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CH 6 Federalist and Democratic-Republicans Pg 210.

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1 CH 6 Federalist and Democratic-Republicans Pg 210

2 Section 1 Washington and Congress In 1789 Congress created the Departments of… – State – Treasury – War – Office of Attorney General

3 President George Washington chose Thomas Jefferson as the Secretary of the State Alexander Hamilton, the head of the Treasury Department

4 General Henry Knox, Secretary of War Edmund Randolph, first Attorney General This collection of men who advised the president became known as the Cabinet

5 John Jay became the first chief justice of the supreme court In 1791 the first 10 amendments, bill of rights, was added. – First 8 were protecting individual rights – 9 said that people had rights other than the ones listed – 10 said any power not specifically given to the federal government belonged to the states

6 Financing the Government The government needed more money to operate James Madison and Alexander Hamilton came up with two different plans

7 Madison felt the government should tax imports from other countries Tariff of 1789 – importers paid 5% of their cargo This angered southern farmers

8 Hamilton wanted to sell bonds to borrow money This also didn’t help southerners

9 As a compromise to the plan southerners were promised the new capitol would be placed in the south called the District of Columbia

10 National Bank Hamilton also asked for a National Bank – To give loans to the government and individuals – To issue paper money – Encourage trade – Stimulate economic growth

11 Madison felt the bank was not within the Congress’ enumerated powers – specifically listed in the constitution Hamilton argued it was an implied power – from article 1 sec 8

12 Whiskey Rebellion Hamilton wanted to tax whiskey Western farmers rebelled Washington sent 13,000 troops to stop it

13 2 Political Parties The split in congress over finances created the two parties Federalist, - led by Hamilton and wanted a strong national government, business Democratic-Republicans – led by Madison and Jefferson, small gov., farmers

14 Section 2 Partisan Politics The French Revolution began shortly after Washington took office in 1789

15 How the U.S. was Made Thing you must label and color – Original 13 colonies – Land won after the revolutionary war – Louisiana Purchase – Florida purchase from Spain – Texas Annexation – Mexican Secession – Oregon Country – Hawaii Annexation – Gadsden Purchase – Alaska Purchase Thing you must label - Mississippi River - Appalachian Mountains - Rocky Mountains - Use the map at the front of class and at the front of your book

16 Federalist opposed it for its violence Dem-Rep supported it because of its fight for liberty

17 1793 France declared war on Britain. Washington said the U.S. would stay friendly to both Britain started seizing American ships so John Jay was sent to find a solution

18 Jay’s Treaty Gave Britain the right to seize American cargo headed for France Britain gave the U.S. most-favored nation status, meaning American merchants would be safe if they traded with Britain.

19 Pinckney’s Treaty Thomas Pinckney negotiated a treaty with Spain in 1795 It gave the U.S. rights to navigate the Mississippi River and to deposit goods at the port of New Orleans.

20 Westward Expansion In 1792 Kentucky became the 14 th state Four years later Tennessee became a state

21 At the same time people were expanding west from Pennsylvania and Virginia as well This quickly led to trouble with the Indians

22 Washington Leaves Office Washington left office after being irritated by party politics and attacks on his character In his farewell address he warned against – Sectionalism- dividing the country in regions – Political parties – Being too attached with any foreign nation

23 Election of was the country’s first openly contested election Federalist – John Adams VS Dem-Rep – Thomas Jefferson John Adams won the election 71 to 68

24 Quasi-War with France The French were angry with Jay’s Treaty and seized American ships going to Great Britain Adams sent negotiators French demanded bribes in what became known as the XYZ affair

25 Congress suspended trade with France and told the navy to capture French ships Negotiations were reopened and the Quasi- War ended

26 War between the Parties Federalist pushed 4 laws through Congress known as the Alien and Sedition Acts

27 The first 3 said aliens in the country could not be citizens for 14 years, most of whom voted most often for the Republicans The last prevented sedition, or incitement to rebellion and speaking out against government

28 The Republican legislatures of Kentucky and Virginia passed resolutions criticizing the Alien and Sedition Acts Written secretly by Jefferson and Madison they said states created the Constitution and so had the power to say if a law was unconstitutional

29 Interposition Virginia’s resolution said that states could interpose between the federal government and people and stop illegal action against the people

30 Nullification Kentucky resolution said that if the federal government passed an unconstitutional law the states had a right to nullify the law or declare it invalid

31 Election of 1800 Showed a flaw in the system Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr each got the same number of electoral votes

32 According to the constitution the House of Representatives votes for president in the case of a tie

33 Then with Hamilton’s help the house tied Jefferson promised not to dismantle Hamilton’s financial system and later he won by one vote

34 Sec 3 Jefferson in Office Jefferson tried to integrate Republican ideas into Hamilton’s policies He paid off the federal debt, cut government spending, and ended the whiskey tax

35 Rise of Supreme Court Judiciary Act of 1801 created 16 new federal judges Adams appointed these judges before he left office

36 Jefferson didn’t like the Federalist controlled courts and repealed the act

37 John Adams had chosen John Marshall as chief justice of the supreme court Marshall served for 34 years and made the Supreme Court a powerful branch of government

38 Marbury Vs Madison Established Judicial Review – the power to decide if laws passed by Congress were constitutional

39 Expanding West In 1800 Napoleon convinced Spain to give Louisiana back to France in exchange for helping take control of part of Italy By 1803 Napoleon was trying to conquer Europe Short on funds, Napoleon sold the Louisiana Territory as well as New Orleans to the U.S.

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41 The U.S. purchased Louisiana for $15 million The Louisiana purchase doubled the size of the United States Jefferson sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark on an expedition to survey the Louisiana Territory

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43 Essex Junto – Wanted New England to secede VP Aaron Burr was going to run for governor of New York in 1804 Alexander Hamilton called Burr a “dangerous man” Burr challenged him to a duel, shot and killed him

44 Rising International Tension Escalation of tensions originally helped American merchants Eventually, both Britain and France began seizing American ships Impressment – Legalized kidnapping Embargo Act of 1807

45 Essay Question Explain the 3 things Washington warned about in his farewell address. Explain each and the problems that came from them.

46 Section 4 – War of 1812 Madison wins election of 1808 Non Intercourse Act – Play the British and French against each other Macon’s Bill #2 Congress declares war in 1812

47 War Hawks – South and West wanted war, Northeast did not Hurt these region’s ability to ship crops overseas Thought British were encouraging Native attacks

48 Tecumseh and Tippecanoe – Tecumseh’s brother, Tenskwatawa, led a spiritual rebirth of Native culture – William Henry Harrison decides to stamp this out – Battle of Tippecanoe shatters confidence of tribe in Tenskwatawa. Many flee to Canada. – Seemed to prove British were supporting Native attacks from Canada

49 U.S. was very ill-prepared to fight Had trouble raising money – New England opposed to the war and banks their would not lend the government money to pay for it Three failed attacks on Canda Oliver Perry leads the U.S. to a big naval victory on Lake Erie

50 1814 – Napoleon falls and Britain can turn more attention to the U.S. Three Part Strategy – Raid American coastal cities – Take New York, cutting off New England – Seize New Orleans and close the Mississippi River Attack Washington, DC – Burn the White House and Capitol

51 Americans defeat the British and Lake Champlain Hartford Convention Battle of New Orleans – Federalist party is painted as divisive and unpatriotic, fades away Treaty of Ghent


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