12First Cities The first cities developed in Sumer around 3500BC Cities shared culture and languageDid not share rulersEach city had its own form of laws, gods and kingcalled a CITY-STATE
13The Sumerians3500BC-2000BCInvented Writing to keep records, Codify laws, transmit knowledgeMen and women wore shirts of sheepskin with fleece still attached soldiers and servants wore short shirts…Royalty wore long shirtsMen and women had long hair pulled into a bun sometimes the men were shaved to discourage verminRoyals wore gold jewelry
14One group to move to Sumeria were the Akkadians a Semitic tribe (language similar to Arabic and Hebrew)Formed their own country called AkkadMany clashes with Sumerians
15Clothes Shirt, loin cloth and tunic Shoes were made of leather and had an upward curve to the toe
16Early WritingScribes Very important writers who kept records for the king (highly respected)The earliest writing in Mesopotamia was a picture writing invented by the Sumerians who wrote on clay tablets using long reeds called a STYLUS.cuneiform- which is derived from two Latin words: cuneus , which means "wedge," and forma , which means "shape."
19LiteratureThe Epic of Gilgamesh, is one of the oldest works of literature in the world. This epic is a collection of stories about a hero named Gilgamesh.Gilgamesh travels the world in search of eternal life. On his journey, he meets the sole survivor of a great flood that destroyed the world. (Archaeologists have found evidence suggesting that a catastrophic flood devastated Mesopotamia somewhere about 4,900 years ago.) By the end of the story, Gilgamesh has learned the greatest truth of all- that even heroes must die
21This epic offers a glimpse into Sumerian civilization This epic offers a glimpse into Sumerian civilization. We learn that the people believed in powerful goddesses who exhibited very human emotions.The Sumerians valued gold, copper, and gems, rode in wheeled chariots, and used mules to carry goods
22Sumerians practiced POLYTHEISM- The belief in MANY gods Myths told of punishment and rewards of the godsMusic food and statues were used to honor the gods
23Fall of Sumer I think that title is pretty funny! ANYWAY City- states fought over land and water******Whenever a society is weak, other people can come in and conquer it.******Babylonians conquer in 1700s BC
24The Babylonians Conquered the Sumerians King Hammurabi (1792-1750BC) Code of Hammurabi“An eye for an eye”First organized set of lawsCODE OF LAWS.doc
25Social and political organization: The King: he had military powers.The Governors: they governed the territories of the kingdom. They were generals and judges at the same time.The aristocracy: they were priests and traders.The peasants: the people who work the land.The KingThe GovernorsThe AristocracyThe Peasantry
26Social Class Nobility- Kings and members of government Freemen- Artisans and tradesmenThe poor- farmersSlaves- Worth nothing wives and children sold to pay debt. Many were….Foreign captives and children of slaves
27Family This was a PATRIARCHAL society Marriage was contractual Man had one wife, but many concubinesMan could sell his children into slavery to pay debtsWomen were not that importantDivorce was O.K. if wife couldn’t have children
28The Assyrians 1600-612BC They conquered the Babylonians Very warlike- Had an armySwords made of IRONVery cruel warriorsThey were conquered by the Chaldeans
29GeographyAssyria is located in north Mesopotamia two great rivers run through Assyria, the Tigris and the Euhprates, To the north and east of Assyria lie the Taurus and Zagros mountains.. These two features create a geographical boundary between Assyria and the neighboring land to the south.To the south of Baghdad lies Babylon.
30The ChaldeansAfter the fall of Assyrian power in Mesopotamia, the last great group of people dominated the area.They had suffered under the AssyriansThe city of Babylon finally rose up against its hated enemy, the city of Nineveh, the capital of the Assyrian empire, and burned it to the ground.The chief of the Babylonians was Nabopolassar
31Nabopolassar was succeeded by his son, Nebuchadnezzar II (605-562 BC). Nebuchadnezzar was the equal of all the great Mesopotamian conquerors combinedhe conquered the Phoenicians and the state of Judah (586 BC)"New Babylonians," or Chaldeans forced a large part of the Jewish population to relocate. this deportation marks the beginning of the Exile in Jewish history.
37Under Nebuchadnezzar, the city of Babylon was rebuilt with great splendor. It would eventually become one of the most magnificent human cities in the area of the Middle East and Mediterranean.The entire period dominated by the Babylonians. Babylon in 555 BC came under the control of a king loyal to the Assyrians,
38Nabonidus ( BC), placed the Assyrian moon-god, Sin, above the Babylonian's principal god, Marduk.Priests and those faithful to Babylon would welcome Cyrus the Conqueror of Persia into their city and end forever Semitic domination of Mesopotamia
39The center of the Middle Eastern world shifted to Cyrus's capital, Susa, and it would shift again after the Greeks and then the Romans.For almost two and a half centuries, Mesopotamia and Babylon dominated early civilization in the Middle East
40Sumerians BCBabylonians BCAssyrians BCChaldeans “New and Improved”Hittites BC
41Summary Where- Between Tigris and Euphrates rivers When- 3500BC-2000BC First CivilizationInvented written languageMathematics 60 seconds-60 minutesDivided the circle into 360 partsDeveloped a twelve month calendar based on lunar cyclesUsed the wheel and made vehiclesInvented the plow and the sailboatAncient wonders of the world