2Election of 1828Jackson portrayed himself as the “candidate of the common man” and said Adams was an aristocrat and “out-of-touch”Jackson won the election with the support of the south and west small-town men
3Spoils SystemSpoils System – Jackson’s practice of appointing people to government jobs on the basis of party loyalty and support
4Under Jackson the national nominating convention replaced the caucus system to allow delegates from the states to meet at conventions to choose the president
5The Nullification Crisis South Carolina’s economy was weakeningMost blamed the nations tariffs, because South Carolina bought most it’s goods from England
6When Congress passed the Tariff of Abominations (called by its critics), South Carolina threatened to secede
7John C. Calhoun, vice president from South Carolina, proposed nullification – since the states created the union they could declare a law null or not valid
8The debate surfaced again in 1830 in the Senate with Robert Hayne of S The debate surfaced again in 1830 in the Senate with Robert Hayne of S.C. and Daniel Webster of Massachusetts
9President Jackson defended the union Congress passed another tariff in 1832 and S.C. declared the tariffs unconstitutional
10Jackson sent a warship to Charleston declaring the act as treason Henry Clay pushed through a bill to lower tariffs in two years and South Carolina repealed its nullification
11Policies Toward Native Americans Indian Removal Act – in 1830 President Jackson supported the passage of this law to allocate fund to relocate Native Americans to the Great PlainsThe Cherokee of Georgia refused and sued up to the Supreme Court
12In Worcester v. Georgia Chief Justice John Marshall ruled the Cherokee had property rights that had to be honored by the stateLater President Martin Van Buren sent the army to force the remaining people to move west to Oklahoma
13Thousands of Cherokee died on what became known as the Trail of Tears
14Jackson also opposed and shut down the second national bank during his second administration even after McCulloch Vs Maryland
15Whig PartyIn 1830 a new party had emerged to oppose Jackson called the Whig PartyMost members were former Republicans whose party fell after Adams lost the election of 1828
16The Whigs couldn’t settle on one candidate for the 1836 election so they ran 3 This made it easy for Democrat Martin Van Buren to win
17Shortly after Van Buren took office the country experienced an economic crisis called the Panic of 1837The Whigs saw the crisis as an opportunity
18Election of 1840Whigs nominated General William Henry Harrison for president and a former Democrat John Tyler for vice-presidentHarrison defeated Van Buren
19Journal Entry Tues. Dec. 1In groups of no more than 3 look up these leaders of reform and list the nature of their reforms and the goals they sought to achieve.Ralph Waldo Emerson, The Shakers, Dorothea Dix, American Temperance Movement, Horace Mann, Emma Willard, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick DouglasEach person will need their own sheet of paper.
20Sec 2 A Changing CultureThe U.S experience a massive influx of immigrants between 1815 and 1860The largest groups, around 2 million, came from IrelandThe main reason was the potato famine in 1845
21The second largest group were the Germans This brought up a problem with nativism, or hostility toward foreigners in the U.S.
22Second Great Awakening Revivalism - belief that people could attain grace by readmitting God and Christ into their livesCharles Grandison Finney was one of the leaders who helped to found revivalism
23Joseph Smith founded the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, also known as Mormons Brigham Young became the leader after Smith was murdered and moved the group to Utah
24Transcendentalism popular literary movement of the time. urged people to transcend the limits of their minds and let their souls embrace the universeLed by Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau
25Utopian communities also became a fad during this time People wanted a life free from corruption, the “ideal society”
26Brook Farm in Mass. was the most known utopian community of the time
27Sec 3 The Spirit of Reform Many areas of society came under reform in the mid-1800’s after the quick growth experienced in the U.S.
28Dorothea Dix – improved treatment for the mentally ill and in prisons
29Temperance MovementMany blamed problems of society on the excessive use of alcohol
30Temperance – a moderation in the consumption of alcohol Several groups joined together to form the American Temperance Union in 1833
31EducationHorace Mann – focused his life on education reform, and backed the creation of the first state board of education in Massachusetts.In 1852 Mass. Passed the first mandatory school attendance law
32Early Women’s Movement In 1848 Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized the Seneca Falls Convention, a meeting to focus on equal rights for womenSusan B Anthony introduced women’s suffrage into the U.S.
33In groups of two, using CH 8 sec 3, you must make a propaganda poster promoting a reform movement of the time periodTranscendentalism, Utopian Communities, Mental Institutions and Prisons, American Temperance Movement, Education Reform, Women’s RightsYou must include a slogan, pictures, any important people and basic ideas of your reform
34Sec 4 Early Opposition to Slavery There were two different views in the fight to end slavery1) Gradualism – called for a gradual end to slavery2) Abolition – the immediate end to slaveryAbolitionism quickly became the cry of the reformers
35The New AbolitionistWilliam Lloyd Garrison was a national leader of the movementHe founded the Liberator an antislavery newspaper that advocated emancipation – freeing of all enslave people
36Free African Americans also played prominent roles Frederick Douglas – published his own newspaper the North StarSojourner Truth – a very influential female abolitionist
37Discussion QuestionList and discuss in detail the circumstances surrounding the four major reform movements in the middle to late 1800’s that effected American society
42The steel plow, windmill, mechanical reaper, and barbed wire were the things that most influence and aided the western expansion.
43In 1821, Mexico won it’s independence from Spain John Sutter, a German immigrant, moved into California and built a trading post, as Americans began to flock to the west.Gold was discovered at Sutter’s Mill in 1849
44The four major trails used by settlers in the western part of the U. S The four major trails used by settlers in the western part of the U.S. were theSanta FeOregonMormonCalifornia
45Cities to list - Oregon City, Salt Lake City, Los Angeles, Santa Fe, Nauvoo, Independence, Sacramento
46Texas IndependenceTexas won it’s independence from Mexico under the leadership of Gen. Sam Houston from TennesseeAntonio Lopez de Santa Anna was the president of Mexico
47“Remember the Alamo” was the battle cry of the Texas Revolution In the Battle of San Jacinto the Texans defeated the Mexicans, captured Santa Anna, and ended the war.
48Mexican WarIn the election of 1844, the Whigs ran Henry Clay and the Democrats ran James K. Polk.Polk won the election and promised to gain control of Oregon, Texas, and California
49The slogan for Oregon was “Fifty-four Forty or Fight” John C. Fremont led a revolt in California and named it the “Bear Flag Republic”
50The Mexican-American War ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo where Mexico ceded more than 500,000 square miles of land
51Essay QuestionExplain the events and ideas that changed America in the Mid 1800’s in terms of Cultural Changes, Reform Movements, and Westward Expansion