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HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Europe and North America in the Postwar Years Section 1:Aftermath of the.

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Presentation on theme: "HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Europe and North America in the Postwar Years Section 1:Aftermath of the."— Presentation transcript:

1 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Europe and North America in the Postwar Years Section 1:Aftermath of the War in Europe Section 2:Origins of the Cold War Section 3:Reconstruction, Reform, and Reaction in Europe Section 4:The United States and Canada CHAPTER 31

2 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 2 Objectives: Describe the origins of the postwar settlement for Europe. Describe the origins of the postwar settlement for Europe. Explain why Germany was divided into four occupation zones and what developed as a result. Explain why Germany was divided into four occupation zones and what developed as a result. Explore how the United Nations is organized. Explore how the United Nations is organized. Identify the problems the Allies faced in keeping the peace. Identify the problems the Allies faced in keeping the peace. Section 1: Aftermath of the War in Europe

3 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 3 Wartime Conferences and Postwar Problems Tehran, Yalta Tehran, Yalta Disagreements between “Big Three,” plans for United Nations Disagreements between “Big Three,” plans for United Nations Section 1: Aftermath of the War in Europe

4 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 4 The Occupation of Germany Decisions at Potsdam – Allied Control Council, Council of Foreign Ministers Decisions at Potsdam – Allied Control Council, Council of Foreign Ministers Redrawing borders – increased population in Germany Redrawing borders – increased population in Germany Demilitarization and reparations Demilitarization and reparations The Nürnberg trials – Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against peace and humanity The Nürnberg trials – Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against peace and humanity Section 1: Aftermath of the War in Europe

5 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 5 The United Nations General Assembly – any nation could join and have same voting rights as others General Assembly – any nation could join and have same voting rights as others Security Council – ten temporary members and five permanent ones; veto power Security Council – ten temporary members and five permanent ones; veto power Section 1: Aftermath of the War in Europe

6 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 6 Peacemaking Problems Soviet Union and Western Allies had conflicting goals Soviet Union and Western Allies had conflicting goals Soviets wanted communist-controlled governments Soviets wanted communist-controlled governments Section 1: Aftermath of the War in Europe

7 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 7 Objectives: Examine how and why the alliance between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union ended. Examine how and why the alliance between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union ended. Investigate how the United States attempted to stop the spread of communism and aid Europe. Investigate how the United States attempted to stop the spread of communism and aid Europe. Describe how Germany became two separate countries. Describe how Germany became two separate countries. Identify the Cold War alliances that developed in Europe. Identify the Cold War alliances that developed in Europe. Section 2: Origins of the Cold War

8 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 8 The End of the Alliance Struggle between communism and democracy Struggle between communism and democracy Cold War – war of ideas and worldviews waged by two superpowers Cold War – war of ideas and worldviews waged by two superpowers Section 2: Origins of the Cold War

9 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 9 The United States Aids Europe The Truman Doctrine – United States committed to restricting spread of communism The Truman Doctrine – United States committed to restricting spread of communism The Marshall Plan – removal of trade barriers to provide economic aid The Marshall Plan – removal of trade barriers to provide economic aid Section 2: Origins of the Cold War

10 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 10 The Cold War in Europe Eastern and Central Europe – Soviet Union overthrew Czechoslovakia and forced communism on them Eastern and Central Europe – Soviet Union overthrew Czechoslovakia and forced communism on them Problems in Germany – three Western powers united their zones; Soviets opposed unification and blockaded border into West Berlin Problems in Germany – three Western powers united their zones; Soviets opposed unification and blockaded border into West Berlin The division of Germany – Western Allies approved formation of West Germany; Soviet Union formed East Germany The division of Germany – Western Allies approved formation of West Germany; Soviet Union formed East Germany Section 2: Origins of the Cold War

11 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 11 NATO and the Warsaw Pact NATO – twelve Western nations signed treaty to protect each other, others soon joined NATO – twelve Western nations signed treaty to protect each other, others soon joined Warsaw Pact – Eastern bloc nations’ mutual defense program, troops outnumbered NATO troops Warsaw Pact – Eastern bloc nations’ mutual defense program, troops outnumbered NATO troops Section 2: Origins of the Cold War

12 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 12 Objectives: Describe the West German “miracle.” Describe the West German “miracle.” Explain why the British met with mixed success in stimulating economic growth. Explain why the British met with mixed success in stimulating economic growth. Explore how France maintained an independent position in European affairs. Explore how France maintained an independent position in European affairs. Analyze how the Soviet Union changed under new leadership. Analyze how the Soviet Union changed under new leadership. Identify the problems Eastern European nations faced. Identify the problems Eastern European nations faced. Section 3: Reconstruction, Reform, and Reaction in Europe

13 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 13 The West German “Miracle” West German economic recovery – free-market policy, reconstruction and industrial development progressed rapidly West German economic recovery – free-market policy, reconstruction and industrial development progressed rapidly Politics – stable democracy; committed to market economy; encouraged East Germans to escape to West Germany Politics – stable democracy; committed to market economy; encouraged East Germans to escape to West Germany Section 3: Reconstruction, Reform, and Reaction in Europe

14 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 14 Postwar Britain Loss of workers and colonies Loss of workers and colonies Cost of overseas commitments Cost of overseas commitments Shift from coal to oil and nuclear power Shift from coal to oil and nuclear power Section 3: Reconstruction, Reform, and Reaction in Europe

15 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 15 New Republics in France De Gaulle helped to transform French empire into voluntary association of self-governing nations De Gaulle helped to transform French empire into voluntary association of self-governing nations Political instability led people to reject reforms Political instability led people to reject reforms Section 3: Reconstruction, Reform, and Reaction in Europe

16 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 16 Western Europe and Integration Recovery elsewhere in Europe – democracies in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden; free-enterprise systems in Greece, Portugal, and Spain Recovery elsewhere in Europe – democracies in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden; free-enterprise systems in Greece, Portugal, and Spain Economic integration – Common Market, European Community Economic integration – Common Market, European Community Section 3: Reconstruction, Reform, and Reaction in Europe

17 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 17 The Soviet Union After Stalin Khrushchev denounced Stalin’s policies, made economic reforms Khrushchev denounced Stalin’s policies, made economic reforms Innovations in military and space technology Innovations in military and space technology Evolved into modern industrial society Evolved into modern industrial society Section 3: Reconstruction, Reform, and Reaction in Europe

18 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 18 Eastern Europe Collectivization delayed economic recovery Collectivization delayed economic recovery Lower living standards than in the West Lower living standards than in the West Dissatisfaction with communism Dissatisfaction with communism Section 3: Reconstruction, Reform, and Reaction in Europe

19 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 19 Objectives: Examine the major domestic problems the United States faced in the postwar era. Examine the major domestic problems the United States faced in the postwar era. Investigate how the policy of containment led to foreign conflicts. Investigate how the policy of containment led to foreign conflicts. Identify the challenges the Canadian people responded to in the postwar era. Identify the challenges the Canadian people responded to in the postwar era. Section 4: The United States and Canada

20 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 20 Domestic Challenges Face the United States The economy and the Cold War at home – new industries, new construction, economic growth; anticommunist hysteria, McCarthyism The economy and the Cold War at home – new industries, new construction, economic growth; anticommunist hysteria, McCarthyism Domestic reforms and civil rights – war on poverty; NAACP; public school integration; Martin Luther King, Jr. Domestic reforms and civil rights – war on poverty; NAACP; public school integration; Martin Luther King, Jr. Section 4: The United States and Canada

21 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 21 Foreign Policy and the Cold War Southeast Asia Treaty Organization – to halt communist advances Southeast Asia Treaty Organization – to halt communist advances Eisenhower Doctrine – economic and military assistance to noncommunist nations in Middle East Eisenhower Doctrine – economic and military assistance to noncommunist nations in Middle East Cuba turned to Soviet Union for support against United States, resulting in Cuban Missile Crisis Cuba turned to Soviet Union for support against United States, resulting in Cuban Missile Crisis Vietnam War – sparked frustration, discontent, and antiwar protest in United States Vietnam War – sparked frustration, discontent, and antiwar protest in United States Section 4: The United States and Canada

22 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 22 Canada’s Challenges Economic and agricultural growth, as well as industrial growth Economic and agricultural growth, as well as industrial growth French Quebec wanted to separate from rest of Canada French Quebec wanted to separate from rest of Canada Section 4: The United States and Canada


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