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Chapter 18 The Progressive Movement Section 1 The Roots of Progressivism.

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1 Chapter 18 The Progressive Movement Section 1 The Roots of Progressivism

2 The Rise of Progressivism  1890 to 1920 is known as the Progressive Era.  Progressivism – collection of different ideas and activities about how to fix the problems within American society.  Progressives disagreed among themselves on solutions, but agreed the gov’t should take a more active role.

3 Beginnings of Progressivism  Progressivism was a reaction against laissez-faire economics.  Believed they could fix society’s problems by applying scientific principles to society.  *Don’t Write*  Science brought many benefits, so it would have to be a benefit to society, right?

4 The Muckrakers  Group of journalists who investigated social conditions and political corruption.  Led to debate and put pressure on politicians.

5 Jacob Riis  Focused on social problems in book How the Other Half Lives (1890).  Described poverty, disease, and crime in immigrant neighborhoods in NYC.

6 Ida Tarbell  Published a series of articles critical of the Standard Oil Company.

7 David Graham Philips  Described how money influenced the Senate.

8 Lincoln Steffens  Reported on vote stealing, and other corrupt practices of urban political machines.  Collected into a book, The Shame of the Cities.

9 Making Government Efficient  Many types of progressives.  One believed that problems in society could be solved if the gov’t was efficient by using scientific methods.  Thought managing cities required experts not politicians.

10 Making Government Efficient  They wanted a commission plan.  Board of commissioners or city manager with expertise in city services would select and hire specialists to run city departments.  1901 – Galveston, TX – 1 st to adopt commission plan.

11 TAKE NOTE OF THIS  Know the chart on p 549  You will be tested on this!!!!!!

12 Democracy and Progressivism  Many progressives wanted more democracy in society.

13 Robert La Follette  Criticized how political parties ran their conventions.  Wanted each party to hold a direct primary, election in which all party members vote for a candidate to run in the general election.

14 “Laboratory of Democracy”  3 new reforms were introduced by progressives to force state legislator’s to respond to voter concerns: InitiativeInitiative ReferendumReferendum RecallRecall

15 “Laboratory of Democracy”  Initiative – allows a group of citizens to introduce legislation & required the legislature to vote on it.  Referendum – allowed proposed legislation to be submitted to the voters for approval.  Recall – allowed voters to demand a special election to remove an elected official from office.

16 Direct Election of Senators  To stop corruption, progressives wanted the direct election of senators.  1912 – Congress passed the direct- election amendment.  1913 – ratified as the 17 th Amendment.

17 The Suffrage Movement  Movement for women’s voting rights.  1848 – Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Lucretia Mott organized the 1 st women’s rights convention.  Many progressives joined the movement.

18 Stanton on how women were subjected to men  He has never permitted her to exercise her inalienable right to the elective franchise. He has compelled her to submit to laws, in the formation of which she had no voice. He has withheld from her rights which are given to the most ignorant and degraded men-- both natives and foreigners. Having deprived her of this first right of a citizen, the elective franchise, thereby leaving her without representation in the halls of legislation, he has oppressed her on all sides. He has made her, if married, in the eye of the law, civilly dead. He has taken from her all right in property, even to the wages she earns.

19 StantonMott

20 Early Problems  After the Civil War, Congress introduced the 14 th & 15 th Amendments.  Women wanted these to apply to them as well, not just A.A.  Republicans refused.

21 Early Problems  Debate over amendments split the movement into 2 groups.  By 1900 only Wyoming, Idaho, Utah, and Colorado granted women suffrage.

22 Movement Builds Support  In 1890 the two groups united to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA).  Head was Alice Paul, a Quaker social worker.  Used protests to force Pres. Wilson to take action.

23 National Women’s Party  NAWSA became alarmed at Paul’s tactics.  She left and founded the NWP.  Picketed the White House and went on hunger strikes.

24 19 th Amendment  1918 – House passed a women's suffrage amendment.  Failed by 2 votes.  1919 – Senate passed the 19 th Amendment  August 26, 1920, the states ratified the 19 th Amendment.

25 Social Welfare Progressivism  Social welfare progressives created charities to help the poor and disadvantaged.  1900 – over 1.7 million children under the age of 16 worked outside the home.  National Child Labor Committee worked to end child labor.

26 Health and Safety Codes  Progressives pressured the gov’t to create building codes, workers’ compensation laws, zoning laws, and health codes.

27 The Prohibition Movement  The temperance movement called for the elimination of alcohol.  1874 – Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was formed.  At 1 st the movement wanted to reduce consumption, but later pushed for prohibition.



30 Progressives vs. Big Business  Progressives disagreed on regulating big business.  One side believed gov’t should break up big companies to restore competition.  Other group wanted the creation of gov’t agencies to regulate big companies & prevent them from abusing their power.

31 Socialism  Some went further and advocated socialism.  Idea that the gov’t should own and operate industry for the community as a whole.

32 Eugene Debs  Led the American Socialist Party and their presidential candidate in 1912.

33 End of Section 1 Next: Section 2 Roosevelt in Office

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