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Between the Wars Chapters 17 & 18. “Between the Wars” Outline Economic Concerns – Cultural and Intellectual Trends – Uneasy Peace – The Great Depression.

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Presentation on theme: "Between the Wars Chapters 17 & 18. “Between the Wars” Outline Economic Concerns – Cultural and Intellectual Trends – Uneasy Peace – The Great Depression."— Presentation transcript:

1 Between the Wars Chapters 17 & 18

2 “Between the Wars” Outline Economic Concerns – Cultural and Intellectual Trends – Uneasy Peace – The Great Depression Rise of Dictatorial Regimes – Italy – Russia – Germany Nationalism – Middle East – Africa and Asia – China – Latin America

3 Cultural and Intellectual Trends The “Roaring Twenties” – Radio, movies, music, art, and literature dominate America and Europe – Odd activities abound in U.S. – Living on credit, or money that would have to be paid back later Science – Physics take the forefront “Heroic Age of Physics” – Werner Heisenberg suggested that physics could not answer all questions – uncertainty principle – Scientists like Albert Einstein and Ernest Rutherford encourage interest in the field

4 Uneasy Peace in Europe Creates Crisis No U.S. means weak League of Nations French demands of Germany – Upset with lack of payment, French occupy industrial area of Ruhr Valley in Germany – Plan to collect by operating and using mines and factories German inflation – Germany tried to finance salaries and reparations by printing money – Dawes Plan – US gives Germany $2.5 Billion in loans, Germany pays Allies $2.0 Billion owed, Allies pay US $2.6 Billion owed Allows U.S. investors to get into Europe Treaty of Locarno – Guaranteed Germany’s new borders (forfeited lands) – Seen as declaration of peace…FOREVER Kellogg-Briand Pact – 63 nations sign, bans war – Nations still did not reduce military forces

5 The Great Depression Two causes – Individual nations’ economies failing – Stock market crash in US (October 29, 1929) American investments in Europe go under 25% of British, 40% of Germans, 22% of Americans unemployed Responses – Increased gov’t presence in economy – Renewed interest in Marxist beliefs World safe for democracy? – US, France, Germany, Great Britain primary democratic nations – Collective bargaining, or deals between employers and employees prevented Marxist resentment – Deficit spending, or spending money the nations didn’t have, still continued

6 Italy and Mussolini Benito Mussolini began his career as a Socialist Created Fascio di Combattimento, or the League of Combat – Term Fascism derived from this – strong central government, glorification of state, controlled by dictator Mussolini takes advantage of financial crisis in Europe – People fear Communist takeover similar to Russia 1920 – Uses “Blackshirts” to squash Socialist groups 1922 – Began to demand land for Italy, push Socialist groups further away from country – Gains support 1922 – Threatens to march on Rome, is given position of Prime Minister

7 The Fascist Italian State Totalitarian – Aimed to control all aspects of citizen’s lives New laws from PM Mussolini: – PM made head of gov’t – Gov’t could suspend any publications criticizing it or the Catholic Church – Police could jail anyone By 1926, Mussolini has complete control – Known as Il Duce or “The Leader” Propaganda, youth groups, religion all used to maintain authority – Agreement with Pope to encourage Italians to support the regime

8 Russia After Revolution Bad economy, food shortages, and industrial collapse caused Lenin to lose luster 1921 – Brought back Capitalism disguised as the New Economic Policy – Peasants could sell produce openly – Small retail stores could be privately owned NEP was only designed to be a short-term answer, but Lenin died in 1924 Who would take control? – Politburo, or the policy-making body of the Communist Party, clashes over question

9 Rise of Stalin Politburo divided over future of Russia – End the NEP? – Worldwide Communist revolution? – Focus only on Russia? Two big opponents – Leon Trotsky – Joseph Stalin Stalin wins out because of job position – Began to remove old Bolshevik people from power, replacing them with his people By 1929, Stalin establishes a powerful dictatorship in Russia

10 Russia Under Stalin 1928 – Ends NEP, begins Five- Year Plans – Russia would become industrial overnight – Collectivization, or elimination, of farms – Focus on jobs still left living conditions in question…many had work, but poor homes Resistance? – Millions fought back…especially peasant farmers, old Bolsheviks – If you resisted, you were sent to forced labor camps – Around 20 million political enemies and resistors were killed

11 Other Authoritarian States Eastern Europe – Nations forged from Russia after WWI – Still heavily influenced by Russians, weak when beginning to start up – Only Czechoslovakia remained democratic Spain – Civil War broke out in 1936 – Republicans aided by Soviet Union, Mexico, and France – Nationalists aided by Portugal, Germany and Italy Take Madrid and win war in 1939

12 Exit Slip 3 new things you learned 2 things you found interesting 1 thing you still have a question about

13 Photo Analysis What do you think is going on in the picture? List 3 significant things you see.


15 Germany and Hitler Adolf Hitler – Born in Austria-Hungary in 1899 – Failed artist, was homeless and poor before the war – Served 4 years on Western Front during WWI Decorated soldier praised by superiors – After the war, was an undercover agent assigned to infiltrate German Workers’ Party in 1919 Rise of Hitler – Joined National Socialist German Workers’ Party in 1919, took control by 1921 For short, called Nazi Party – Hitler begins to gain admiration, 55,000 Nazis, 15,000 in the militia Known as Storm Troops or Brownshirts – Admires Mussolini, wants to copy his “March on Rome” in Germany

16 The Rise of Nazism Beer Hall Putsch (1923) – Failed march on Munich – Hitler is arrested, publishes Mein Kampf Includes anti-Semitic rhetoric, push for Aryan, or super race, of blonde haired/blue eyed people Hitler wanted to create a Third Reich (1 st was Holy Roman Empire, 2 nd was German Empire of 1871-1918) Nazism – Expands Nazi Party across Germany after prison release By 1932, 800,000 strong & largest party in Reichstag, or German parliament – Germany has over 6 million unemployed – Hitler promises new jobs, a new way of life, and a new Germany

17 Rise of Nazism Cont’d Victory of Nazism – Extremist parties gained support, put pressure on gov’t – By 1930, the Nazi party was ruling Germany through President Paul von Hindenburg – 1933 – Hindenburg steps aside and Hitler becomes chancellor of a new German gov’t – March 1933 – Enabling Act passed Gov’t can ignore constitution for 4 years to deal with German issues No need for Reichstag, he is now dictator – Jews and democratic supporters thrown out of gov’t, unions dismantled, & all other political parties abolished – All who opposed placed in concentration camps – Hitler now known as Fuhrer, or leader

18 The Nazi State, 1933-1939 Controlling Germany – Schutzstaffeln, or SS was Hitler’s personal body guard Controlled by Heinrich Himmler Became a militia force – Concentration camps, mass organizations and spectacles Economics – Public works programs and rearmament put the people back to work 1934 – 2.6 million unemployed, 1937 – 500,000 Role of Women – Seen as bearers of children who would bring about triumph for Aryans – Worked in areas away from heavy lifting, hard labor Anti-Semitic Policies – 1935 – Nuremberg Laws introduced Excluded Jews from German citizenship Forbade Jewish-German marriages Jews had to wear yellow Stars of David and carry ID – November 9, 1938 – Kristallnacht or “Night of Broken Glass” Germans destroy Jewish synagogues and businesses

19 Nationalism in the Middle East Nationalism – pride in your nation – Helps revolutions – Hurts b/c of rivalries it develops Ottoman Empire – British incited rebellion during WWI Lawrence of Arabia – Britain and France divided lands in Middle East Turkey – Only former Ottoman territory not controlled by Allies – Kemal Ataturk, or “Father Turk” turned Turkey into a modern state – Modeled after Western democracies

20 Nationalism in the Middle East Cont’d Iran – 1925 – Reza Shah Pahlavi conquers Persia Models gov’t after Turkey – 1935 – Territory becomes known as Iran Arab Mandates – Early 1920s Ibn Saud began fighting to remove European presence Established Saudi Arabia in 1932 – Soon oil is struck, wealth is in the future for the nation Palestine – Constant fighting between Jews and Muslims Large influx of Jews during WWII escaping Hitler – Balfour Declaration promised a future Jewish country

21 Nationalism in Africa Post-WWI – German colonies divided by Allies – Europeans exploited colonies through taxation and stripping of resources – Resistance was met with force New Leaders – Call for Pan-Africanism, or the unification of all Africans – W.E.B. DuBois & Marcus Garvey in the US pushed for more education, opportunities for Africans – Despite movements, colonialism in Africa would not end until after WWII

22 Nationalism in Asia India – Mohandas Mahatma (“Great Soul”) Gandhi preached civil disobedience Refusal to obey laws considered to be unjust Led to several arrests of Gandhi – Following violent displays of power, British begin to give rights to Indians Japan – Powerful industrial companies held influence over the country Zaibatsu – large financial & industrial corporation Led to economic inequalities, crisis during Great Depression – Japan began to follow path of militarism and imperialism Invasion of Manchuria – By late 1930s, military leaders ruled Japan, pushed away from West

23 Chaos in China A Communist Alliance – Chinese Communist Party (1921) founded by Beijing University staff members in Shanghai – 1923 – CCP joined Sun Yat-sen’s Nationalist Party, works to take out imperialists Sun Yat-sen dies in 1925, succeeded by Chiang Kai-shek – 1926 – Formed a Revolutionary Army, take South China within months – 1927 – Shanghai Massacre – Chiang turns on CCP, massacres thousands – 1928 – Chiang begins new dynasty, tries to unify China

24 Chaos in China cont’d The Long March – Communists, under Mao Zedong, go into hiding Begin using guerilla tactics to fight Nationalists – Cornered, Mao’s troops began a 6,000 mile march to the nearest Communist stronghold 90,000 troops begin, 9,000 finish Chiang Kai-shek’s China – Chiang begins programs to modernize the country – Encouraged Western influence – Public works programs initiated – Still faced concerns from Japan

25 Nationalism in Latin America U.S. in L.A. – 1920s – US eclipses Britain as biggest presence in LA – US military force prevalent – 1933 – FDR issues Good Neighbor Policy, ending military presence in LA Authoritarianism – Argentina Hipolito Irigoyen – Brazil Getulio Vargas – Mexico Lazaro Cardenas

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