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Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 1 Organization and Management of Learning Environment Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice.

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1 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 1 Organization and Management of Learning Environment Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center Troy University

2 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 2 Alabama Quality Teaching Standards  Page 1 of handout  Standard 2:  Teaching and Learning (Organization and Management of Learning Environment)

3 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 3 Indicators  2.1 Designs a classroom organization and management system built upon age- appropriate expectations and research- based strategies  2.2 Creates a climate that promotes fairness and respect  2.3 Creates a safe, orderly, and stimulating learning environment that nurtures motivation and engagement of learners

4 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 4 Handouts  Provided on a CD  Easily modified for personal use

5 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 5 References Elizabeth Breaux Lee Canter Geoff Colvin Robert J. Marzano Ruby K. Payne Arthur L. Robin Julia G. Thompson Sharon K. Weiss Todd Whitaker Harry Wong

6 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 6 Just a Few Reminders…  State law requires local boards of education to have a student discipline policy.  Teachers must be familiar with and follow school board policy on student discipline.  Teachers must review the school student code of conduct.  Board policy supersedes school policy.  Whenever possible, administer discipline in private, out of the view and hearing of others.  If you are not following board policy, the board will not be able to support your actions.

7 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 7 Unresolved Classroom Management Issue  Find a partner.  Share the issue.  Listen to a possible solution.  Reverse roles.  Please, do not begin yet; wait for the procedures on the next slide.

8 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 8 Procedure for Selecting a Partner  Thirty (30) seconds to select and decide who will share first  Earliest birthday of the year will share first Example: The person with an April birthday will share before the person with an October birthday  Same birthday month? Use the day  Same month and day, flip a coin  Unable to find a partner, join another group  Wait for the signal to begin selecting your partner (on next slide)

9 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 9 Find a Partner  Turn to page 4 of your handout packet, and follow the directions for “Select a Partner”  Thirty seconds  Find a partner  Decide who will share first  In the first blank, write your partner’s name  In the second blank, write who will share first  Wait for next slide. Do not begin your discussion yet.

10 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 10 Share  First person has one minute to share a classroom management issue  Second person has one minute to offer a suggestion  Initial at the bottom of page 4 when finished  Begin now

11 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 11 Second Partner  One minute to share  One minute for partner to offer suggestions  Begin now

12 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 12 Who Will Share?  Share the classroom management issue  Share the solution

13 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 13 Index Card  Briefly write the unsolved issue  No complete sentences  Two minutes

14 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 14 Mental Trip Back in Time  Back to the beginning of a school year  Back to the week before school begins  Back to the time you are in your classroom preparing for the new school year

15 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 15 Tell Me  What are you doing?  What are you thinking?

16 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 16 Fast Forward  Professional development days  Two days before the students arrive

17 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 17 Tell Me  What are you doing?  What are you thinking?

18 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 18 Your Actions Send a Message  During the first two weeks of school, students receive unspoken messages from their teacher.  These messages are based on the decisions you make and the actions you take.  Which message are you sending? I am overwhelmed with a list of skills to “cover” and document. I will not allow any one student or group of students to interfere with the instruction of others.

19 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 19 I Hope  Students receive the second unspoken message  Proactive, assertive, and in control

20 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 20 But How?  Expectations and consequences  No need to be harsh  Follow through with consequences  Phone calls to parents  Caring, fair, and have self-control

21 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 21 Marzano (2003)  Virtually all of this research points to the beginning of the school year as the linchpin for effective classroom management.  Even if the research were not so clear, common sense dictates that devoting the first few days of the year, the semester, or the quarter to classroom management has the potential to ward off many future problems. (p. 93)

22 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 22 Your Focus  First two weeks  Primary student goals should be classroom management skills  Secondary student goals should be academic skills

23 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 23 Just to Clarify Teachers Continue with…  Preparation of lessons  Assessment of students  Instruction of academic skills Note: Lesson plans should include specific activities for teaching classroom management procedures.

24 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 24 For Two Weeks…  Classroom management will take priority  Academic goals should be secondary

25 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 25 Two Choices  Take care of the majority of management issues at the beginning of the year.  Allow management issues to interrupt instruction throughout the year.

26 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 26 How? C onsistent O rganize procedures N eed a reward S ign a contract I n transition S tay in touch T imer E veryone works together N egative consequences T eacher/Student relationships Page 6 of Handout

27 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 27 Consistent  Why is consistency important in a classroom?

28 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 28 Predictable Environment Thompson (1998)  Consistent classroom management allows a teacher to create a predictable environment where students know what to expect and thus can make choices based on established rules, boundaries, and consequences. (p. 323)

29 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 29 What is Insanity?  Insanity: doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results. -Albert Einstein

30 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 30 Hard to Do?  Why is consistency the hardest skill for most teachers to implement?

31 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 31 Not in Control of…  last minute requests from administrators.  events that happen with students at home.  unexpected situations in our personal lives.

32 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 32 We Are in Control of  Our response  Our choices  Our behavior

33 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 33 We May Choose to  Whine  Take our frustrations out on the students  Manage with “class”

34 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 34 Stay Consistent C onsistent Organize procedures

35 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 35 Organize Procedures  Why is it important for teachers to have procedures for how to and when to?

36 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 36 Opening Activity  Asked to share a classroom management issue  Procedures?  Procedures easy to follow?  Predict problems that might arise and provide a solution?

37 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 37 Emmer, Evertson, and Worsham (2003)  It is just not possible for a teacher to conduct instruction or for students to work productively if they have no guidelines for how to behave or when to move about the room, or if they frequently interrupt the teacher and one another. Furthermore, inefficient procedures and the absence of routines for common aspects of classroom life, such as taking and reporting attendance, participating in discussions, turning in materials, or checking work, can waste large amounts of time and cause students’ attention and interest to wane. (Marzano p.17)

38 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 38 Marzano (2003)  38% decrease in disruptions with the implementation of rules and procedures.

39 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 39 Good Line Manners  Keep your hands down beside you.  Look straight ahead.  Stay behind the person in front of you.  Stay quiet.  Walk.

40 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 40 Sharpen Pencils One person at a time…  When the timer is on.  Before the 8 o’clock bell.  During snack.  During seat work.

41 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 41 Wash Hands and Get Water One person at a time…  When the timer is on.  Before the 8 o’clock bell.  During snack.  During seat work.

42 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 42 Bully Report My Name ______________________ Date ___________________________ Person who bothered me ____________________ This is what happened ______________________ _________________________________________ Witness _____________________________

43 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 43 Student Jobs…  Put trash cans in the hall  Empty the pencil sharpeners  Erase the board  Girl’s bathroom monitor  Boy’s bathroom monitor  Girl’s soap  Boy’s soap  Girl’s paper towels  Boy’s paper towels  Turn computer on  Advance the power point

44 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 44 Student Jobs Continued…  Snack drinks from lunchroom  Turn of lights and close door/ lunch  Change the date  Boy’s test monitor  Girl’s test monitor  Boy’s reading log  Girl’s reading log  Bird seed  Pass out papers/homework/assignments

45 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 45 Student Jobs Continued…  Timer in the mornings  Note about paper towels  Make sure all the chairs are up  Put paper in the printer  Put marbles in the jar  Change marble number on the board  Pick up paper in the afternoon  Check board work in the morning

46 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 46 Student Jobs Continued…  Apples off the tree  Put clothespins back in the morning  Straighten book bags in the morning  Lock the door at 8:00 AM  Nurse  Collect papers/homework/assignment  Reading log sheets  Take notes to the office  Take assignments to ISS

47 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 47 Procedures for Entering the Classroom  Walk to your assigned seat.  Complete the warm-up.  Remain quiet, with no communication.  Wait for instructions.

48 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 48 Procedures for Changing Classes  Walk to the next class.  Line up against the wall.  Stay in single file.  Enter the room when directed.

49 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 49 Beginning of Class  Everyday, the directions for the day will be on the upper right hand corner of the board.  The steps are numbered in the order they should be completed.  Ask questions as I go over the directions.  Begin with number one after the review..

50 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 50 Procedures before Standardized Testing:  Use the restroom; you will not be allowed to leave the room during testing.  Blow your nose.  Have a tissue on your desk.  Take off your shoes, if you like.  Enjoy a peppermint, if you like.

51 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 51 Procedures during Standardized Testing  Work only on the section assigned by your teacher.  General questions will be answered, but your teacher may not answer questions about specific items on the test.  Stay at your desk during testing. However, if you need to vomit, get to a trash can quickly.  If your pencil point breaks, raise your hand. Your teacher will bring you another one.  If another tissue is needed, raise your hand. Your teacher will bring one.  If additional scratch paper is needed, raise your hand. Your teacher will bring one.

52 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 52 Procedures during a Standardized Test, Continued  Read very carefully. Make sure you understand what the item is asking you to do.  There are answers on the test designed to trick people who work in a hurry. Take your time.  If you do not know the answer, skip that item and come back to it later. When skipping an item in your test booklet, make sure to skip it on the answer document also. Making yourself a note on the scratch paper may help you remember.  From time to time, double check to make sure the question and the space on your answer document are the same.

53 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 53 Procedures after Completing a Standardized Test:  Sit quietly so that you do not disturb your classmates.  Check over your work.  Make sure your answer circles are filled in completely.  Erase any marks hanging out of the bubble circles.  Erase all stray marks.  Do not look at any other part of the test.  Place your answer document inside the front cover of your test booklet.  You may lay your head down, or you may draw on your scratch paper. After this session, scratch paper will be collected and shredded.

54 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 54 Students Leaving the Room  Sign the folder with your name and the time you are leaving. Ask the time keeper to initial next to the time.  Complete a hall pass.  Look at the amount of time allowed for your leaving the room. Restroom: four minutes Office: five minutes Locker: three minutes  Mark the time when you return. Ask the time keeper to initial next to the time.

55 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 55

56 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 56 Student Passes Gas?  It’s better to let it out and be ashamed…  than to hold it in and be in pain.

57 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 57 Your Turn  Think about a situation that needs a procedure.  Look at handout page 7.  Prepare a set of procedures for that activity.  Five minutes

58 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 58 New Academic Skill  Introduce  Practice  Independent work  Assessment

59 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 59 New Procedures Elizabeth Breaux (2007)  Teach, Practice, and Implement  Teach: The teacher must literally teach the students exactly how a particular procedure is to be done.  Practice: the teacher must allow the students to try the procedure themselves.  Implementation: The teacher begins the consistent implementation of what has been taught and practiced. (p.24)

60 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 60 How? C onsistent O rganize procedures Need a reward

61 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 61 Need a Reward  Why do teachers need to provide rewards?

62 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 62 Rewards  Individuals  Small groups  The whole class

63 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 63 Disciplinary Interventions Marzano (2003) To illustrate, a meta-analysis by Scott Stage and David Qurioz (1997) included 99 studies, 200 experimental comparisons, and more than 5,000 students. Their overall finding was that, in general, disciplinary interventions resulted in a decrease in disruptive behavior among almost 80 percent of the subjects in the studies they analyzed. (p. 28)

64 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 64 Positive Reinforcements  According to meta-analysis by Marzano(2003)  When using positive reinforcements as a disciplinary intervention  Thirty-one percent decrease in disruptions (p.29)

65 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 65 Find Positive Rewards  Handout pages 8 and 9, “Rewards That Don’t Cost Much Money”  Circle at least ten (10) rewards you might use  List rewards and requirements on page 10 of the handout packet  Five minutes

66 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 66 Will You Share?  Share other positive reinforcement ideas.  Write on the clipboard using just a few words.  Ideas will be shared before the close of the workshop.

67 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 67 Just to Clarify  There are times when punishment is warranted and must be applied, especially for repeat offenders, defiance, or disregard for safety.  However, once a reward is earned, do not take it away as punishment. Find something else for punishment.

68 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 68 How? C onsistent O rganize procedures N eed a reward Sign a contract

69 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 69 Sign a Contract  Why/When is it helpful to use a contract?

70 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 70 Basic Parts of a Contract  Persons involved  Positive behaviors expected (Lee Canter suggests that educators focus on no more than five behaviors at a time)  Consequences  Signatures

71 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 71 Keep in Mind  It has taken many years for the behaviors to be learned.  Your efforts may not show up immediately.  Celebrate any small change.

72 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 72 Behavior Plan for “Student”  These are the behaviors that Student needs to have.  These are the rewards Student will receive.  These are the consequences for Student.

73 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 73

74 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 74

75 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 75

76 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 76  This is what I can do to be more successful:  This is my plan for making more of an effort to be more successful:  This is what might keep me from making my plan a success:  This is what I can do to stay away for those things that keep me from being successful:  These are other people at school who can help me be successful:  These are fair consequences that I should face if my plan does not work: Contract for Increasing Commitment

77 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 77 Simple Contract  Identify behavior.  Provide the student with three (more or less) numbered craft sticks.  Collect one stick each time the behavior is exhibited.  Provide a negative consequence if behavior is exhibited again that day (that period or that week).

78 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 78 How? C onsistent O rganize procedures N eed a reward S ign a contract In transition

79 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 79 In Transition  Why do behavior problems often happen during transitions?

80 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 80 Solve Transition Problems  Group work  Partner with a person sitting beside you  Thirty seconds  Offer suggestions

81 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 81 Solution? 1. A teacher is walking with her students to lunch. She is a smart teacher and knows to walk at the end of the line to keep all of the students in view. However, when the front of the line turns the corner, the first two students in line engage in a fist fight.

82 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 82 Solution? 2. A teacher is conducting beginning of the class duties of taking roll and collecting homework assignments. He knows to have a bell ringer activity on the board for students to complete as soon as they enter the classroom. The teacher notices that very few students are completing the assigned work, and the majority of students are both talking and walking around the room.

83 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 83 Solution? 3. During dismissal, the teacher suddenly remembers a few important steps that should have been included in the homework assignment. Since this teacher wants her students to be successful, she tells them about these steps. The next day, only four of the students in the class have that information included in that assignment.

84 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 84 Solution? 4. When the teacher begins class, there are constant interruptions because students need supplies such as: pencil, paper, sharpened pencil, completed homework assignment, a text book, or a dictionary. This teacher had already allowed time for students to prepare for the class while he was speaking briefly with the teacher next door.

85 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 85 How? C onsistent O rganize procedures N eed a reward S ign a contract I n transition Stay in touch

86 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 86 Parents  Why is it important to stay in touch with parents?

87 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 87 Working with Parents  Take the first step  Have a specific request in mind  Contact the parent after a little time has passed (avoid a tone of anger)  Allow parents to present their point of view (everyone deserves the right to be heard)  Ask for parent’s thoughts (help you see their perspective)  Return parent calls promptly  Send a (delivery confirmation) letter in the mail  Document, document, document

88 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 88 Meeting with Parents  First, state the facts (out of the first 20 days of school, Student has not had math homework on 10 different days)  Next, let the parent know that this is not typical of a student this age or at this grade level  Finally, present the request (In order for Student to be successful, he/she will need to…

89 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 89 Parents Need to Feel Successful If you make a point of helping parents feel successful about their children, you will find them more willing to work successfully with you. –Thompson (1998) (p 105)

90 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 90 How? C onsistent O rganize procedures N eed a reward S ign a contract I n transition S tay in touch Timer

91 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 91 Timer  How could a timer help a teacher stay consistent?  How has it been used today?  Name specific activities when you might use a timer.

92 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 92 How? C onsistent O rganize procedures N eed a reward S ign a contract I n transition S tay in touch T imer Everyone works together

93 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 93 Everyone Works Together  Why is it important for everyone in the class to work together?  Together Everyone Accomplishes More. (Team)

94 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 94 Conflict Resolution  Provide procedures so students may solve problems instead of the teacher solving the problems.  Assign a student mediator.  Find a time for solving the problem, but do not let it interrupt instruction.

95 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 95 How? C onsistent O rganize procedures N eed a reward S ign a contract I n transition S tay in touch T imer E veryone works together Negative consequences

96 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 96 Negative Consequences  Why are negative consequences necessary?

97 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 97 Just Some Thoughts  Natural consequences  Feel uncomfortable or inconvenienced  Loss of privileges, time-out, conduct cuts, restitution, or after-school detention  Management without making a break in the lesson  Time-out (co-worker)  Ask others for help

98 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 98 Marzano (2003)  To illustrate, a meta-analysis by Scott Stage and David Qurioz (1997) included 99 studies, 200 experimental comparisons, and more than 5,000 students. Their overall finding was that, in general, disciplinary interventions resulted in a decrease in disruptive behavior among almost 80 percent of the subjects in the studies they analyzed. (p. 28)

99 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 99 Decrease in Disruptions  Twenty-eight percent when punishment is used  Thirty-three percent when both a reward and punishment are used Marzano (p. 29)

100 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 100 Suggested Negative Consequences  Take away break time for the same amount of time that the class is talking  Have parent spend a couple of hours in the classroom  Silent lunch/sit near the teacher  Lose free play on Friday  Detain student in the classroom for one minute after other students leave (no excuse for tardiness in another class)  No treasure chest or ice cream on Friday  Remove the students from the room if disruptive child will not leave  Exclusion from a fun learning activity (time in another teacher’s room)  Isolation during lunch  Community service-clean up in the classroom

101 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 101 Negative Consequences Continued  Communicate with other faculty and staff members, especially if the student is involved in a club, extracurricular activities, or a sport  Take away time from the student’s favorite activity  Detention (break, before school. after school)  Community service (Clean up classroom or other area of the school)  Apology to offended party  Isolation during class  Character education  Disciplinary essay about the negative behavior (requires student and parent signature)  Loss of computer privileges  Think sheet (on slide ahead)

102 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 102 Each Friday, you will complete this sheet with information learned during the week. Students who do not get a second warning are exempt from this assignment and may sit beside a friend and talk quietly. Re-write the information below as a paragraph. This is a graded assignment. One fact I learned this week is ________________________ ________________________________________________ A second fact I learned this week is ____________________ _________________________________________________ A third fact I learned this week is ______________________ ________________________________________________ Name _________________________ Date _______ Friday Information Sheet

103 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 103 What I Did Wrong _________________________________________________________ What I Should Have Done _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ I Need Help With _________________________________________________________ Name _________________ Date _________________ Additional Negative Consequence: Think Sheet

104 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 104 Will You Share?  Share other negative consequences  Write on the clipboard  Just a few words  Read before the close of the workshop

105 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 105 How? C onsistent O rganize procedures N eed a reward S ign a contract I n transition S tay in touch T imer E veryone works together N egative consequences Teacher/Student relationships

106 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 106 Teacher/Student Relationship  Why is the relationship between a teacher and a student important?

107 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 107 Marzano (2003) Public school teachers must deal with all of America’s children with the exception of incarcerated teens and children and teens in mental hospitals. These students enter the classroom with a staggering array of serious issues in their lives. (p. 45)

108 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 108  Homelessness 12 million people are homeless annually  Depression 5% of youth between 9 and 17 years old are depressed, and only a minority are treated  Suicide Among youth 15 to 19 years old, suicide is responsible for more deaths than any disease. Suicide is the 4th leading cause of death for 10 – 14 year olds.  Violence A majority of violent and aggressive students who have been suspended or expelled have identifiable substance abuse or mental health disorders. More than 56 percent of youth who are victims of violence, report the emotional and physical assault occurred in school. Twenty percent of all children have diagnosable developmental, behavioral, and/or emotional problems that increase their risk of becoming victims and/or perpetrators of violence. Issues Facing Students Marzano (p. 45)

109 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 109  Eating disorders Fifteen to 18 percent of high school students manifest bulimic symptoms.  Alcoholism Twenty percent of children in the United States grow up in alcoholic families.  Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder Three to seven percent of school-age children experience ADHD disorder. Approximately 50 percent of the 1.6 million elementary school-aged children with ADHD also have learning disorders.  Sexual orientation Six percent of students describe themselves as homosexual or bisexual, and 13 percent are uncertain about their sexual orientation. Homosexual and bisexual students have higher than average rates of mental health problems and eating disorders They are also concerned about sexual victimization. Issues Facing Students, Continued

110 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 110 Issues Facing Students, Continued  Incarcerated parents Ten million young people have had a mother a father or both behind bars at some point in their lives.  Poverty Approximately 15.7 million children live in households with incomes below the poverty line. Almost 50 percent of all children in mother-only families are impoverished.  Sexual and physical abuse In 1993, 1.55 million children were reported as maltreated, and another 1.22 million were in imminent danger.

111 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 111 Class  This is where there is an emphasis on class as opposed to room management.  Students deserve to be treated with respect and dignity.  We need to teach students the social skills that they are not getting at home.

112 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 112 Avoid  Arguing with a student  Using sarcasm to control behavior  Administering punishment in front of the class  Punishing the whole class due to the behavior of a few students

113 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 113 Power Struggle: Student and Teacher Lose  Use nonverbal cues: eye contact, proximity, or hand gestures.  Avoid raising your voice.  Do not negotiate.  Be consistent.  Deal privately with situations.  Take a little time. “You know I am pretty upset right now. I think it is best if we deal with this later.”

114 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 114 Review of Managing a Room with “Class”  Create routines and procedures for the day-to- day operation of class and enforce them.  Post your class rules and teach them to students.  Enforce class rules for all students every day.  Don’t threaten students. When you tell them something, mean what you say.  Be prepared and organized so that you will find it easier to make those tough quick decisions each day.

115 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 115 Continued  Prevent discipline problems from starting or getting out of hand.  Hold everyone accountable for the same high standards for behavior and academic performance. See page 12 for suggested accommodations of academic work, if needed.  Listen carefully to your students, but don’t be a pushover for too many excuses. Thompson (1998 p. 324)  Intervene early when students are having problems.  Use class time well. Keep all students engaged in meaningful work from the start of class until the end of class.

116 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 116 Special Situations Marzano (2003)  School may be the only place where the needs of many of these children facing extreme challenges are addressed. In studies by Jere Brophy (Brophy, 1996 and Brophy & McCaslin, 1994) teachers who were most effective classroom managers tended to employ different strategies with different types of students. (p. 48)

117 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 117 Special Thanks Kathy D. Robinson, MS, LAPC Auburn University

118 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 118 Teachers Should Request Help  Non-Compliance  Disruptive Behavior Disorders  Bullying

119 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 119 Non-compliance  Resisting directions  Not minding  Oppositional behavior  Defiance

120 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 120 Managing Non-Compliance  Short (20 minutes) video presentation  Geoff Colvin

121 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 121 Why do students choose non- compliance?  get their own way and get to do what they want to do.  get out of doing something they do not wish to do.  become engaged in a power struggle with the teacher. They…

122 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 122 Establishing Compliance and Correcting Non-Compliance List of the Basic Steps  Maintain the flow of instruction.  Present request.  Offer consequence for non-compliance.  Allow time for processing.

123 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 123 Maintain the Flow of Instruction  The actions by the teacher communicate that non-compliance receives as little attention as possible.  Instruction is the primary focus for both the teacher and the students.

124 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 124 Present Request  Secure the attention of the non- compliant student.  Present the request in clear and easy to understand language.  Allow sufficient time for the student to process what is required.

125 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 125 A Choice Has Been Made  The student now is held accountable.  Compliance will earn a brief acknowledgement while instruction continues.  Non-compliance will result in a negative consequence while instruction continues.

126 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 126 Correcting Non-Compliance  Acknowledge the choice briefly.  Continue with instruction.  Deliver the consequence.  Use a calm and matter of fact manner.

127 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 127 Review of Strategies for Maintaining Cooperation and Correcting Non- Compliance  Maintain the flow of instruction for the class.  Secure attention before making a request in a respectful manner.  Clearly specify the request.  Allow time for the student to process the request.  If the request is fulfilled, provide reinforcement immediately.  If the request is not fulfilled, present the choices of fulfilling the original request or facing a small negative consequence.  Allow time for the student to process the choices.  Follow through based on the student’s choice.  Maintain the flow of instruction for the class.

128 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 128 Disruptive Behavior Disorders  Oppositional Defiant Disorder  Conduct Disorder  ADHD  Bullying

129 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 129 Oppositional Defiance Disorder: There is a pattern of negativistic, hostile, and defiant behavior lasting for six (6) months or more with at least four (4) of the following:  Looses temper  Argues with adults  Actively defies  Refuses to comply or accept punishment  Angry and resentful  Blames others for his/her mistakes  Vindictive or spiteful  Appears unaffected by what the teacher does or says

130 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 130 How to Handle an ODD Student  If possible, ignore behavior.  Follow up with consequences.  Keep routines and consistency.  Provide choices.  Agree with the child and move on.  Present the behavior in a positive form.  Avoid lectures, reasons, and explanations.

131 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 131 Conduct Disorder  Repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the basic rights of others.  Children and adolescents with this disorder have great difficulty following rules and behaving in a socially acceptable way.

132 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 132 Diagnostic Criteria for Conduct Disorder  Physical harm to people and animals  Destruction of property  Deceitfulness or theft  Serious violations of rules

133 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 133 Conduct Disorder and the Family  Parents of children with conduct disorder are often blamed as poor disciplinarians or bad parents. As a result, these parents may be reluctant to engage with schools or other authorities.  There is a strong correlation between children diagnosed with conduct disorder and a significant level of family dysfunction, poor parenting practices, an overemphasis on coercion and hostile communication patterns, verbal and physical aggression and a history of maltreatment. Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders

134 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 134 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  The essential feature is a persistent pattern of inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity that is more frequently displayed and more severe than is typically observed in individuals at the same level of development.

135 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 135 Inattention  Has a hard time keeping their mind on one thing  May get bored with a task after only a few minutes  May give effortless automatic attention to activities and things they enjoy  Has difficulty focusing attention on organizing and completing a task

136 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 136 Hyperactivity  People who are hyperactive always seem to be in motion.  They can’t sit still.  These children squirm in their seat or roam around the room.  They might wiggle their feet, touch everything, or noisily tap their pencil.  Hyperactive teens and adults may feel intensely restless.

137 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 137 Impulsivity  Unable to think before acting  Hard to wait for things  Hard to wait for turn in a game  May grab a toy or hit others when angry

138 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 138 Bullying Bullying involves negative and repetitive actions, either physical or verbal, that have hostile intent by the bully. Olweus, 1973,1993

139 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 139 Distinct Features of Bullying  Harassment of the victim occurs over time (Repetitive)  Intent behind the harassment is either mentally or physically harmful to the victim (Intentional)  Imbalance of power is evident (Power)  R. I. P. Flynt & Collins, 2008

140 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 140 Types of Bullying  Verbal bullying including derogatory comments and bad names  Bullying through social exclusion or isolation  Physical bullying such as hitting, kicking, shoving and spitting  Bullying through lies and false rumors

141 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 141 Types of Bullying Continued  Having money or other things taken or damaged by students who bully  Being threatened or being forced to do things by students who bully  Racial bullying  Sexual bullying  Cyber bullying (via cell phone or internet)

142 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 142 Students Bully  Strong need for power and (negative) dominance  Find satisfaction in causing injury and suffering to other students  Are often rewarded in some way for their behavior with material or psychological rewards

143 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 143 Gender Differences in Bullying  Most studies find that boys bully more than girls.  Boys report being bullied by boys; girls report being bullied by boys and girls.  Boys are more likely than girls to be physically bullied by their peers.  Girls are more likely to be bullied through rumor-spreading, sexual comments, social exclusion.

144 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 144 Statistics on Bullying  Approximately 3 in 10 children are affected as a bully, a victim or both. (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2001)  It is estimated that 30 percent of teens in the U.S. were involved in bullying in some form or fashion. (The National Youth Violence Prevention Resource, 2006)  As many as 1 in 7 students has reported being the “victim” of bullying. (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2006)  Approximately 25% of elementary and high school students report being bullied at least once per week. (National Center for Education Statistics, 2003)  A nationwide survey highlighted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that 6.6 percent of students in grades 9-12 had missed at least one day of school during the 30 days preceding the survey because they felt unsafe at school or on their way to or from school. (2001)

145 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 145 Effects of Bullying Victim  Depression  Low self-esteem  Health problems  Poor grades  Suicidal thoughts  Homicidal thoughts Bully  Get into frequent fights  Steal and vandalize property  Drink alcohol and smoke  Report poor grades  Perceive a negative climate at school  Carry a weapon

146 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 146 Effects of Bullying Observer  Fearful  Powerless to act  Guilty for not acting  Tempted to participate The School  Develops an environment of fear and disrespect  Students have difficulty learning  Students feel insecure  Students dislike school  Students perceive that teachers and staff have little control

147 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 147 How Do You Spot a Victim of Bullying? Primary Signs  Repeatedly teased, name calling, threatened  Made fun of  Picked on, pushed, hit  Involved in fights in which they are defenseless  Books/money taken or damaged  Physical signs Secondary Signs  Alone and excluded from peer groups  Chosen last for team games  May stay close to teacher  Difficultly speaking in class  Appears distressed  School work deteriorates

148 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 148 Prevention Arnette, J. L., & Walsleben, M. C. (1998). Combating fear and restoring safety in schools. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice.  Rules against bullying that are publicized, posted school-wide, and accompanied by consistent sanctions  Student and adult mentors who assist victims to build self-esteem and to foster mutual understanding of and appreciation for differences in others  A "buddy system" that pairs students with a particular friend or an older student who is aware of the buddy's class schedule and is available if help is needed  An on-campus parents' center to recruit parents to participate in the educational process, volunteer, and assist in school projects and activities

149 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 149 Prevention Arnette, J. L., & Walsleben, M. C. (1998). Combating fear and restoring safety in schools. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice.  Parenting and anger management classes for adults  Behavior contracts signed by students and parents, and written behavior codes for students, teachers, and staff members  Discipline policies that emphasize positive behaviors rather than punishments for wrong behaviors  Training for all adult supervisors in cafeterias, playgrounds, or other "hot spots" where bullying is known to occur  Classroom and school-wide activities designed to build self-esteem (for those who are bullied) by spotlighting special talents, hobbies, interests, and abilities of all students

150 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 150 Interventions The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program core elements for school-level interventions in this program include:  Assessing school needs and goals by using an anonymous questionnaire to poll the student body on the nature and extent of bullying problems  Forming a bullying prevention coordinating committee  Providing in-service days for teachers to review findings of the questionnaire, discuss the problem, and plan the prevention efforts  Holding school-wide events to launch the program and incorporating anti-bullying themes and activities into the curriculum

151 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 151 Interventions (The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, continued)  Increasing supervision in areas that are known "hotspots" for bullying, including the cafeteria and playground  Developing school-wide rules and consistent consequences for violations against bullying  Developing a system to reinforce positive behaviors  Holding staff discussion groups to enhance understanding and motivation  Involving parents in school activities  Ensuring that both parents and schools are aware of available resources in the community  Make sure bystanders know they have more “power” than the bully

152 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 152

153 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 153 Resources  Stop Bullying Now! Information, Prevention, Tips, and Games. Stop Bullying Now! Information, Prevention, Tips, and Games.  It's My Life. Friends. Bullies | PBS Kids GO! It's My Life. Friends. Bullies | PBS Kids GO!  SafeYouth.org - Violence Prevention Topics – Bullying SafeYouth.org - Violence Prevention Topics – Bullying   Pathways Courses - The ABCs of Bullying Pathways Courses - The ABCs of Bullying

154 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 154 Who’s Watching Alabama?  On-line safety   Will come to your school and present a program for your students  Troy University

155 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 155 Review of Special Situations  Different behavior disorders require different strategies  Know when to ask for help  Consistency will help with behavior modification  Celebrate any small changes in behavior  Whenever possible, maintain the flow of instruction  Know ahead of time how you will manage the behavior when it happens

156 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 156 One More Area That Affects Student Behavior  Society is divided into three economic classes: Poverty Middle Class Wealthy

157 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 157 Students Living in Poverty Ruby K. Payne, Ph. D. (2003)  Individuals bring with them the hidden rules of the class in which he/she was raised.  Schools and businesses operate from middle-class norms and use the hidden rules of the middle class.  Students living in poverty do not have the skills to self-regulate their behavior.  We can neither excuse students nor scold them for not knowing: as educators we must teach them and provide support, insistence, and expectations.

158 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 158 The Wealthy Class Values Connections…  Political  Financial  Social

159 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 159 The Middle Class Values…  Work  Achievement  Material Security

160 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 160 Families in Generational Poverty Value…  Relationships  Entertainment  Survival Earlier we discussed the importance of student/teacher and parent/teacher relationships. If a relationship is established first, it is more likely that discipline (when needed) will be accepted.

161 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 161 Behaviors Related to Poverty Payne (2003)  Laughs when disciplined.  Argues loudly with the teacher.  Angry response.  Inappropriate or vulgar comments.  Physically fights.  Hands always on someone else.  Cannot follow directions.  Extremely disorganized.  Only completed part of a task.  Disrespectful to the teacher.  Cheats or steals.  Constantly talks. (pp )

162 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 162 Laughs When Disciplined  A way to save face in a matriarchal poverty.  Intervention: Understand the reason for the behavior. Tell the student three or four other behaviors that would be more appropriate.

163 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 163 Argues Loudly with the Teacher  Poverty is participatory, and the culture has a distrust of authority.  Sees the system as inherently dishonest and unfair.  Intervention: Don’t argue with the student. Have them complete a set of questions that identify the behavior, give a reason for the behavior, list at least four other actions that could have been used, and tell what he/she will do next time.

164 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 164 Angry Response  Anger is based on fear (loss of face).  Intervention: Respond in the adult voice. When the student cools down, discuss other responses that could be used.

165 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 165 Inappropriate or Vulgar Comments  They rely on casual register (language of a type that is appropriate to a social situation or used for communicating with a particular set of people), may not know formal register.  Intervention: Make students generate or teach students other phases that could be used to say the same thing.

166 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 166 Physically Fights  Necessary to survive in poverty.  Only know the language of survival.  Does not have language or belief system to use conflict resolution.  Sees himself as less than a man if he does not fight.  Intervention: Stress that fighting is unacceptable in school. Examine other options the student could live with at school.

167 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 167 Hands Always on Someone Else  Poverty has a heavy reliance on nonverbal data and touch.  Intervention: Allow them to draw or doodle. Have them hold their hands behind their backs when in line or standing. Give them as much to do with their hands as is possible in a constructive way.

168 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 168 Cannot Follow Directions  Little procedural memory used in poverty.  Sequence is not used or valued.  Intervention: Write steps on the board. Have them practice procedural self-talk. Have them write at the top of the paper the steps needed to finish the task.

169 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 169 Extremely Disorganized  Lack of planning, scheduling or prioritizing skills.  Not taught in poverty.  Also, probably does not have a place to put things at home so they can be found.  Intervention: Teach a simple color-coded method of organization in the classroom. Use the five-finger method for memory at the end of the day. Make students give a plan for their own organization.

170 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 170 Only Completed Part of a Task  No procedural self-talk.  Does not “see” the whole task.  Intervention: Write on the board all the parts of the task. Make student check off each part when finished.

171 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 171 Disrespectful to the Teacher  Has lack of respect for authority and the system.  May not know any adults worthy of respect.  Intervention: Tell students that approach is not a choice. Have students either generate other options. Give students alternative verbal phrases.

172 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 172 Cheats or Steals  Indicative of weak support system, weak role models/emotional resources.  May indicate extreme financial need.  May indicate no instruction/guidance during formative years.  Intervention: Use metaphor story to find the reason or need the cheating met. Address the reason or need. Stress that the behavior is illegal and not a choice at school.

173 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 173 Constantly Talks  Poverty is very participatory.  Intervention: Make students write all questions and responses on a note card two days a week. Tell students they get five comments a day. Build participatory activities into the lesson.

174 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 174 To Review  Schools operate using the hidden rules of the middle class.  We may need to teach the hidden rules to students who are living in generational poverty.  Education provides an opportunity for students to move out of poverty.  Behaviors are learned over a period of time, so it will take time to change behaviors.  Students need to learn there are behavior expectations at home and behavior expectations that may be different at school.

175 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 175 Workshop Review  Stay consistent  Firm but fair  Stay consistent  Have procedures prepared  Stay consistent  Have a plan for disruptive behavior  Stay consistent

176 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 176 Sharing  Rewards  Consequences  Situations from index cards

177 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 177 References  Breaux, Elizabeth. (2007) How to Reach & Teach all Students. Larchmont: Eye on Education.  Canter, Lee. (1976) Assertive Discipline: A Take Charge Approach for Today’s Educator. Los Angeles: Lee Canter and Associates.  Canter, Lee and Marlene Canter. (1991) Parents on Your Side. Santa Monica: Lee Canter and Associates.  Charney, Ruth Sidney. (1998) Teaching Children to Care, Management in the Responsive Classroom. Greenfield: Northeast Foundation for Children.

178 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 178 References Continued  Colvin, Geoff. (2004) Managing Non-Compliance. Video. Eugene: Iris Media Inc.  Levy, Ray. Reinforcing Small Changes in Behavior. SchwabLearning.org A Parent’s Guide to Helping Kids with Learning Difficulties.  Marzano, Robert J. (2003) Classroom Management that Works. Alexandra: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.  Payne, Ruby K. (2003) A Framework for Understanding Poverty. Highlands: aha! Process, Inc.  Robin, Arthur L. and Sharon K. Weiss. (1997) Managing Oppositional Youth. Video. Plantation: Specialty Press.  Thompson, Julia G. (1998) Discipline Survival Kit for the Secondary Teacher. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.  Wong, Harry K. and Rosemary T. Wong. (2001) The First Days of School. Mountain View: Harry K. Wong Publications.

179 Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center, Troy University 179 Research:  Brophy, J. E., (1996) Teaching problem students. New York: Guilford.  Brophy, J. E., & McCaslin, N. (1992) Teachers’ reports of how they perceive and cope with problem students. Elementary School Journal, 93,  Emmer, El T., Evertson, C. M., & Worsham, M. E. (2003). Classroom management for secondary teachers (6th ed.) Boston: Allyn & Bacon.  Stage, S. A. & Quiroz, D. R. (1997). A meta-analysis of interventions to decrease disruptive classroom behavior in public education settings. School Psychology Review, 26,


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