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The Great War 1914 - 1918. Europe enjoys peace in late 1800s, but problems lie below the surface Growing __________________ leads to competition among.

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Presentation on theme: "The Great War 1914 - 1918. Europe enjoys peace in late 1800s, but problems lie below the surface Growing __________________ leads to competition among."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Great War

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3 Europe enjoys peace in late 1800s, but problems lie below the surface Growing __________________ leads to competition among European nations Competition for ____________ & _________________ ____________________ disputes Nationalism in the ______________________ leads many groups to demand their own ________________________ nations

4 Competition for _________________ stirs mistrust among European nations Mutual _________________________ spurs European countries to engage in ________________________ By 1914, all European great powers had large ________________________, except ____________________

5 Germany’s _________________________ works to keep peace in Europe after 1871 Believes _________________ wants revenge for loss in 1870 __________________________War His first goal is to _________________ France from having _________________ Formed dual alliance between ________________ & ______________________

6 Becomes allies with ________________, but only for a short time Forms _____________________: Germany, Austria- Hungary, and ________________ joins in 1882

7 1888- ___________________________ becomes German ruler & forces Bismarck to resign Foreign policy changes begin in 1890… Alliance with _______________ dropped & Russia becomes allies w/ ___________________ Effort to strengthen German __________________, which alarms ____________________

8 1907- _________________, France, & _______________ forms the __________________ Britain not forced to ____________ with France or Russia, but promised NOT to fight ______________ them

9 Many groups in __________________ win independence during early 1900s One of the new nations, ________________ which is made up largely of _________________ Wanted all Slavs on the ________________________ ___________________ supported their independence

10 ___________________________ annexes Slavic region – ___________________ & Herzegovina in 1908 ______________________ outraged, sees itself as rightful ruler of these Slavic lands Austria-Hungary vowed to __________________ any _______________________ effort to undermine them

11 Austro-Hungarian royal heir to the throne, ___________________________& his wife _______________ were killed in their car on June 28, 1914 in __________________, Bosnia ____________________________, 19 yrs. old Serbian – member of the secret society “____________________________” July 28, ______________ declares war on ______________ ___________________(Serbia’s ally) comes to their aid & mobilizes troops

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13 Russia moves troops to its borders with ___________________ and _________________________ Aug. 1, 1914 – Germany declares war on _________________ Aug. 3, 1914 – Germany declares war on __________________ ________________________________ then declares war on Germany to help its allies

14 By mid-August 1914, two sides at war throughout Europe… __________________________ – Germany & Austrian-Hungary _____________________ & Ottoman Empire also join later _______________________ (Allies) – Britain, France, & Russia U.S., __________________, & Italy joined later

15 ____________________ Front – heavy battle zone in northern ________________ that resulted in a deadlock Germany fighting a ____________ front war & developed the ___________________________ Plan German plan to defeat _______________ in the west & then going east to fight __________________

16 _____________________ army quickly advances to outskirts of ______________________ Allies quickly regroup Germany forced to retreat at First Battle of the ________________ after 4 days of fighting _________________ starts invading Germany Schlieffen Plan __________________; Germany has to fight a two-front war

17 Conflict descends into ____________________________ to protect themselves from _______________________________ Battles result in many deaths & ________________ land gains Space between trenches “____________________________” Life in trenches is miserable, difficult, & ______________________

18 New weapons lead to more deaths… ____________________________ Introduced by ________________, but used by both sides Caused blindness, blisters, & death _________________________________ Fires ammunition ______________________________ Wiped out waves of attackers at once _______________________ Could cross many types of ____________________ Introduced by _________________________ ______________________________ Introduced by the _________________________ Primary weapon – the _________________________

19 Battle of ______________________… Germans launched attack against _____________________ Each side lost more than 300,000 __________________ only gained __________ miles Battle of _________________ … _______________________ forces attack Germans By end of battle each side lost more than _____ million troops ______________ only gained about _____________ miles

20 ____________________ Front – site of main fighting along the ______________________________ border _______________________ push into Austria & _______________, but soon forced to ____________________

21 _________________ war effort suffering by 1916; many casualties, _______________________________ ______________________of Russian army keeps it a formidable force Prevents ______________________ from sending more troops to the _____________________ Front

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23 __________________ move to capture Ottoman’s _______________________ Strait in February 1915 to capture the capital of _________________________ Hope to defeat ___________________________, ally of Central Powers Wants to open a ________________________through region to Russia Effort ends in costly ___________________defeat

24 ________________ take control of __________________ holdings in Asia and Africa Britain and France use their _______________________ to help in the war effort

25 __________________ seeks to control _________________ Ocean to stop supplies to _______________________ Uses _________________________________________ warfare Ships near _______________________ sunk without warning 1915, sunk the ________________________ & angers U.S. Germany agrees to stop attacking neutral & _________________ ships Renews unrestricted policy in 1917, hopes to _____________ Britain quickly by using _____________________ Attacks 3 U.S. ships

26 The _____________________________ Note… ______________________ foreign secretary Arthur Zimmerman wrote letter to ____________________ & the U.S. intercepted it Letter stated that if Mexico became allies with __________________ they would help Mexico get back their ___________________ from the U.S. U.S. declares war against ____________________________ on April 2,1917, joining __________________

27 WWI becomes ______________________ – nations devote all resources to war Governments take control of economy to produce ____________________________ Nations turn to ____________________ – limiting purchases of war- related goods ____________________________ – one-sided information to build morale, support for war

28 At home, thousands of women fill ________________ previously held by men Many women also experience the war by working as __________________

29 Civil unrest in Russia forces Czar _______________________ to step down from throne in 1917 Nov Communist leader, ____________________ took control of Russia’s gov’t By 1917, _____________ million Russians were either killed, wounded, or taken as __________________ Russia signs treaty with ____________________ in March 1918 & ______________________________________________

30 Germany moves most of their forces to the ____________________ & gets __________ miles outside of __________________ The 2 nd Battle of ____________________ - major fighting & ______________ force ______________________________ to retreat from France Nov __________________________________ stepped down & Germany declared itself a republic WWI Ends - ___________________________ win war _____________________________ signed on Nov. 11, 1918 The 11 th hour, on the 11 th day, in the 11 th month

31 ________ million soldiers died & ________ million wounded Countless civilians died due to starvation, disease, & slaughter War devastates European ___________________, drains national treasuries Estimated total cost - $_____________billion (in 1918 dollars) Many acres of land & homes, villages, & towns destroyed Survivors suffer _______________________________ & despair Reflected in the arts

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33 Groups of leaders known as the _______________________ dominate peace talks… _______________________________ – U.S. Georges Clemenceau – ________________________________ David Lloyd George – _________________________________ _______________________________ – Italy

34 Proposes ____________ Points – outline for lasting world peace Calls for _______________ trade, end to secret ____________________, & military buildups Promotes _________________________________ – right of people to govern their own nation Envisions ________________________ peace-keeping body to settle world _____________________

35 Britain & __________________ oppose Wilson’s ideas – they want to punish ____________________________ ____________________ & Germany sign treaty in June 1919 Creates ________________________________ – international organization to keep peace Blames _______________________ for war & forces them to pay damages to nations League to rule over German ________________________ until deemed ready for independence

36 _________________________ treaty, other peace accords change look of Europe Austria-Hungary, _______________________, Ottoman Empire all lose ___________________________ Former Ottoman lands in Southwest Asia turn into __________________________ New countries created in southeastern Europe, ______________________ gives up land

37 Treaty of V. – creates feelings of __________________________ on both sides ______________________ people feel bitter & betrayed after taking _________________________ for war __________________________ never signs the treaty Many Americans oppose _____________________________ & involvement w/ ______________________________

38 Some former _____________________ express anger over not winning _______________________ ______________ & ________________ criticize agreement b/c they gain less ________________ than they wanted


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