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Ch 10 Sectional Conflict Intensifies

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1 Ch 10 Sectional Conflict Intensifies

2 As the US was growing the question of whether to admit new states to the Union as free or slave led to increased tensions between the north and south

3 The Impact of War With Mexico
President James K. Polk didn’t feel that slavery would be an issue in the land taken in the war with Mexico He thought the dry climate wouldn’t support the farming needed for slavery

4 In 1846 David Wilmot proposed the Wilmot Proviso, which would outlaw slavery in the territory gained from Mexico Southerners were outraged

5 Lewis Cass of Michigan proposed popular sovereignty which said the citizens of each new territory would decide whether to allow slavery or not

6 But the Whig party was split
In the presidential election of 1848 the Whig party choose Zachary Taylor as its candidate But the Whig party was split Whigs who opposed slavery were known as Conscience Whigs, they opposed slavery and Zachary Taylor Cotton Whigs were in favor of both

7 Conscience Whigs quit the Whig party and formed the Free Soil Party to fight against slavery

8 There were 3 candidates in the election of 1848
Dem. Lewis Cass (popular sovereignty) Free-Soil. Martin Van Buren (against slavery) Whig. Zachary Taylor (avoided slavery) and won the election

9 Search for Compromise The discovery of gold in California brought nearly 80,000 people to the area called “Forty-Niners” because arrived in 1849 California soon applied for statehood as a free state

10 Southerners now with a minority in the senate began to talk about secession
Henry Clay came up with the Compromise of 1850 which had several different parts

11 Clay’s 36’30 line for Slavery

12 Zachary Taylor died that summer and VP Milliard Fillmore takes over

13 Senator Stephen Douglas divided the compromise into smaller bills
This allowed parts to pass but didn’t solve the bigger problems

14 Journal Entry – Jan 11 If you were living in the 1850’s in the U.S. before the civil war what do you think your life would be like and why?

15 Sec 2 Mounting Violence Uncle Tom’s Cabin – written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1852 about a slave and his overseer changed the Northern outlook on slavery

16 The south tried to have the book banned but it sold millions of copies and had a huge impact
The Fugitive Slave Act also created a lot of hostility in North toward slavery

17 Frederick Douglas was one of the most adamant opponents to the Fugitive Slave Act
The movement gave rise to the Underground Railroad

18 Members of the movement were called conductors
One of the most famous was Harriet Tubman

19 Transcontinental Railroad
Sectional disagreements moved west with the settlers who remained pro North or pro South Many began to push for a Transcontinental Railroad to make travel to the west quicker and easier


21 Southerners wanted a southern route for the railroad, but the route would have to go through Mexico
James Gadsden was sent by the government to buy the land from Mexico

22 In 1853 Mexico agreed to accept $10 million for the territory known as the Gadsden Purchase
The land today is a 30,000 square mile strip of southern Arizona and New Mexico

23 Democrat Stephen A. Douglas wanted a northern route that began in Chicago
Congress would first need to organize the territory west of Missouri and Iowa

24 Douglas prepared a bill in 1853 to call the territory Nebraska

25 Southerners refused to sign the bill unless the Missouri Compromise was repealed and slavery was allowed in the territory To please southerners Douglas pushed for the new territory to have popular sovereignty

26 Kansas-Nebraska Act Douglas’ next version of the bill repealed the Missouri Compromise, and allowed slavery in the region The Kansas-Nebraska Act divided the region into Kansas in the south and Nebraska in the north


28 In 1856 Kansas became the scene of a territorial civil war
It became known as “Bleeding Kansas”

29 Journal Entry – Jan. 19 Imagine the south secedes from the union and nothing is done to stop them. Write a paragraph explaining how the world might have been different today. Would slavery have ended overtime anyway? Would the U.S. have ever been a major world power? Could we have avoided millions of Americans dying and eventually ended up coming back together and being as strong as we are today?

30 Sec 3 Birth of the Republican Party
The Kansas-Nebraska Act destroyed the Whig party The Republican party was formed in July 1854.

31 Election of 1856 Republicans nominated John C. Fremont
Democrats nominated James Buchanan

32 Dred Scott Decision (Scott Vs Sandford)
Dred Scott was an enslaved man whose Missouri slaveholder had taken him to a free territory before returning to Missouri

33 Scott sued to end his slavery
On March 6, 1857, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney ruled against Scott saying slaves were property, not U.S. citizens, and therefore had no right to sue in the courts

34 John Brown’s Raid John Brown was a white abolitionist
He tried to raid the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, VA. He wanted to arm slaves in his neighborhood for a rebellion

35 Sec 4 The Union Dissolves
John Brown’s raid caused southerners to fear an African American uprising and blamed the Republicans The democratic party couldn’t agree on a candidate for president in the 1860 election

36 Election of 1860 Northern Democrats chose Stephen A. Douglas, Southern Democrats chose John C. Breckenridge

37 The Republican candidate was Abraham Lincoln
Lincoln won the election and the south saw this as a victory for the abolitionists

38 South Carolina became the first state to secede from the Union
By February 1861, six more states in the Lower South voted to secede

39 ------ States that seceded before April 15,
States that seceded after April 15, Union states that permitted slavery Union states that banned slavery       Territories

40 Seceding states met in Montgomery, AL and on February 8, 1861, declared themselves to be the Confederate States of America Jefferson Davis of Mississippi was chosen as the president of the Confederacy

41 The Civil War Begins In his inaugural address Lincoln told seceding states he would not interfere where slavery existed but he said “the Union of these States is perpetual”

42 President Jefferson Davis ordered an attack on Fort Sumter as part of seizing all federal buildings in the south

43 This was the beginning of the civil war
The upper South seceded after the firing on Fort Sumter starting with Virginia The capitol of the confederacy was changed to Richmond, Virginia

44 Essay Question Explain the events and circumstances that lead the U.S. into the civil war in terms of slavery spreading west, the abolitionist movement, and the final push to war.

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