; Chicago & _____________________________

20 In Germany Imported ____________ equipment & ____________________
Sent _____________________ to England to learn industrial management Built ______________________ that linked manufacturing cities Due to the economic growth they were able to develop as a ____________________________

21 Impact of Industrialization
Increased ________________________ b/t industrialized nations & poverty in poorer nations Widened the ________________b/t the two types of nations Industrialized countries used less-developed nations (_______________________) to gain _______ materials _______________________ grew out of the Ind. Rev. b/c of the need for resources & ___________________

22 Reforming the Industrial world
Section 4

23 Laissez-Faire Economics
__________________ policy of letting ______________ of industry & business set working conditions w/out interference from the __________________________ A _________________________ unregulated Free trade & no ____________ regulations = ______________ __________________ term means… “let do” “ let people _________________________________” From the philosophers of the _____________________________

24 Adam Smith Professor at University of ________________________
Wrote, ___________________________________, 1776 Economic liberty guaranteed economic progress The three natural laws of economics… Law of __________________: People work for their own good Law of _________________: Forces people to make a better product Law of ______________________________: enough goods will be produced at the lowest possible price to meet demand

25 Capitalism An economic system in which the factors of production are ____________________________ & money is invested in business ventures to make a profit _____________________________ wrote An Essay on the Principle of Population, 1798 Population increased more rapidly than _____________________________ w/out war & __________________________ to kill, people were destined to be poor & miserable

26 _________________________ wrote Principles of Political Economy & ______________________, 1817
Permanent underclass would always be _______________ ___________________ would be forced down as population increased Smith, Malthus, & Ricardo all opposed __________________ efforts to help poor workers. Creating _____________________________ laws & better working conditions would… upset the free market system _____________________ profits Undermine the production of _________________ in society

27 Utilitarianism Introduced by ________________ philosopher _________________________________ gov’t actions are useful only if they promote the greatest ______________ for the greatest ____________________________________________ His beliefs… People should judge ideas, institutions, & actions on their utility (_________________________) Individuals should be free to pursue his/her own ________________________ w/out interference from ___________________________

28 _______________________________ questioned unregulated __________________________
His beliefs… It was wrong workers led deprived lives & wanted to help the __________________ working population by having an ________________ division of profits Favored a _____________________ system of agriculture Saw the need for __________________________ , including voting rights Pushed for reforms in _______________ system, ____________________ system, & education system

29 Utopian Ideas “A _____________________ living place”
____________________– owned cotton mill in ______________________ & wanted to help the working class living in poverty His Solution… Built ____________ near factory & ______________ them at low rates Children ____________________couldn’t work in his factory Provided free __________________________________ Tried a cooperative community in ______________________ Only lasted _____ years, but was an inspiration for others

30 Socialism Factors of production are owned by the _______________ & operate for the welfare of all Grew out of ___________________ view of human nature, belief in progress, & concern for __________________________ Supporters Believed… _____________ should plan economy rather than depend on free-market capitalism Gov’t control of __________________, mines, railroads, & other key industries would end ________________ & promote equality

31 Marxism: Radical Socialism
___________________ introduced a radical type of socialism called Marxism in the ________ page pamphlet called ______________________________ Written by Karl Marx & ___________________________ Marx’s Background… German Studied _____________________, journalism, & economics Left Germany for ________________________ in 1849 Earned a meager living as a __________________________

32 The Communist Manifesto
Humans have always been divided into ___________ “Haves” – middle class or employers called the ______________________________ “Have-nots” – workers called the ______________________ The wealthy controlled ______________ of producing goods, the poor performed the ________________ under terrible conditions _____________________ enriched the wealthy & _________________________ the poor Prediction – workers would ___________________________ the owners

33 Marx’s Beliefs ____________ system would eventually destroy itself
Workers would __________, seize the _____________, & then produce what society ________________ Workers would share the _______________ = economic __________________ Workers would control gov’t by __________________ Final phase “________________________” – complete socialism in which the means of production (land, mines, factories, railroads, & businesses) would be owned by the____________________________ ** _______________________________would NOT exist All goods & services would be shared equally by the people

34 Effects of Marx & Engels
1848 & 1849 – widespread revolts, but were eventually crushed 1900’s – inspired Russia (_____________), China (_______________), & Cuba (___________________) Each adapted the beliefs to fit their own specific situations

35 Unionization Workers joined together in ______________________ labor associations Engaged in ______________________ b/t workers & employers for better working _______________, higher pay, etc. If owner refused, workers would _______________ ___________________ outlawed unions until 1825 people were ________________ or lost their job

36 Reform Laws in England ____________________– illegal to hire children under ________ years old, kids ___________ couldn’t work more than 8 hours, ____________couldn’t work more than 12 hours _________________________– prevented women & children from working underground ________________________- limited work day to 10 hours for women & children

37 Other Reforms Abolition of _____________________
Women’s rights – _____________________________ ___________________________– free education Prison Reforms – means to lead _______________ lives upon ____________________ & better conditions


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