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Ch 8 The Spirit of Reform. Election of 1828 Jackson portrayed himself as the “candidate of the common man” and said Adams was an aristocrat and “out-of-touch”

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Presentation on theme: "Ch 8 The Spirit of Reform. Election of 1828 Jackson portrayed himself as the “candidate of the common man” and said Adams was an aristocrat and “out-of-touch”"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch 8 The Spirit of Reform

2 Election of 1828 Jackson portrayed himself as the “candidate of the common man” and said Adams was an aristocrat and “out-of-touch” Jackson won the election with the support of the south and west small-town men

3 Spoils System Spoils System – Jackson’s practice of appointing people to government jobs on the basis of party loyalty and support

4 Under Jackson the national nominating convention replaced the caucus system to allow delegates from the states to meet at conventions to choose the president

5 The Nullification Crisis South Carolina’s economy was weakening Most blamed the nations tariffs, because South Carolina bought most it’s goods from England

6 When Congress passed the Tariff of Abominations (called by its critics), South Carolina threatened to secede

7 John C. Calhoun, vice president from South Carolina, proposed nullification – since the states created the union they could declare a law null or not valid

8 The debate surfaced again in 1830 in the Senate with Robert Hayne of S.C. and Daniel Webster of Massachusetts

9 President Jackson defended the union Congress passed another tariff in 1832 and S.C. declared the tariffs unconstitutional

10 Jackson sent a warship to Charleston declaring the act as treason Henry Clay pushed through a bill to lower tariffs in two years and South Carolina repealed its nullification

11 Policies Toward Native Americans Indian Removal Act – in 1830 President Jackson supported the passage of this law to allocate fund to relocate Native Americans to the Great Plains The Cherokee of Georgia refused and sued up to the Supreme Court

12 In Worcester v. Georgia Chief Justice John Marshall ruled the Cherokee had property rights that had to be honored by the state Later President Martin Van Buren sent the army to force the remaining people to move west to Oklahoma

13 Thousands of Cherokee died on what became known as the Trail of Tears

14 Jackson also opposed and shut down the second national bank during his second administration even after McCulloch Vs Maryland

15 Whig Party In 1830 a new party had emerged to oppose Jackson called the Whig Party Most members were former Republicans whose party fell after Adams lost the election of 1828

16 The Whigs couldn’t settle on one candidate for the 1836 election so they ran 3 This made it easy for Democrat Martin Van Buren to win

17 Shortly after Van Buren took office the country experienced an economic crisis called the Panic of 1837 The Whigs saw the crisis as an opportunity

18 Election of 1840 Whigs nominated General William Henry Harrison for president and a former Democrat John Tyler for vice-president Harrison defeated Van Buren

19 Journal Entry Tues. Dec. 1 In groups of no more than 3 look up these leaders of reform and list the nature of their reforms and the goals they sought to achieve. Ralph Waldo Emerson, The Shakers, Dorothea Dix, American Temperance Movement, Horace Mann, Emma Willard, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglas Each person will need their own sheet of paper.

20 Sec 2 A Changing Culture The U.S experience a massive influx of immigrants between 1815 and 1860 The largest groups, around 2 million, came from Ireland The main reason was the potato famine in 1845

21 The second largest group were the Germans This brought up a problem with nativism, or hostility toward foreigners in the U.S.

22 Second Great Awakening Revivalism - belief that people could attain grace by readmitting God and Christ into their lives Charles Grandison Finney was one of the leaders who helped to found revivalism

23 Joseph Smith founded the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, also known as Mormons Brigham Young became the leader after Smith was murdered and moved the group to Utah

24 Transcendentalism popular literary movement of the time. urged people to transcend the limits of their minds and let their souls embrace the universe Led by Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau

25 Utopian communities also became a fad during this time People wanted a life free from corruption, the “ideal society”

26 Brook Farm in Mass. was the most known utopian community of the time

27 Sec 3 The Spirit of Reform Many areas of society came under reform in the mid-1800’s after the quick growth experienced in the U.S.

28 Dorothea Dix – improved treatment for the mentally ill and in prisons

29 Temperance Movement Many blamed problems of society on the excessive use of alcohol

30 Temperance – a moderation in the consumption of alcohol Several groups joined together to form the American Temperance Union in 1833

31 Education Horace Mann – focused his life on education reform, and backed the creation of the first state board of education in Massachusetts. In 1852 Mass. Passed the first mandatory school attendance law

32 Early Women’s Movement In 1848 Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized the Seneca Falls Convention, a meeting to focus on equal rights for women Susan B Anthony introduced women’s suffrage into the U.S.

33 In groups of two, using CH 8 sec 3, you must make a propaganda poster promoting a reform movement of the time period Transcendentalism, Utopian Communities, Mental Institutions and Prisons, American Temperance Movement, Education Reform, Women’s Rights You must include a slogan, pictures, any important people and basic ideas of your reform

34 Sec 4 Early Opposition to Slavery There were two different views in the fight to end slavery 1) Gradualism – called for a gradual end to slavery 2) Abolition – the immediate end to slavery Abolitionism quickly became the cry of the reformers

35 The New Abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison was a national leader of the movement He founded the Liberator an antislavery newspaper that advocated emancipation – freeing of all enslave people

36 Free African Americans also played prominent roles Frederick Douglas – published his own newspaper the North Star Sojourner Truth – a very influential female abolitionist

37 Discussion Question List and discuss in detail the circumstances surrounding the four major reform movements in the middle to late 1800’s that effected American society

38 I) Intro II) Temperance III) Education IV) Women’s Rights V) Slavery

39 Ch 9 Manifest Destiny In 1800 around 387,000 people lived west of the Appalachian Mountains In 1820 the number was 2.4 Million and rising

40 Americans began to believe strongly in the idea of Manifest Destiny This was the idea that God had given the continent to the Americans and wanted them to settle it from coast to coast

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42 The steel plow, windmill, mechanical reaper, and barbed wire were the things that most influence and aided the western expansion.

43 In 1821, Mexico won it’s independence from Spain John Sutter, a German immigrant, moved into California and built a trading post, as Americans began to flock to the west. Gold was discovered at Sutter’s Mill in 1849

44 The four major trails used by settlers in the western part of the U.S. were the Santa Fe Oregon Mormon California

45 Cities to list - Oregon City, Salt Lake City, Los Angeles, Santa Fe, Nauvoo, Independence, Sacramento

46 Texas Independence Texas won it’s independence from Mexico under the leadership of Gen. Sam Houston from Tennessee Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna was the president of Mexico

47 “Remember the Alamo” was the battle cry of the Texas Revolution In the Battle of San Jacinto the Texans defeated the Mexicans, captured Santa Anna, and ended the war.

48 Mexican War In the election of 1844, the Whigs ran Henry Clay and the Democrats ran James K. Polk. Polk won the election and promised to gain control of Oregon, Texas, and California

49 The slogan for Oregon was “Fifty-four Forty or Fight” John C. Fremont led a revolt in California and named it the “Bear Flag Republic”

50 The Mexican-American War ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo where Mexico ceded more than 500,000 square miles of land

51 Essay Question Explain the events and ideas that changed America in the Mid 1800’s in terms of Cultural Changes, Reform Movements, and Westward Expansion

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