Presentation on theme: "This area had belonged to Spain. Napoleon took control in 1800. Its control was crucial for the use of the port at New Orleans. Control of this city gave."— Presentation transcript:
This area had belonged to Spain. Napoleon took control in Its control was crucial for the use of the port at New Orleans. Control of this city gave control of the right of deposit for the Mississippi River Source: This map was downloaded from the Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection of the University of Texas at Austin. This map is Territorial Growth 1810 from the U.S. National Atlas, 1970.Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection
Possible Confrontation With The French – In 1802 France withdrew the right of deposit at New Orleans guaranteed under the Pinckney Treaty of Three-eighths of the shipping of the U.S. was conducted through this port. Napoleon seemed to pose a possible military threat to U.S There was fear we would be drawn into European conflicts and alliances
Key Figures in the Drama Robert Livingston was sent in 1801 to try to purchase New Orleans James Monroe, the American Minister to France, was sent to try to make the deal Napoleon offered to sell the U.S. all of the Louisiana area for $15 million [we would get the money by borrowing from the British with a 6% interest rate] James Madison was the Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson had to make a decision that went against his belief of strict interpretation of the Constitution
Napoleon’s Dilemma Napoleon had dreamed of an empire in the New World He was stalled by resistance in Santo Domingo [Haiti today] Toussaint L’Ouverture was the leader of bloody revolt that succeeded in temporarily halting Napoleon’s advance. Napoleon’s decision was to offer the sale of all of Louisiana to the United States for $15 million.
Jefferson had a reputation as a strict constructionist. He believed the President should only do those things specifically listed in the Constitution. He was faced with the question of being pragmatic or being realistic. He actually wanted to amend the Constitution but was convinced that this was an unrealistic alternative. He had to move while Napoleon was willing to make the sale. Jefferson would end up using the Elastic Clause [Article I, Section 8, Clause 18] that he despised. He had argued with the Federalist leader, Alexander Hamilton, that this was an unconstitutional idea. It would be this belief in expanding the powers of the Constitution that would be the legal basis for the purchase of the Louisiana Territory Ironically the Federalist argued against the purchase. Their main concern was the addition of more voters for the Jeffersonian Republicans. Click to stop music
The Louisiana Territory The U.S. doubled its size and acquired 800,000 square miles for three cents per acre The U.S. received the western half of the richest river valley in the world We were guaranteed the Mississippi waterway to the Gulf of Mexico included New Orleans It would pave the way for the westward expansion of the United States
The Lewis and Clark Expedition The plan for the expedition was actually laid out before the actual purchase was made. The plan was discussed in January of 1803, the purchase was in May of 1803, and the expedition set out in August of The group was instructed to map and chart their journey. They were also instructed to keep a detailed diary of their experiences and observations of vegetation, minerals, and landforms. The leaders of this “Corps of Discovery” would be Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Lewis was a former army captain who had been an assistant to President Jefferson. Clark had fought as a military man against Indians of the Ohio Valley.
Stories had been told that there were woolly mammoths, unicorns, seven-foot tall beavers, slim-waisted buffalo, llamas, and blue-eyed Indians. Some of Jefferson’s books actually said the West was a landmass of erupting volcanoes and mountains of undissolved salt. Some maps actually showed Californian as an island. Most believed the Blue Ridge Mountain peak in Virginia was the highest in the U.S. The truth would be found that this peak was 6,500 feet and the Rockies of the West had a peak in Colorado that was 14,400 feet. There was still hope for finding a “northwest passage” It was the job of the Lewis and Clark expedition to prove or dispel these ideas.
The group set out in May of 1804 from a spot near St. Louis. The trail extended from the Missouri River through the Rockies and along the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. Sacagawea, a Shoshone female, became scout and translator when the group reached Bismarck, South Dakota for the winter. She would be crucial in helping the expedition succeed. The expedition would give basis for the U.S. claim to Oregon. It would open the West to trade and exploration.
They made some of the first accurate maps of the area. They recorded observations of the landforms they journeyed through. They described each body of water they saw/crossed as to its navigability, width, composition, rapids, waterfalls, and other descriptive characteristics. They also recorded observations and drawings of plant and animal life in the Louisiana area.
Zebulon Pike was sent out by the Commanding General of the U.S. Army, James Wilkinson, to search the headwaters of the Mississippi River to find the origin of the Missouri River. Pike set out in August of 1805 from Fort Bellfontaine, near St. Louis. Between , Pike went into Colorado and New Mexico. Pike sighted Pike’s peak in Colorado. His explorations increased tension with Spain due to their settlements in the region.
Expansion became prime goal of Jeffersonians. There would be orderly expansion in the Old Northwest but not in the South. Essentially ended unwanted European expansion in North America with Louisiana Purchase. Historically stunning achievement: no society had ever combined indefinite expansion, and hegemony within the hemisphere without building a strong centralized European- style state (big armies, big navy, big taxation)