2IntroductionThe term, “Native American” applies to a variety refers to dozens of unique societies, each with its own history and cultural heritageNative Americans include Eskimos, Cherokee, Sioux, Mohawk, Incan, Apache, Aleuts, and Zuni to name but a fewIt is estimated that before European settlers arrived, Native Americans may have numbered as many as 112 millionToday about 1.9 million people in America identify themselves as Native Americans...
4The Plains IndiansFor centuries the plains were home to several tribes of Native Americans.Most of these were nomads-following herds of buffalo from one hunting ground to the next.Despite some differences, the groups of Plains Indians were similar in many ways.They lived in extended family networks and had a close relationship with nature.
5The Sioux UprisingIn the 19th century, as the railroads hired hunters to exterminate the buffalo herds, the Indians' primary food supply, in order to force all tribes into sedentary habitations, the Dakota and Lakota were forced to accept white-defined reservations in exchange for the rest of their lands, and domestic cattle and corn in exchange for buffalo, becoming dependent upon annual federal payments guaranteed by treaty.In 1862, after a failed crop the year before and a winter starvation, the federal payment was late to arrive. The local traders would not issue any more credit to the Dakota and the local federal agent told the Dakota that they were free to eat grass. As a result on August 17, 1862, the Sioux Uprising began when a few Dakota men attacked a white farmer, igniting further attacks on white settlements along the Minnesota River. The US Army put the revolt down, then later tried and condemned 303 Dakota for war crimes. President Abraham Lincoln remanded the death sentence of 285 of the warriors, signing off on the execution of 38 Dakota men by hanging on December 29, 1862 in Mankato, Minnesota, the largest mass execution in US history.
6The Sand Creek Massacre (Nov. 29, 1864) Surprise attack by U.S. troops on a Cheyenne camp. A force of 1,200 men, mostly Colorado volunteers under Col. John M. Chivington, attacked several hundred Cheyenne camped on Sand Creek near Fort Lyon in southeastern Colorado Territory.The Indians had been conducting peace negotiations with the fort's commander; when the attack began, they raised a white flag, but the troops continued to attack,massacring more than 200 of them. The slayings led to the Plains Indian wars.
8The Laramie AgreementIn late 1875, Sioux and Cheyenne Indians were angered at the whites travelling into their sacred lands in the Black Hills.Gold had seen many miners entering the sacred land
9Promises BrokenThe US Government had promised Red Cloud that white settlers would not be allowed to settle here. This was part of the Fort Laramie Treaty.The Sioux gathered with Sitting Bull to fight for their lands.
10CUSTERTo force the large Indian army back to the reservations, the Army sent Lt. Colonel George Custer and the Seventh Cavalry.Spotting the Sioux village about fifteen miles away along the Rosebud River on June 25, Custer also found a nearby group of about forty warriors.
11Out NumberedIgnoring orders to wait, he decided to attack before they could alert the main party.He did not realize that the number of warriors in the village numbered three times his strength.
12Crazy HorseCheyenne and Hunkpapa Sioux together crossed the river and slammed into the advancing soldiers, forcing them backMeanwhile, another force, largely Oglala Sioux under Crazy Horse's command, surrounded Custer and his men in a pincer move. They began pouring in gunfire and arrows.
13Last StandAs the Indians closed in, Custer ordered his men to shoot their horses and stack the carcasses to form a wall, but they provided little protection against bullets.In less than an hour, Custer and his men were killed in the worst American military disaster ever.
14REVENGELittle Bighorn showed the Indians' power. They had achieved their greatest victoryOutraged over the death of a popular Civil War leader the US Government fought back
17Fall of the Lakota Sioux The Lakota Sioux Indians were nomadic plains dwellers who followed herds of BuffaloBy the year 1860, the American government had built roads and forts on the Sioux landIn the Sioux Indians were subjugated by the U.S. governmentBy 1890 the Sioux Indians found their previous life destroyed, the Buffalo gone, themselves cramped in minute reservations
18The Ghost DanceIn 1888 an Indian holy man called Wovaka began the Ghost Dance ReligionThe Ghost Dance touched upon elements of traditional Native American culture and ChristianityIt foretold of freedom for all Indians from white dominationMembers of the Ghost Dance movement included Chiefs Sitting Bull and Big Foot
19The Ghost DanceDuring the fall of 1890, the Ghost Dance spread to the Sioux villages in the Dakota reservationsMembers of the Ghost Dance wore shirts emblazoned with eagles, which they believed could deflect bulletsWhite officials became alarmed and in December banned the practice of the Ghost dance on Lakota reservations
20The death of Sitting Bull The order was sent out to capture Chief Sitting Bull, one of the leaders of the Ghost DanceSitting Bull attempted to seek sanctuary in the SouthBefore he could leave Standing Rock Reservation, an attempt was made to arrest Sitting Bull on December 15thSitting Bull and 7 of his warriors, as well as 6 policeman, were killed in the ensuing scuffle
21The flight of Big FootWhen he heard the news of Sitting Bull’s death, Chief Big Foot rallied his followers and attempted to flee to the protection of Chief Red cloudSitting Bull fell ill from pneumonia during the trip, and was forced to ride in the back of a wagonA detachment of the 7th U.S. Cavalry under Major Samuel Whitside were tasked with intercepting Chief Big Foot
22CaptureOn December 28th, the 4 troops of cavalry intercepted the Indians, who surrenderedMajor Whitside almost attempted to disarm the Indians on the spot, but was dissuaded by one of his staffIn a moment of compassion, Whitside ordered a field ambulance to transport Big FootThe Indians were escorted to a temporary camp on the banks of Wounded Knee Creek
23Wounded Knee campWhen the Indians reached the camp at dusk, they were counted and given rations and shelterIn total the Indians numbered about 120 men, and 230 women and childrenTo ensure the Indians did not escape, Whitside placed two Hotchkiss guns on a ridge overlooking the Indian lodgesDuring the night, more cavalry and Hotchkiss guns arrived under Colonel Forsyth who assumed command, bringing the number of soldiers up to 500
24Disarming the IndiansThe next day, Colonel Forsythe called all the Indian men to the center of the campInforming the Indians that they were to be disarmed, he ordered them to surrender their weaponsThe Colonel ordered the camp searched for hidden weapons, but he only found two riflesWhen attempting to take a rifle from a deaf Indian, Black Coyote, The soldiers accidentally discharged the weapon
25The Massacre begins…The cavalrymen immediately opened fire with their carbinesMost of the casualties were in the first minutes of fightingThe Indians then attempted to attack the soldiers at close quartersFew of the Indians had weapons, and soon they had to fleeThe Hotchkiss guns opened fire, systematically destroying the Indian encampment
26AftermathWhen the slaughter had ended, Chief Big Foot and 153 of his tribesman lay dead in the snow, many more died of their woundsAbout 300 of the original 350 Indians had died as a result of the massacreThe 7th Cavalry suffered 25 dead and 37 wounded, mostly caused by ‘friendly fire’The surviving Indians were rounded up, spending the freezing night in a Church
27Conclusion Black Elk-one of the survivors of Wounded Knee “I did not know then how much was ended. When I look back now from this high hill of my old age, I can still see the butchered women and children lying heaped and scattered all along the crooked gulch as plain as when I saw them with eyes still young. And I can see that something else died there in the bloody mud, and was buried in the blizzard. A people's dream died there. It was a beautiful dream the nation's hoop is broken and scattered. There is no center any longer, and the sacred tree is dead” Black Elk