123 Go To Section: Principles of Government C H A P T E R 1 Principles of Government SECTION 1 Government and the State SECTION 2 Forms of Government SECTION 3 Basic Concepts of Democracy Chapter 1 2222 3333 1111
123 Go To Section: Chapter 1, Section 1 Government and the State S E C T I O N 1 Government and the State How is government defined? What are the basic powers that every government holds? What are the four defining characteristics of the state? How have we attempted to explain the origin of the state? What is the purpose of government in the United States and other countries? 2222 3333
123 Go To Section: What Is Government? Chapter 1 Section 1 2222 3333 Government is the institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies.
123 Go To Section: State (small s) Refers to and independent autonomous (self reliant, self sufficient, self ruling sovereign government. The term state is synonymous with Country, nation. State refers to a state within the US.
123 Go To Section: Chapter 1, Section 1 2222 3333 The State The state can be defined as having these four characteristics:
123 Go To Section: Sovereignty Sovereignty: The 50 US States are NOT sovereign. They are subordinate(under the authority of ) the US National government. They may not pass any law that conflicts with the US Constitution, treaties, supreme court decisions,... According to the Supremacy Clause of the US.
123 Go To Section: Origins of the State The Force Theory The force theory states that one person or a small group took control of an area and forced all within it to submit to that person’s or group’s rule. The Evolutionary Theory The evolutionary theory argues that the state evolved naturally out of the early family. The Divine Right Theory The theory of divine right holds that God created the state and that God gives those of royal birth a “divine right” to rule. The Social Contract Theory The social contract theory argues that the state arose out of a voluntary act of free people. Chapter 1, Section 1 2222 3333
123 Go To Section: Social Contract Theory Cont. In order to have an orderly and just society everyone must abide by certain moral laws based on the ten command... Persons who do not live w/in the social contract...
123 Go To Section: The Purpose of Government The main purposes of government are described in the Preamble of the Constitution of the United States: “ We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.” Chapter 1, Section 1 2222 3333
123 Go To Section: Section 1 Review 1. A government is (a) the institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies. (b) a collection of people. (c) always democratic. (d) the organization representing farms and industries. 2. A state has the following four characteristics: (a) population, territory, sovereignty, and government. (b) sovereignty, a perfect union, welfare, and territory. (c) people, places, force, and divine right. (d) justice, defense, liberty, and domestic tranquility. Chapter 1, Section 1 Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this chapter? Click Here!Click Here! 2222 3333
123 Go To Section: Forms of Government S E C T I O N 2 Forms of Government How can we classify governments? How are systems of government defined in terms of who can participate? How is power distributed within a state? How are governments defined by the relationship between the legislative and executive branches? Chapter 1, Section 2 3333 1111
123 Go To Section: Chapter 1, Section 2 3333 1111 Classifying Governments Governments can be classified by three different standards: (1) Who can participate in the governing process. (2) The geographic distribution of the governmental power within the state. (3) The relationship between the legislative (lawmaking) and the executive (law-executing) branches of the government.
123 Go To Section: Classification by Who Can Participate Chapter 1, Section 2 3333 1111 Democracy In a democracy, supreme political authority rests with the people. A direct democracy exists where the will of the people is translated into law directly by the people themselves. In an indirect democracy, a small group of persons, chosen by the people to act as their representatives, expresses the popular will. Dictatorship A dictatorship exists where those who rule cannot be held responsible to the will of the people. An autocracy is a government in which a single person holds unlimited political power. An oligarchy is a government in which the power to rule is held by a small, usually self-appointed elite.
123 Go To Section: Classification by Geographic Distribution of Power Unitary Government A unitary government has all powers held by a single, central agency. Chapter 1, Section 2 3333 1111 Confederate Government A confederation is an alliance of independent states. Federal Government A federal government is one in which the powers of government are divided between a central government and several local governments. An authority superior to both the central and local governments makes this division of power on a geographic basis.
123 Go To Section: Classification by the Relationship Between Legislative and Executive Branches Chapter 1, Section 2 3333 1111
123 Go To Section: Forms of Government Chapter 1, Section 2 3333 1111
123 Go To Section: Section 2 Review 1. In a democracy, (a) independent states form an alliance. (b) supreme political authority rests with the people. (c) those who rule cannot be held responsible to the will of the people. (d) the rule by a few, select individuals regulates the will of the people. 2. The United States government has the following characteristics: (a) confederate, parliamentary, and dictatorship. (b) unitary, presidential, and democracy. (c) federal, presidential, and democracy. (d) unitary, parliamentary, and dictatorship. Chapter 1, Section 2 Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this section? Click Here!Click Here! 3333 1111
123 Go To Section: Chapter 1, Section 3 Basic Concepts of Democracy S E C T I O N 3 Basic Concepts of Democracy What are the foundations of democracy? What are the connections between democracy and the free enterprise system? How has the Internet affected democracy? 2222 1111
123 Go To Section: Chapter 1, Section 3 2222 1111Foundations The American concept of democracy rests on these basic notions: (1) A recognition of the fundamental worth and dignity of every person; (2) A respect for the equality of all persons; (3) A faith in majority rule and an insistence upon minority rights; (4) An acceptance of the necessity of compromise; and (5) An insistence upon the widest possible degree of individual freedom.
123 Go To Section: Chapter 1, Section 3 2222 1111 Democracy and the Free Enterprise System The free enterprise system is an economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods; investments that are determined by private decision rather than by state control; and determined in a free market. Decisions in a free enterprise system are determined by the law of supply and demand. An economy in which private enterprise exists in combination with a considerable amount of government regulation and promotion is called a mixed economy.
123 Go To Section: Democracy and the Internet Chapter 1, Section 3 2222 1111 Democracy demands that the people be widely informed about their government. Theoretically, the Internet makes knowledgeable participation in democratic process easier than ever before. However, all data on the World Wide Web is not necessarily true, and the long-term effects of the Internet on democracy has yet to be determined.
123 Go To Section: Section 3 Review 1. All of the following are basic notions found in the American concept of democracy EXCEPT (a) a recognition of of the fundamental worth and dignity of every person. (b) a respect for the equality of all persons. (c) the rule of government by a single individual. (d) an acceptance of the necessity of compromise. 2. In a free enterprise system, the means of capital are owned (a) by private and corporate entities. (b) by government agencies. (c) by only the agricultural sector. (d) equally by the collective citizenry. Chapter 1, Section 3 Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this section? Click Here!Click Here! 2222 1111
123 Go To Section: The state is the dominant political unit in the world today. The word state is synonymous with country. There are more than 200. In order to be considered a state a unit must possess 4 characteristics :
123 Mrs. Slonsky is the supreme ruler of room 106 All power and authority is vested in her. She is sovereign over all the students within her domain. She is all wise. Only grace and peace shall abide within her presence.
123 Developed primarily by Thomas Hobbes although Locke and other enlightenment philosophers contributed to it. Stated that human nature is basically selfish, and serves our own interest. Under the Social Contract, we agree to allow the government to establish laws and we obey them giving up some of our “free will” so that everyone may enjoy a peaceful, orderly and just society. The social contract theory is the foundation of any democracy. Can we have an orderly peaceful society if everyone does what they want? What do we do with people who do not obey the social contract?
123 INDEPENDENT, AUTONOMOUS AND SOVEREIGN STATES WORK TOGETHER FOR COMMON INTERESTS... EXAMPLES INCLUDE: 13 COLONIES UNDER ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION, CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA & EUROPEAN UNION& CIS
123 NATIONAL ARTICLE I Sect 8 clauses 1-18 LISTS 27 DELEGATED POWERS CONCURRENT (SHARED) POWERS STATE ARTICLE IV + 10 TH AMENDMENT Schools Speed Limits Marriage &divorce POWERS OF GOVERNMENT IS DIVIDED BETWEEN THE NATIONAL GOV’T AND THE STATES + depends on mutual cooperation
123 Judicial PARLIAMENTARY VS.PRESIDENTIAL VOTERS ELECT Legislative (Parliament). Co-Equal Branches Separate Powers given by ARTICLE II May ONLY be removed by impeachment Courts Separate Powers given by ARTICLE I Majority party Chooses Chief Executive (Prime Minister) Has no separate powers from Parliament. May be recalled LegislativeExecutive Appointed by the President Separate powers given by ART III