2 As the US was growing the question of whether to admit new states to the Union as free or slave led to increased tensions between the north and south
3 The Impact of War With Mexico President James K. Polk didn’t feel that slavery would be an issue in the land taken in the war with MexicoHe thought the dry climate wouldn’t support the farming needed for slavery
4 In 1846 David Wilmot proposed the Wilmot Proviso, which would outlaw slavery in the territory gained from MexicoSoutherners were outraged
5 Lewis Cass of Michigan proposed popular sovereignty which said the citizens of each new territory would decide whether to allow slavery or not
6 But the Whig party was split In the presidential election of 1848 the Whig party choose Zachary Taylor as its candidateBut the Whig party was splitWhigs who opposed slavery were known as Conscience Whigs, they opposed slavery and Zachary TaylorCotton Whigs were in favor of both
7 Conscience Whigs quit the Whig party and formed the Free Soil Party to fight against slavery
8 There were 3 candidates in the election of 1848 Dem. Lewis Cass (popular sovereignty)Free-Soil. Martin Van Buren (against slavery)Whig. Zachary Taylor (avoided slavery) and won the election
9 Search for CompromiseThe discovery of gold in California brought nearly 80,000 people to the area called “Forty-Niners” because arrived in 1849California soon applied for statehood as a free state
10 Southerners now with a minority in the senate began to talk about secession Henry Clay came up with the Compromise of 1850 which had several different parts
12 Zachary Taylor died that summer and VP Milliard Fillmore takes over
13 Senator Stephen Douglas divided the compromise into smaller bills This allowed parts to pass but didn’t solve the bigger problems
14 Journal Entry – Jan 11If you were living in the 1850’s in the U.S. before the civil war what do you think your life would be like and why?
15 Sec 2 Mounting ViolenceUncle Tom’s Cabin – written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1852 about a slave and his overseer changed the Northern outlook on slavery
16 The south tried to have the book banned but it sold millions of copies and had a huge impact The Fugitive Slave Act also created a lot of hostility in North toward slavery
17 Frederick Douglas was one of the most adamant opponents to the Fugitive Slave Act The movement gave rise to the Underground Railroad
18 Members of the movement were called conductors One of the most famous was Harriet Tubman
19 Transcontinental Railroad Sectional disagreements moved west with the settlers who remained pro North or pro SouthMany began to push for a Transcontinental Railroad to make travel to the west quicker and easier
21 Southerners wanted a southern route for the railroad, but the route would have to go through Mexico James Gadsden was sent by the government to buy the land from Mexico
22 In 1853 Mexico agreed to accept $10 million for the territory known as the Gadsden Purchase The land today is a 30,000 square mile strip of southern Arizona and New Mexico
23 Democrat Stephen A. Douglas wanted a northern route that began in Chicago Congress would first need to organize the territory west of Missouri and Iowa
24 Douglas prepared a bill in 1853 to call the territory Nebraska
25 Southerners refused to sign the bill unless the Missouri Compromise was repealed and slavery was allowed in the territoryTo please southerners Douglas pushed for the new territory to have popular sovereignty
26 Kansas-Nebraska ActDouglas’ next version of the bill repealed the Missouri Compromise, and allowed slavery in the regionThe Kansas-Nebraska Act divided the region into Kansas in the south and Nebraska in the north
28 In 1856 Kansas became the scene of a territorial civil war It became known as “Bleeding Kansas”
29 Journal Entry – Jan. 19Imagine the south secedes from the union and nothing is done to stop them. Write a paragraph explaining how the world might have been different today.Would slavery have ended overtime anyway?Would the U.S. have ever been a major world power?Could we have avoided millions of Americans dying and eventually ended up coming back together and being as strong as we are today?
30 Sec 3 Birth of the Republican Party The Kansas-Nebraska Act destroyed the Whig partyThe Republican party was formed in July 1854.
31 Election of 1856 Republicans nominated John C. Fremont Democrats nominated James Buchanan
32 Dred Scott Decision (Scott Vs Sandford) Dred Scott was an enslaved man whose Missouri slaveholder had taken him to a free territory before returning to Missouri
33 Scott sued to end his slavery On March 6, 1857, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney ruled against Scott saying slaves were property, not U.S. citizens, and therefore had no right to sue in the courts
34 John Brown’s Raid John Brown was a white abolitionist He tried to raid the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, VA.He wanted to arm slaves in his neighborhood for a rebellion
35 Sec 4 The Union Dissolves John Brown’s raid caused southerners to fear an African American uprising and blamed the RepublicansThe democratic party couldn’t agree on a candidate for president in the 1860 election
36 Election of 1860Northern Democrats chose Stephen A. Douglas, Southern Democrats chose John C. Breckenridge
37 The Republican candidate was Abraham Lincoln Lincoln won the election and the south saw this as a victory for the abolitionists
38 South Carolina became the first state to secede from the Union By February 1861, six more states in the Lower South voted to secede
39 ------ States that seceded before April 15, States that seceded after April 15,Union states that permitted slaveryUnion states that banned slavery Territories
40 Seceding states met in Montgomery, AL and on February 8, 1861, declared themselves to be the Confederate States of AmericaJefferson Davis of Mississippi was chosen as the president of the Confederacy
41 The Civil War BeginsIn his inaugural address Lincoln told seceding states he would not interfere where slavery existed but he said “the Union of these States is perpetual”
42 President Jefferson Davis ordered an attack on Fort Sumter as part of seizing all federal buildings in the south
43 This was the beginning of the civil war The upper South seceded after the firing on Fort Sumter starting with VirginiaThe capitol of the confederacy was changed to Richmond, Virginia
44 Essay QuestionExplain the events and circumstances that lead the U.S. into the civil war in terms of slavery spreading west, the abolitionist movement, and the final push to war.
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