Presentation on theme: "Enlightenment and Revolution in England and America"— Presentation transcript:
1 Enlightenment and Revolution in England and America CHAPTER 204/6/2017CHAPTER 20Enlightenment and Revolution in England and AmericaSection 1: Civil War and RevolutionSection 2: Constitutional Monarchy in EnglandSection 3: English Colonial ExpansionSection 4: The EnlightenmentSection 5: The American Revolution
2 Civil War and Revolution Section 1:Civil War and RevolutionObjectives:Explore what led to the conflicts between Charles I and Parliament.Examine how the rebellion in Ireland helped start the English Civil War.Identify who would have supported the two sides in the English Revolution.Investigate what led to the downfall of republican government in England.
3 Charles I and Parliament Section 1:Civil War and RevolutionCharles I and ParliamentCharles I believed in divine right of kings, was married to a French Catholic princessParliament opposed his tax measures
4 Civil War and Revolution Section 1:Civil War and RevolutionThe Long ParliamentIrish were dispossessed by British, treated brutallyParliament wanted to be in charge of the armyCharles refused to compromise, led troops into House of Commons to arrest opponentsNeither side would compromise
5 Civil War and Revolution Section 1:Civil War and RevolutionEnglish Civil WarCavaliers – called royalists, supported the kingRoundheads – supported ParliamentOliver Cromwell – organized New Model Army and defeated CharlesRump Parliament – abolished monarchy and House of Lords, proclaimed England a commonwealth, tried Charles I for treason
6 Cromwell’s Commonwealth Section 1:Civil War and RevolutionCromwell’s CommonwealthRaised money from taxes and land salesArmy was disciplined and powerfulEnemies had no organized armyEncouraged trade and manufacturing
7 Civil War and Revolution Section 1:Civil War and RevolutionEnd of the RevolutionCromwell quarreled with Parliament, then dissolved itCharles II restored monarchy
8 Constitutional Monarchy in England Section 2:Constitutional Monarchy in EnglandObjectives:Explain how religious attitudes affected the rule of Charles II and James II.Describe how Parliament reduced the power of the monarchy after the Restoration.Identify the principal features of Britain’s limited constitutional monarchy.
9 The Restoration and the Glorious Revolution Section 2:Constitutional Monarchy in EnglandThe Restoration and the Glorious RevolutionPolitical parties develop – Charles tried to increase toleration for Catholicism; Tories supported Anglican Church, Whigs opposed having Catholic rulerThe Glorious Revolution – bloodless transfer of power in English monarchy; religious attitudes led to suspicion, conflict with Parliament, and opposition to the kings’ policies
10 Changes in English Government Section 2:Constitutional Monarchy in EnglandChanges in English GovernmentHabeas Corpus Act and Declaration of Rights – protected individuals against unfair arrest and imprisonment, unfairly high bail, or cruel or unusual punishmentToleration Act and Act of Settlement – religious freedoms to Dissenters, but not Roman Catholics or Jews; Act of Settlement kept Catholics from the English throne
11 Constitutional Monarchy in England Section 2:Constitutional Monarchy in EnglandParliamentary RuleGrowing power of Parliament – monarch must consult with Parliament; development of cabinet and prime ministerAct of Union – united England and Scotland into Great BritainConstitutional monarchy – monarch remained head of state, royal powers were limited by constitution
12 English Colonial Expansion Section 3:English Colonial ExpansionObjectives:Investigate who the sea dogs were and what they accomplished.Explore the results of the British mercantilist policy.
13 The Beginnings of the British Empire Section 3:English Colonial ExpansionThe Beginnings of the British EmpireExplorers and sea dogs – English sea captains who challenged the Portuguese and Spanish monopolies of sea trade, plundered foreign ships, helped defeat Spanish ArmadaThe British in India – British East India Company
14 English Colonial Expansion Section 3:English Colonial ExpansionThe British in AmericaBritish settlements – Jamestown and PlymouthMercantilism and the British colonies – discouraged colonial manufacturing and forced colonists to sell certain products only to Britain
15 The Enlightenment Objectives: Section 4: Identify the principal characteristics of Enlightenment thinking.Analyze the similarities and differences in the ideas of important Enlightenment philosophers.
16 Crusaders of the Enlightenment Section 4:The EnlightenmentCrusaders of the EnlightenmentBelieved that natural law governed human behavior and that truth could be determined by logic, secularism, and individualism
17 The Enlightenment Political Criticism Section 4: Montesquieu – government divided into branches to create checks on political powerVoltaire – criticized intolerance and attempts to suppress personal freedomsRousseau – distrusted reason, opposed strong government, supported popular sovereignty
18 The American Revolution Section 5:The American RevolutionObjectives:Explain how Americans responded to British policies after the French and Indian War.Describe what type of government Americans set up after the American Revolution.
19 The American Revolution Section 5:The American RevolutionEmpire and ConflictBritish-French rivalry – Seven Years’ War; British won control of much of North AmericaIncreased imperial control – Sugar Act, Stamp Act, “taxation without representation”Intensified conflict – colonists hardened their resistance to British policies
20 American Independence Section 5:The American RevolutionAmerican IndependenceThe Declaration of Independence – government is created to protect individual rights and cannot exist without the consent of the governed, who can alter or abolish itThe war for independence – weak American government, brutal Hessian mercenaries, strong American military leadershipWar and peace – French alliance with United States, as well as Spain and Netherlands, brought American victory
21 The American Revolution Section 5:The American RevolutionGoverning a New NationThe Articles of Confederation – weak central government, placed power in individual statesThe Constitution – federal government with three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial; Bill of Rights guaranteed citizens certain rightsEffects of American independence – democracy that inspired loyalty