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Kavita Gulati, N Tyagi, G Vishnoi, VK Vijayan, A Ray

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1 Kavita Gulati, N Tyagi, G Vishnoi, VK Vijayan, A Ray
A study to monitor adverse drug reaction profile of theophylline in patients of obstructive airway disease Kavita Gulati, N Tyagi, G Vishnoi, VK Vijayan, A Ray Department of Pharmacology & Clinical Research Centre, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi Pharmacovigilance and Drug Safety Conference (SOPI-2006), Bangalore, November 2006

2 Introduction Respiratory diseases : a major cause of hospital admissions Obstructive airway disease (Bronchial Asthma and COPD) affect 5-7% population in industrialized countries Several factors (allergy and smoking) contribute to their genesis Optimization and rationalization of drug therapy : key to effective management

3 Bronchodilators and corticosteroids are the mainstay in the treatment of these conditions
Theophylline : Emerging as an important adjuvant in the treatment of bronchial asthma and COPD Combination with other drugs has synergistic effects in many situations

4 Theophylline : A drug of herbal origin (Camellia sinensis – tea plant)
Widely used earlier as bronchodilator Pharmacoeconomically viable Narrow therapeutic index and has high propensity to induce toxicity, resulting in the restricted use

5 Recently : A resurgence in the interest in theophylline
Low doses (lower than those needed to induce bronchodilation) exert beneficial effects Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects reported Judicious use could be of benefit in obstructive airway disease in developing countries

6 Adverse Drug Reactions : Noxious/untoward effects to drugs or chemicals given for therapeutic, preventive or diagnostic purposes Common with drugs with narrow safety margin Mostly preventable Knowledge of PK-PD of the drug crucial ADR monitoring and TDM important exercises

7 Objectives To monitor adverse drug reactions (ADRs) with theophylline in patients of bronchial asthma and COPD attending the OPD of Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, Delhi Predict strategies to rationalize drug therapy with theophylline in such patients with obsturctive airway disease

8 Methods Subjects : OPD patients of bronchial asthma and COPD
Prospective study Ethical clearance obtained ADR profile recorded as per proforma for the National Pharmacovigilance Programme Causality assessment : Naranjo`s scale (1981)



11 Methods… Age : 18 – 60 years Standard inclusion/exclusion criteria
Clinical + Lab. (PFT) diagnosis confirmed Stable, Ambulatory patients Exclusion : Pulm. TB, Pregnancy/Lact. IHD/overt LVF, Liver/Kidney disease

12 Prescription monitoring in obstructive airway disease (theophylline)
Prescriptions Total No. With theophylline % All patients 120 63 52.6 Br. Asthma 60 20 33.3 COPD 43 71.6

13 Prescription audit in obstructive airway disease (theophylline)

14 ADR incidence with theophylline
Patients Received Theophylline Showed ADRs % Br. Asthma 20 14 70 COPD 43 46.5 Total 63 34 53.9

ADR No. of Patients % Dyspepsia Anxiety Spasm of Muscles Insomnia Paresthesia Others

16 Incidence of ADRs after theophylline

17 Conclusions A study was conducted to assess the ADR profile of theophylline in bronchial asthma and COPD patients (total 120) An appreciable proportion (54%) of patients complained of ADRs Most patients reported anxiety and GI related problems Others : muscle cramps, paresthesia, etc.

18 Conclusions…contd. Causality assessment by Naranjo`s scale showed that most ADRs fell in Probable category Dechallenge confirmed the incidence in some cases These results indicate that theophylline admn. should be carefully monitored and such ADRs could be prevented by rational therapy

19 Aminophylline (Amino) - induced anxiety and its mechanisms
Treatment Elevated Plus Maze (%) (mg/kg) OA entry OA time Vehicle ± ± 3.6 Amino (10) ± 4.2* ± 2.8* Amino (50) ± 1.3* ± 1.1* AA(100)+Amino(50) ± ± 5.0 Mel(50)+ Amino(50) ± 6.5a ± 4.6a * p< 0.05 (compared to vehicle) p<0.05(compared to Amino-50) AA: ascorbic acid ; Mel: melatonin

20 Aminophylline (Amino)-induced gastric ulcers and its mechsnisms
Treatment Gastric Ulcer parameters (mg/kg) Incidence (%) Severity (mm) Vehicle ± 5.6 Amino (10) ± 9.6 Amino (50) ± 8.0 * AA(100)+Amino(50) a ± 6.1a Mel(50)+ Amino(50) a ± 6.9a * p< 0.05 (compared to vehicle) p<0.05(compared to Amino-50) AA: ascorbic acid ; Mel: melatonin

21 Conclusions The role of oxidant/anti-oxidant balance in obstructive airway disease has been proposed A connection between theophylline and oxidative stress pathways are reported These experimental studies show that theophylline-induced anxiety may be due to oxidative stress, and antioxidants may have protective role

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