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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative impact that different kinds of cues have on acquisition of content subject-matter The study compared.

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Presentation on theme: "The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative impact that different kinds of cues have on acquisition of content subject-matter The study compared."— Presentation transcript:

1 The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative impact that different kinds of cues have on acquisition of content subject-matter The study compared GOs that featured… Visual organization cues vs. Topic-specific semantic cues Generative “Big Idea” cues Person Group Place Issue Event Policy Theory Process Belief Problem Thing Think-sheets embedded with specific cues that target Essential Understandings about a common topic Think-sheets embedded with specific cues that target Generative Big Ideas about a common topic Big Ideas of… WAR INVENTIONS GEOGRAPHY

2 vs. Topic-specific semantic cues Generative “Big Idea” cues Person Group Place Issue Event Policy Theory Process Belief Problem Thing Think-sheets embedded with specific cues that target Essential Understandings about a common topic Think-sheets embedded with specific cues that target Generative Big Ideas about a common topic Big Ideas of… WAR INVENTIONS GEOGRAPHY Reveal the organization or structure of the to-be-learned information Visual organization cues

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5 Plate Boundaries Divergent Boundaries Occur at mid-ocean ridges Plates move apart (diverge) also called Constructive Boundaries Convergent Boundaries Plates form at trenches also called Destructive Boundaries Severe Earth- quakes form here Strike-slip boundaries Also called Conservative Boundary 2 Plates grind & slip past Horizontally Formed by lateral faults

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11 Movement of Lithospheric Plates

12 Large Plates Small Plates Movement of Lithospheric Plates

13 Vary in speed and distance San Francisco, on North Amer. Plate moves southeast about 5 cm. per year If weighted down by continents move only a few millimeters per year Large Plates Small Plates Movement of Lithospheric Plates

14 Vary in speed and distance San Francisco, on North Amer. Plate moves southeast about 5 cm. per year If weighted down by continents move only a few millimeters per year Large Plates Movement varies in speed and distance Considered small, the Caribbean and Arabian Plates are fairly large Plates that lack landmasses move as much as several centimeters per year Small Plates Movement of Lithospheric Plates

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16 United States launches war on terrorism. Jet crashes into a field near Pittsburg Commercial jet crashed into the Pentagon Commercial jets crash into the twin towers September 11, 2001 Two jets hit the towers People were injured or killed Loss of jobs and property The towers collapsed Some passengers overtake hijackers Jet crashes missing its original target Passengers, crew, & terrorist die Jet destroys a section of Pentagon Members of Military killed or injured Civilians killed or injured Ongoing search for Bin Laden Warnings against harboring terrorists Loss of lives Military and civilian

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18 United States launches war on terrorism. Jet crashes into a field near Pittsburg Commercial jet crashed into the Pentagon Commercial jets crash into the twin towers September 11, 2001 Two jets hit the towers People were injured or killed Loss of jobs and property The towers collapsed Some passengers overtake hijackers Jet crashes missing its original target Passengers, crew, & terrorist die Jet destroys a section of Pentagon Members of Military killed or injured Civilians killed or injured Ongoing search for Bin Laden Warnings against harboring terrorists Loss of lives Military and civilian

19 © 2005 Edwin S. Ellis graphicorganizers.com “See”

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21 Topic-specific semantic cues Person Group Place Issue Event Policy Theory Process Belief Problem Thing Think-sheets embedded with specific cues that target Essential Understandings about a common topic vs. Generative “Big Idea” cues Think-sheets embedded with specific cues that target Generative Big Ideas about a common topic Big Ideas of… WAR INVENTIONS GEOGRAPHY Visual organization cues

22 Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for… Don’t confuse with…

23 Example of how the topic-specific think-sheet that provides “essential understanding” cues for a historical figure ‘ Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for… Don’t confuse with…

24 Topic Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for… Don’t confuse with…

25 Topic Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for… Don’t confuse with…

26 Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for… Don’t confuse with… is about someone who …

27 Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for… Don’t confuse with… is about someone who …

28 Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for… Don’t confuse with… Ways to describe this person …

29 Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for… Don’t confuse with… Ways to describe this person …

30 Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for… Don’t confuse with… Ways to describe this person …

31 Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for… Don’t confuse with… Ways to describe this person …

32 Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for… Don’t confuse with… Known for …

33 Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for… Don’t confuse with… Known for …

34 Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for… Don’t confuse with… Known for …

35 Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for… Don’t confuse with… Known for …

36 Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for… Don’t confuse with… Known for …

37 Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for… Don’t confuse with… Known for …

38 Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for… Don’t confuse with… Known for …

39 Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for … -OR- Don’t confuse with Not known for… Don’t confuse with…

40 Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for … -OR- Don’t confuse with Not known for… Don’t confuse with… Malcomb X

41 Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for … -OR- Don’t confuse with Not known for… Don’t confuse with… Malcomb X

42 Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for … -OR- Don’t confuse with Not known for… Don’t confuse with… Malcomb X

43 Impact on our world … Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for… Don’t confuse with… Malcomb X

44 Impact on our world … Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for… Don’t confuse with… Malcomb X

45 Impact on our world … Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for… Don’t confuse with… Malcomb X

46 Somebody from today’s world this person is like (or not like) Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like)

47 Somebody from today’s world this person is like (or not like) Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like)

48 Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for… Don’t confuse with… Malcomb X Because …

49 Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for… Don’t confuse with… Malcomb X Because …

50 Knowledge connection This person makes you think of … Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like)

51 Knowledge connection This person makes you think of … Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like)

52 Because … Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for… Don’t confuse with… Malcomb X

53 Because … Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for… Don’t confuse with… Malcomb X

54 Somebody from today’s World this person is like (or not like) Not known for… Don’t confuse with… Malcomb X

55 Real-world examples of similar kinds of actions Examples from the lesson A nalyze reactions Reasoning Ways our society tends to PROMOTE similar kinds of ideas Ways our society tends to PREVENT similar kinds of ideas AND / OR L ist examples of actions this idea results in R eveal why this idea is important RELATE to the real world E xplain how our world might be different if this idea had never existed E valuate this idea’s value to our society Why the idea or similar ideas SHOULD be part of today’s world Why the idea or similar idea SHOULD NOT be part of today’s world AND / OR Reasoning T his idea makes you think of … because … Gandhi’s peaceful resistance Nonviolent ways to change unfair policies or laws Draws attention to the injustice Always resist, but nonviolently Slowly forces gov. to examine conscience & make changes Often met by opposition with violence X Makes you look morally right Makes violent opposition look morally wrong MLK- Civil Rights Movement Taking the “high road” Selma-Montgomery March Refusing to pay taxes to protest wasteful spending Taking your time cleaning bedroom when your parents make you do it X TV news media likes to focus on violent or rude protests because it brings in the ratings You hope they eventually give up on nagging you to clean your room Our world would probably more violent than ever and not as many positive changes in society would have happened – might still be living under “Jim Crow” laws Protesters holding signs outside the white house

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68 Topic-specific semantic cues Person Group Place Issue Event Policy Theory Process Belief Problem Thing Think-sheets embedded with specific cues that target Essential Understandings about a common topic vs. Generative “Big Idea” cues Think-sheets embedded with specific cues that target Generative Big Ideas about a common topic Big Ideas of… WAR INVENTIONS GEOGRAPHY Visual organization cues

69 Generative BIG IDEAS Generative ideas (BIG IDEAS)= basic truths regardless of context or point in time. The ultimate goal is NOT for students to remember the specific details of how an generative idea is manifested for a particular invention… but rather to thoroughly understand the generative idea itself. Thus, not just about learning about specific wars, inventions, etc. but rather is about thoroughly understanding how humans have functioned in the world over time.

70 War BIG IDEAS predictable patterns of how wars unfold Pre-war Threads Origins of wars Generative Warfare Strategies How all wars are always won or lost Post-war Threads Predictable futures based on the victor’s post-war behavior

71 Pre-war Big Ideas All wars begin with FEAR about something related to Opportunity, Safety, and/or Values ECONOMY Ability to produce and trade food and goods & increase ones standard of living? SPACE/LAND The size or shape of their country? … amount of space available for its citizens? MOVEMENTHow people move or have been moving? EXPLOITATIONHaving their resources exploited by other countries? –OR- opportunities to exploit another country A country may engage in war if it fears its OPPORTUNITY is threatened in any of the following areas:

72 Country Upcoming conflict Point in time © 2002 Edwin Ellis Prewar fears: Restricted OPPORTUNITY A country considers going to war when it fears that its opportunities are being (or might be) severely restricted BIG IDEA:All wars begin withFEAR about something related to Opportunity, Safety, and/or Values BIG IDEA:Fear-creating conditions that restrict a country’s OPPORTUNITY … ECONOMY:... ability to produce and trade food and goods and increase their standard of living? SPACE/LAND... the size or shape of their country?... amount of space available for its citizens? MOVEMENT:... how people move or have been moving? EXPLOITATION:... having their resources exploited by other countries? -OR- opportunities to exploit another country Prewar fears about OPPORTUNITY Economy * Space/Land * Movement * Exploitation Previous History with this Issue Economy * Space/Land * Movement * Exploitation

73 Pre-war Big Ideas All wars begin with FEAR about something related to Opportunity, Safety, and/or Values BORDERS Protecting itself from attack from another country PEOPLE Protecting the country’s citizens at home or abroad PROPERTY Protecting property or territories (at home or abroad) claimed by the country INVESTMENTS Protecting economic interests A country may engage in war if it fears the SAFETY of one or more of the following is threatened:

74 Country Upcoming conflict Point in time © 2002 Edwin Ellis Prewar fears: Threatened SAFETY A country considers going to war when it fears that itssafety or security are being (or might be) severely restricted BIG IDEA:All wars begin withFEAR about something related to Opportunity, Safety, and/or Values BIG IDEA:Things a country wants to be SAFE and PROTECTED... BORDERS... protecting itself from attack from another country? PEOPLE... protecting the country’s citizens at home or abroad? PROPERTY... protecting property or territories (at home or abroad) claimed by the country? INVESTMENTS... protecting economic interests Prewar fears about SAFETY Borders* People* Property* Investments Previous History with this Issue Borders* People* Property* Investments

75 Pre-war Big Ideas All wars begin with FEAR about something related to Opportunity, Safety, and/or Values GOVERNMENT Spreading of a form of government / rule LIFE-STYLE Spreading life-style values / morals FREEDOMSpreading (or removing) restrictions on freedom RACESpreading of a population of people RELIGION Spreading religious beliefs ECONOMICSSpreading an approach to economics A country may engage in war if it fears something related to the spreading of VALUES related to one or more of the following:

76 Country Upcoming conflict Point in time © 2002 Edwin Ellis Prewar fears: Spreading VALUES A country considers going to war when it fears that values it holds dear greatly need to be spread or are severely threatened by conflicting spreading values BIG IDEA:All wars begin withFEAR about something related to Opportunity, Safety, and/or Values BIG IDEA:Fear-creating conditions related to the VALUES of the country... GOVERNMENT... spreading of a form of government / ruleLIFE-STYLE... spreading life-style values / morals FREEDOM... spreading (or removing) restrictions on freedomRACE... spreading of a population of people RELIGION... spreading religious beliefsECONOMICS... spreading an approach to economics Prewar fears about VALUES Government * Freedom * Religion * Life-style * Race * Economics Previous History with this Issue Government * Freedom * Religion * Life-style * Race * Economics

77 Big War Strategies All wars are won or lost based on a country’s enabling and disabling strategies Enabling strategies: What you do to enable yourself to win Disabling strategies: What you do to cause the other side to lose

78 Big War Strategies 5 critical areas for targeting enabling and disabling strategies Military Preparedness Politics Psychology Resources Operations

79 Big War Strategies All wars are won or lost based on a country’s enabling and disabling strategies Enabling Strategies TRAINING What the country does to prepare and motivate the military to fight in the kinds of conditions they will face. NUMBERS Amount of trained reserves that can go into battle & ability to draw on its population for more soldiers WEAPONSAvailability of weapons (& ammunition) & their appropriateness for the conditions Disabling Strategies TRAINING What the country does to know the degree of preparation and motivation of the enemy’s military NUMBERS Degree attrition is used to reduce enemy reserves & its ability to draw on its population for more soldiers WEAPONSAbility to reduce the availability or effectiveness of the enemy’s weapons Military Preparedness

80 Country War or Conflict © 2002 Edwin Ellis The Role of Military One of five basic elements for winning wars Point in time e.g., BEFORE the war, EARLY in the war, MIDPOINT of the war, LATE in the war Enabling Strategies for Helping itself WIN Disabling strategies for helping the enemy LOOSE Training What the country does to prepareand motivate the military to fight in the kinds of conditions they will face. Numbers Amount of trained reserves that can go into battle & ability to draw on its population for more soldiers Weapons Availability of weapons (& ammunition) & their appropriateness for the conditions Training What the country does to know the degree of preparation and motivation of the enemy’s military Numbers Degree to whichattrition is used to reduce amount of enemy reserves & ability to draw on its population for more soldiers Weapons Ability to reduce the availability or effectiveness of the Enemy’s weapons

81 Big War Strategies All wars are won or lost based on a country’s enabling and disabling strategies Enabling Strategies STABILIZING Ensuring leaders within the country support war efforts; minimizing impact of those who do not PARTNERSHIPS Ensuring leaders of other countries support and/or contribute to war efforts; minimizing impact of those who do not; forming treaties & coalitions (creating partnerships with other countries) Disabling Strategies DESTABILIZING Causing to enemy’s government to fail ISOLATING Preventing the enemy from forming partnerships with other countries Politics

82 Country War or Conflict © 2002 Edwin Ellis The Role of Politics One of five basic elements for winning wars Point in time e.g., BEFORE the war, EARLY in the war, MIDPOINT of the war, LATE in the war Enabling Strategies for Helping itself WIN Disabling strategies for helping the enemy LOOSE National Politics Ensuring leaders within the country support war efforts; minimizing impact of those who do not International Politics Ensuring leaders of other countries support war efforts; minimizing impact of those who do not Forming treaties & coalitions Creating partnerships with other countries Destabilizing Causing to enemy’s government to fail Isolating Preventing the enemy from forming partnerships with other countries

83 Big War Strategies All wars are won or lost based on a country’s enabling and disabling strategies Enabling Strategies PATRIOTISM Persuading its citizen’s to support the war and to make sacrifices (rally ‘round the flag) DECEPTION Fooling its citizens by minimizing “bad news” concerning war efforts (defeats, causalities, etc.) PROPOGANDA Portraying itself a good and the enemy as evil Disabling Strategies DEFEATISM Persuading the enemy’s citizens to oppose the war; persuading enemy soldiers to want to give up. DECEPTION Fooling the enemy about its ability to fight or its intentions PROPANGDA Exaggerating its prowess & inevitability of enemy’s defeat so the enemy will believe it cannot win. Psychology

84 Big War Strategies All wars are won or lost based on a country’s enabling and disabling strategies Enabling Strategies PRODUCTION Increasing the amount of food, supplies, & weapons it produces or can attain TRANSPORTATION Increasing its ability to move food, weapons, or resources to where it is needed. COMMUNICATION Increasing ability for military to secretly communicate Disabling Strategies PRODUCTION Decreasing its enemy’s ability to produce or attain food, supplies, & weapons TRANSPORTATION Decreasing its enemy’s ability to move food, weapons, or resources to where it is needed. COMMUNICATION Decreasing ability of enemy’s military to secretly communicate Resources

85 Big War Strategies All wars are won or lost based on a country’s enabling and disabling strategies Enabling Strategies GET READY Anticipating conditions & developing extensive plans for stopping the enemy’s ability to wage war GET SET Organizing resources (weapons, equipment, supplies) & preparing soldiers for unique conditions GO! Using over-whelming force so that its strongest will focus on the enemy’s weakest link Disabling Strategies REDUCE CAPABILITY Destroy enemy access to weapons & supplies, communication abilities, leaders & troops SURPRISE & CONFUSE Attack in ways the enemy does not anticipate and ways that maximize enemy confusion REDUCE WILL Make it hard to keep fighting and easy and desirable to surrender Operations

86 Post-war Big Ideas 5 typical behaviors of victorious countries… Abandonment Exploitation Occupation Reconstruction Impose Restriction The behavior of the victorious country results in predictable futures

87 Post-war Big Ideas The behavior of the victorious country results in predictable futures BIG IDEA: Defeated countries are always weakened, so new forces (within or outside the defeated country) always emerge and change the defeated country. These changes may be desirable or undesirable. ABONDONMENT The victorious country withdraws and leaves the defeated country to its own resources to react to the defeat and/or recover from the war.

88 Post-war Big Ideas The behavior of the victorious country results in predictable futures BIG IDEA: Defeated countries are always weakened, so they are vulnerable to being exploited by external forces (e.g., victorious country) and/or internal forces (people or organizations within the defeated country) EXPLOITATION To gain wealth and power, the victorious country takes advantage of the defeated country by stealing, enslaving, and/or manipulation

89 © 2002 Edwin Ellis Victorious Country Defeated Country Point in time After the War -EXPLOITATION To gain wealth and power, the victorious country takes advantage of the defeated country by stealing, enslaving, and/or manipulation Big Idea: All wars end with exploitation, reconstruction, occupation, restriction, and/or abandonment Big Idea: Defeated countries are always weakened, so they are vulnerable to being exploited by external forces (e.g., victorious country) and/or internal forces (people or organizations within the defeated country) Weakened aspect of defeated country Ways the PEOPLE of the defeated country were exploited Ways the RESOURCES of the defeated country were exploited Ways the defeated country’sTRADEwas exploited... Long-range IMPACT...

90 Post-war Big Ideas The behavior of the victorious country results in predictable futures BIG IDEA: There are four kinds or purposes of occupation: Provide a new place for the people of the victorious country. Provide a temporary government until a new one can be developed for the defeated country. Impose restrictions on the government of the defeated country. Control citizens as defeated country’s resources are being exploited. OCCUPATION People from the victorious country move to the defeated country and stay there either temporarily or permanently.

91 © 2002 Edwin Ellis Victorious Country Defeated Country Point in time After the War -OCCUPATION To gain wealth and power, the victorious country takes advantage of the defeated country by stealing, enslaving, and/or manipulation Big Idea: All wars end with exploitation, reconstruction, occupation, restriction, and/or abandonment Big Idea: There are four kinds or purposes of occupation... Provide anew place for the people of the victorious country Provide atemporary government until a new one can be developed for the defeated country Impose a set ofrestrictions on the government of the defeated country Control citizens of defeated country as its resources are being exploited Who occupied the defeated country? What happened to the citizens of the defeated country during the occupation? Long-range IMPACT of the occupation?

92 Post-war Big Ideas The behavior of the victorious country results in predictable futures BIG IDEA: By helping the defeated country recover from the war, the victorious country greatly influences the future behavior and policies of the defeated country. RECONSTRUCTION The victorious country helps the defeated country recover from the destruction of the war.

93 © 2002 Edwin Ellis Victorious Country Defeated Country Point in time After the War -RECONSTRUCTION The victorious country helps the defeated country recover from the destruction of the war. Big Idea: All wars end with exploitation, reconstruction, occupation, restriction, and/or abandonment Big Idea: By helping the defeated country recover from the war, the victorious country greatly influences the future behavior and policies of the defeated country. Reconstructing the country’s GOVERNMENT Reconstructing the country’s INFRASTRUCTURE How leaders are selected... How laws & policies are made... How laws & policies are enforced/implemented Food production... Manufacturing... Transportation systems (roads, bridges, railroads, etc.) Long-range impact

94 Post-war Big Ideas The behavior of the victorious country results in predictable futures BIG IDEA: Restrictions are always short-term solutions to long-term problems. Other things must change for the problems to become solved on a long-term basis. IMPOSE RESTRICTIONS Restrictions are designed to prevent the capitulating country from engaging in specific acts that are problematic to the dominating country.

95 © 2002 Edwin Ellis Victorious Country Defeated Country Point in time After the War -RESTRICTION Restrictions are designed to prevent the capitulating country from engaging in specific acts that are problematic to the dominating country Big Idea: All wars end with exploitation, reconstruction, occupation, restriction, and/or abandonment Big Idea: Restrictions are always short-term solutions to long-term problems. Other things must change for the problems to become solved on a long-term basis. Reason for Restriction Long-range IMPACT... Restriction imposed by victorious country Reason for Restriction Long-range IMPACT... Restriction imposed by victorious country Reason for Restriction Long-range IMPACT... Restriction imposed by victorious country

96 Invention Threads BIG IDEAS generative ideas about inventions

97 Three dimensions for understanding the significance of inventions... Pre-invention Conditions The Invention Features Post-invention Impact

98 Pre-invention Conditions BIG IDEAS All inventions begin with a need or a problem to be solved All inventions are built upon previous knowledge.

99 Pre-invention Conditions Think-sheet

100 BIG IDEAS of Invention Features All inventions are designed for attaining one or more these goals: 1. Imposing force to efficiently attain goals (e.g., weapons) 2. Making transportation more efficient 3. Making communication more efficient 4. Making work easier or more efficient 5. Making food production more efficient 6. Organizing 7. Entertaining 8. Making beings safe, protected & healthy 9. Meeting spiritual needs

101 BIG IDEAS of Invention Features 2. All inventions are designed to meet a set of parameters. A parameter is a criteria or condition upon which a new invention is targeted to attain. learners focus their attention on the critical features of the invention itself, and as a result, become very familiar with the invention’s features. 5 key parameters of an invention… FUNCTION What is the invention supposed to do? SPEED How quickly must the invention work? APPLICATION Who must be able to use the invention? LOCATION Where should the invention be used? COST Who is supposed to pay for the invention?

102 BIG IDEAS of Invention Features 3. Successful inventions begin as a prototype and evolve through trial and error via testing and use. Key questions What were the features of the prototype? Strengths? Weaknesses? How did the prototype evolve? What does it look like today?

103 Invention Features Think-sheet

104 BIG IDEAS of Post-Invention Impact 1. Substantial inventions affect people in both positive and negative ways 2. Substantial inventions always re-define problems to be solved.

105 Post-Invention Think-sheet

106 Geography Threads The BIG PICTURE the role of geography throughout history To study geography is to study how a particular place on earth has impacted the humans who live there and how humans have impacted that place. One of the best ways to understand the history of humans is to investigate the geography in which they live.

107 Two dimensions for understanding the significance of geography... The culture and knowledge of a people and factors that impact the evolution and spread of these The features of a place and how they impact (and are impacted by) people

108 Geography BIG IDEAS Earth is DYNAMIC (constantly changing)

109 BIG IDEA:Earth is DYNAMIC (constantly changing © 2002 Edwin Ellis Dynamic Earth geography think-sheet Region or Country PLACE ON EARTH … years AFTER point in time POINT IN TIME … What caused the changes from that point to this point? years BEFORE point in time What caused the changes from that point to this point? What caused the changes from that point......to this point? DESCRIPTION OF PLACE

110 Geography BIG IDEAS The ROLE of something is dynamic (changes) relative to TIME.

111 BIG IDEA:The SCALE of something is dynamic (changes) relative to TIME © 2002 Edwin Ellis Role & Time geography think-sheet Role of … years AFTER point in time POINT IN TIME … years BEFORE point in time What role does it play in life? At this place … Because of the role it plays (or doesn’t), what is life like? Because of the role it plays (or doesn’t), what is life like? Because of the role it plays (or doesn’t), what is life like? So what? What is important to understand about this?

112 Geography BIG IDEAS The SCALE of something is dynamic (changes) relative to TIME.

113 BIG IDEA:The SCALE of something is dynamic (changes) relative to TIME © 2002 Edwin Ellis Scale & Time geography think-sheet Scale of … years AFTER point in time POINT IN TIME … years BEFORE point in time How large or widespread is it? At this place … Because of its scale at this time, what are things like? Because of its scale at this time, what are things like? Because of its scale at this time, what are things like? So what? What is important to understand about this?

114 Geography BIG IDEAS People affect the landscape; the landscape affects what people can do.

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116 Geography BIG IDEAS An region’s location on earth determines its resources and weather; this then impacts the way people live.

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118 Geography BIG IDEAS Every place has features that PULL (attract) people to move there, and factors that PUSH them out (make them want to leave).

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121 Geography BIG IDEAS The nature of an area’s borders relative to its neighbors impacts the culture of that area.

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124 Geography BIG IDEAS Natural and human-made features will enable and/or inhibit the influence of outsiders on a place.

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126 Geography BIG IDEAS The amount of influence something (or someone) has decays with increasing distance.

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128 Geography BIG IDEAS Ideas, techniques, and customs usually spread from large to small places (hierarchical diffusion).

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130 Geography BIG IDEAS The spread (DIFFUSION) of ideas is affected by natural and artificial (man-made) barriers

131 Does NOT easily spread to this location …DOES more easily spread to this location Due to these NATURAL or ARTIFICIAL barriers …Due to these NATURAL or ARTIFICIAL phenomena … Does NOT easily spread to this location …DOES more easily spread to this location Due to these NATURAL or ARTIFICIAL barriers …Due to these NATURAL or ARTIFICIAL phenomena … BIG IDEA: The spread (DIFFUSION) of ideas is affected by natural and artificial (human-made) barriers © 2002 Edwin Ellis Idea Diffusion Idea, Technique, or CustomWays to describe it … Location Conclusions

132 The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative impact that different kinds of cues have on acquisition of content subject-matter The study compared GOs that featured… Visual organization cues vs. Topic-specific semantic cues Generative “Big Idea” cues The study measured… Pre/post differences in the breadth and depth of students knowledge about a historical topic XX procedure was used to measure students’ knowledge The study also evaluated… Content-teachers’ and students’ perceptions of the different types of GOs

133 The subjects in the study were… XX Students considered “high achievers” in XX grade XX Students considered “typical achievers” in XX grade XX Students considered “low achievers” in XX grade XX Students classified as LD in XX grade LD classification based on IQ/Achievement discrepancy LD Marker Variables X Reading comprehension = Etc =

134 RESEARCH DESIGN

135 INTERVENTION FEATURES

136 RESULTS

137 IMPLICATIONS & NEXT STEPS


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