Its a Monolith Moment We are at the beginning of a revolution that will change everything…
What is a genome? All of the DNA in an organism Organized in Genes and Chromosomes Determines traits and functions An historical archive The code of life
About DNA Constructed of 4 chemicals A-T-C-G Combine in pairs: creates a language The language of computers 1-0 Human Genome consists of 3.2 Billion base pairs Converted to binary our code is smaller than Microsoft Office!
Genomic Factoids Human, Mouse, and Pinot Noir all have about 30,000 genes Human has 3.2 Billion base pairs vs. Pinot Noirs 500,000 All humans are 99.9% genetically identical Genome size does not correlate with evolutionary status, nor is the number of genes proportionate with genome size
We can now read genomes First Human Genome JC Venter: $3B/10 years Second Human Genome: James Watson $2M/2 Months Coming Soon: $5K/1 hour You will carry your Genome in your wallet
What can we do with Genomes? Learn the history of an organism Understand functionality Learn what goes wrong Correct problems Build better organisms Harness Natures toolbox
We are now writing genomes Mycoplasma genetalium
But there is an ecosystem No organism is alone Approximately 10lbs of microbes in your body right now The world Oceans teaming with a microbial universe Microbial life found in every corner of the planet Microbes in root systems of plants have profound impact on their function
December 2007 Pinot Noir (Vitus Viniferas) Genome is Sequenced 29,000 Genes identified Pathways discovered for flavor components 2X more discovered contribute to aroma Areas of vulnerability to disease identified So what next?
Franken-Noir? We could build a better Vinifera Evolve disease resistance Design for higher yields Expand the climate window Produce better flavors and aromas It can and will be done…
Microbes in the root system have major impact on the character of fruit Many diverse microbial colonies Microbes ingest organics and excrete various compounds Compounds transported into plant via water These nutrients stimulate metabolic pathways Character, flavor and aroma produced
We can scientifically characterize TERRIOR Sample Sequence Correlate Fertilize
Are we playing God? Its 100% Organic Nature provides an extensive toolbox There is also a set of cosmic rules Humans HAVE been using the toolbox… While still learning the rules
If we could: Cure all disease End hunger Provide plentiful clean energy Restore CO 2 levels Make better wine Would we?