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HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Enlightenment and Revolution in England and America Section 1: Civil War.

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Presentation on theme: "HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Enlightenment and Revolution in England and America Section 1: Civil War."— Presentation transcript:

1 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Enlightenment and Revolution in England and America Section 1: Civil War and Revolution Section 2: Constitutional Monarchy in England Section 3: English Colonial Expansion Section 4: The Enlightenment Section 5: The American Revolution CHAPTER 20

2 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 2 Objectives: Explore what led to the conflicts between Charles I and Parliament. Explore what led to the conflicts between Charles I and Parliament. Examine how the rebellion in Ireland helped start the English Civil War. Examine how the rebellion in Ireland helped start the English Civil War. Identify who would have supported the two sides in the English Revolution. Identify who would have supported the two sides in the English Revolution. Investigate what led to the downfall of republican government in England. Investigate what led to the downfall of republican government in England. Section 1: Civil War and Revolution

3 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 3 Charles I and Parliament Charles I believed in divine right of kings, was married to a French Catholic princess Charles I believed in divine right of kings, was married to a French Catholic princess Parliament opposed his tax measures Parliament opposed his tax measures Section 1: Civil War and Revolution

4 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 4 The Long Parliament Irish were dispossessed by British, treated brutally Irish were dispossessed by British, treated brutally Parliament wanted to be in charge of the army Parliament wanted to be in charge of the army Charles refused to compromise, led troops into House of Commons to arrest opponents Charles refused to compromise, led troops into House of Commons to arrest opponents Neither side would compromise Neither side would compromise Section 1: Civil War and Revolution

5 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 5 English Civil War Cavaliers – called royalists, supported the king Cavaliers – called royalists, supported the king Roundheads – supported Parliament Roundheads – supported Parliament Oliver Cromwell – organized New Model Army and defeated Charles Oliver Cromwell – organized New Model Army and defeated Charles Rump Parliament – abolished monarchy and House of Lords, proclaimed England a commonwealth, tried Charles I for treason Rump Parliament – abolished monarchy and House of Lords, proclaimed England a commonwealth, tried Charles I for treason Section 1: Civil War and Revolution

6 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 6 Cromwell’s Commonwealth Raised money from taxes and land sales Raised money from taxes and land sales Army was disciplined and powerful Army was disciplined and powerful Enemies had no organized army Enemies had no organized army Encouraged trade and manufacturing Encouraged trade and manufacturing Section 1: Civil War and Revolution

7 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 7 End of the Revolution Cromwell quarreled with Parliament, then dissolved it Cromwell quarreled with Parliament, then dissolved it Charles II restored monarchy Charles II restored monarchy Section 1: Civil War and Revolution

8 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 8 Objectives: Explain how religious attitudes affected the rule of Charles II and James II. Explain how religious attitudes affected the rule of Charles II and James II. Describe how Parliament reduced the power of the monarchy after the Restoration. Describe how Parliament reduced the power of the monarchy after the Restoration. Identify the principal features of Britain’s limited constitutional monarchy. Identify the principal features of Britain’s limited constitutional monarchy. Section 2: Constitutional Monarchy in England

9 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 9 The Restoration and the Glorious Revolution Political parties develop – Charles tried to increase toleration for Catholicism; Tories supported Anglican Church, Whigs opposed having Catholic ruler Political parties develop – Charles tried to increase toleration for Catholicism; Tories supported Anglican Church, Whigs opposed having Catholic ruler The Glorious Revolution – bloodless transfer of power in English monarchy; religious attitudes led to suspicion, conflict with Parliament, and opposition to the kings’ policies The Glorious Revolution – bloodless transfer of power in English monarchy; religious attitudes led to suspicion, conflict with Parliament, and opposition to the kings’ policies Section 2: Constitutional Monarchy in England

10 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 10 Changes in English Government Habeas Corpus Act and Declaration of Rights – protected individuals against unfair arrest and imprisonment, unfairly high bail, or cruel or unusual punishment Habeas Corpus Act and Declaration of Rights – protected individuals against unfair arrest and imprisonment, unfairly high bail, or cruel or unusual punishment Toleration Act and Act of Settlement – religious freedoms to Dissenters, but not Roman Catholics or Jews; Act of Settlement kept Catholics from the English throne Toleration Act and Act of Settlement – religious freedoms to Dissenters, but not Roman Catholics or Jews; Act of Settlement kept Catholics from the English throne Section 2: Constitutional Monarchy in England

11 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 11 Parliamentary Rule Growing power of Parliament – monarch must consult with Parliament; development of cabinet and prime minister Growing power of Parliament – monarch must consult with Parliament; development of cabinet and prime minister Act of Union – united England and Scotland into Great Britain Act of Union – united England and Scotland into Great Britain Constitutional monarchy – monarch remained head of state, royal powers were limited by constitution Constitutional monarchy – monarch remained head of state, royal powers were limited by constitution Section 2: Constitutional Monarchy in England

12 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 12 Objectives: Investigate who the sea dogs were and what they accomplished. Investigate who the sea dogs were and what they accomplished. Explore the results of the British mercantilist policy. Explore the results of the British mercantilist policy. Section 3: English Colonial Expansion

13 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 13 The Beginnings of the British Empire Explorers and sea dogs – English sea captains who challenged the Portuguese and Spanish monopolies of sea trade, plundered foreign ships, helped defeat Spanish Armada Explorers and sea dogs – English sea captains who challenged the Portuguese and Spanish monopolies of sea trade, plundered foreign ships, helped defeat Spanish Armada The British in India – British East India Company The British in India – British East India Company Section 3: English Colonial Expansion

14 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 14 The British in America British settlements – Jamestown and Plymouth British settlements – Jamestown and Plymouth Mercantilism and the British colonies – discouraged colonial manufacturing and forced colonists to sell certain products only to Britain Mercantilism and the British colonies – discouraged colonial manufacturing and forced colonists to sell certain products only to Britain Section 3: English Colonial Expansion

15 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 15 Objectives: Identify the principal characteristics of Enlightenment thinking. Identify the principal characteristics of Enlightenment thinking. Analyze the similarities and differences in the ideas of important Enlightenment philosophers. Analyze the similarities and differences in the ideas of important Enlightenment philosophers. Section 4: The Enlightenment

16 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 16 Crusaders of the Enlightenment Believed that natural law governed human behavior and that truth could be determined by logic, secularism, and individualism Believed that natural law governed human behavior and that truth could be determined by logic, secularism, and individualism Section 4: The Enlightenment

17 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 17 Political Criticism Montesquieu – government divided into branches to create checks on political power Montesquieu – government divided into branches to create checks on political power Voltaire – criticized intolerance and attempts to suppress personal freedoms Voltaire – criticized intolerance and attempts to suppress personal freedoms Rousseau – distrusted reason, opposed strong government, supported popular sovereignty Rousseau – distrusted reason, opposed strong government, supported popular sovereignty Section 4: The Enlightenment

18 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 18 Objectives: Explain how Americans responded to British policies after the French and Indian War. Explain how Americans responded to British policies after the French and Indian War. Describe what type of government Americans set up after the American Revolution. Describe what type of government Americans set up after the American Revolution. Section 5: The American Revolution

19 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 19 Empire and Conflict British-French rivalry – Seven Years’ War; British won control of much of North America British-French rivalry – Seven Years’ War; British won control of much of North America Increased imperial control – Sugar Act, Stamp Act, “taxation without representation” Increased imperial control – Sugar Act, Stamp Act, “taxation without representation” Intensified conflict – colonists hardened their resistance to British policies Intensified conflict – colonists hardened their resistance to British policies Section 5: The American Revolution

20 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 20 American Independence The Declaration of Independence – government is created to protect individual rights and cannot exist without the consent of the governed, who can alter or abolish it The Declaration of Independence – government is created to protect individual rights and cannot exist without the consent of the governed, who can alter or abolish it The war for independence – weak American government, brutal Hessian mercenaries, strong American military leadership The war for independence – weak American government, brutal Hessian mercenaries, strong American military leadership War and peace – French alliance with United States, as well as Spain and Netherlands, brought American victory War and peace – French alliance with United States, as well as Spain and Netherlands, brought American victory Section 5: The American Revolution

21 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 21 Governing a New Nation The Articles of Confederation – weak central government, placed power in individual states The Articles of Confederation – weak central government, placed power in individual states The Constitution – federal government with three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial; Bill of Rights guaranteed citizens certain rights The Constitution – federal government with three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial; Bill of Rights guaranteed citizens certain rights Effects of American independence – democracy that inspired loyalty Effects of American independence – democracy that inspired loyalty Section 5: The American Revolution


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