2 The Great War Outline Road to War World War One The Russian Revolution The 3 Isms of WWIAlliancesSpark of the WarWorld War OneThe WarThe WarEntry of the USThe Russian RevolutionRevolution in RussiaRise of LeninRussian Civil WarEnd of the WarCollapse of GermanyWilson’s ProposalOutcome of the War
3 The 3 Isms of WWI Imperialism Nationalism Militarism The extension of a nation’s power over other landsCaused rivalries between European powersNationalismPride in one’s nationUnifications of Italy (1861) & Germany (1871)Push for alliances with other similar nationsFrance losing land to Germany after Franco-Prussian WarMilitarismGovernment emphasizes large militaryRush in Europe to build large militaryConscription, or drafting, was a common practice in most countries
4 Failure of AlliancesSome thought alliances would bring peace, ended up causing competitionBegan forming in 1800sTriple Alliance (1882) – Germany, Austria-Hungary, ItalyTriple Entente (1907) – Britain, France, RussiaCountries begin feuding, competing with each other…tension buildsWhat kinds of dangers exist when combining alliances with Imperialism? Nationalism? Militarism?
5 Spark of the War1914 – Serbia, a Russian ally, began a push for land in the BalkansAustria-Hungary did not want that to happenJune 28, 1914 – Austrian prince Archduke Franz Ferdinand killed by Gavrilo PrincipPrincip a member of Serbian group The Black HandAustria-Hungary gained support from Germany, declared war on Serbia July 28Russia declares war on Austria-Hungary, begins mobilization, or assembling troops and suppliesGermany ordered a halt to Russian mobilization, declared war on Aug. 1, when Russia refused
6 The War –Germany knows only a matter of time before France joins RussiaTriple EntenteSchlieffen PlanDeveloped by German General Alfred von Schlieffen, presented to ruler Wilhelm IIGermany would invade France through neutral BelgiumAug. 3, Germany declares war on France, orders Belgium to allow their troops to advanceAug. 4, British prime minister Henry Asquith declares war on Germany for violating Belgian neutrality
7 The War – 1914-1915 Cont’d Western Front Eastern Front France, Britain vs GermanyFrance is able to stop Schlieffen PlanTrench warfare slows the war many thought would end in weeksEastern FrontRussia vs Germany, Austria-HungaryLate Aug., Russia is able to push into Germany…in weeks are pushed outAustria-Hungary demolished by RussiansMay 1915, Italy swaps to Triple Entente, now known as The Allies
8 The War – 1916-1917 How would you fight trench warfare? Military leaders of the time were used to movement & maneuverFighting involved:Constant barrage of bullets to “soften” enemy linesSending groups of soldiers across no man’s land to attack defensesWar of attrition – war based on wearing the other side down – ensuesDangers of WarTrench footShellshock
11 The War of Attrition New weapons of war New parties enter U-Boats (1914)Poison gas (1914)War in the air (1914)Tanks (1915)New parties enterOttoman Empire (1914)Italy (1915)Bulgaria (1915)Japan & AustraliaEntente become Allies, Allied become Central PowersWar also spreads worldwideMiddle EastBritain Lawrence of Arabia leads Arabs in revolt against Ottoman EmpireJapan & Australia fight and conquer German colonies in Pacific
12 Entry of the US Sinking of Lusitania (May 7, 1915) British passenger ship sunk by German U-Boat1,198 people killed, 128 AmericansZimmerman Telegram (January 16, 1917)German telegram to MexicoOffered previous Mexican lands back if they led an attack on USIntercepted by BritishU.S. enters war April 6, 1917Total War, or the devotion of all resources to the war campaign, ensues in the United StatesWhat will be impact at home?Women, government powers, public opinion of warWhat will be impact at war?New soldiers, new attitudes
13 Exit Slip What was the basic idea behind the Schlieffen Plan? Why was WWI considered a war of attrition?Give one of the two reasons the US entered WWI.
14 Revolution in Russia Losing effort in war 2 million dead, 4-6 million woundedCzar Nicholas II often left decisions up to his German-born wife, AlexandraInfluenced by Rasputin, a holy man who looked after the sick heir to the throneWeak rulers, a poor economy, & military losses led to an uprisingAttempts to stop the uprising, like killing Rasputin, were too lateThe March Revolution (1917)Poor economy led to higher priced goods3/8 – 10,000 women march to protest gov’t, Nicholas orders them stop or shotSoldiers joined the demonstrators instead of stopping them3/12 – Duma, or Russian legislative body meets, orders Nicholas to step down3/15 – Nicholas steps down, ends Romanov dynastyGovernment continues war, but groups of rebels rise in Russia…known as Soviets
15 Rise of LeninBolsheviks were strongest Soviet group, led by Vladimir LeninParty representing workers’ rights, were against evils of capitalismThought violence was only answer to stop capitalismLenin pushed for overthrow of provisional gov’tWanted land distributed to people, committees running companies, and all gov’t transferred to Soviets
16 Russian Civil WarLenin seized power in October of 1917 and ended the war with Germany in March 1918Change name from Soviets to CommunistsGave up Eastern Poland, Finland, Ukraine, and Balkan landsCivil War ensued ( )Reds – Communist, Whites – were anti-CommunistToo little, too late, Communists win the war
17 Collapse of Germany Allies had an interesting 1917 Good – Americans joinBad – Russians leave, Germans can now focus on Western frontMarch 1918 Germans focus all strength on West, are within 50 miles of Paris by AprilAllied forces stop advance, push into Germany by SeptemberSeptember 18, 1918, Germany surrendersWilhelm II leaves the country in NovemberArmistice, or agreement to end fighting, is signed Nov. 11, 1918Fighting would continue within Germany over who would control the country
18 Wilson’s Proposal Blame ultimately landed on Germany Reps of the 27 victorious nations met in Paris to develop a peace settlementPresident Woodrow Wilson cautioned punishing Germany too muchWilson issues his Fourteen PointsDisarmament of all nationsEnd to “secret diplomacy”Right for all people to have their own nationsBiggest point was League of Nations, or an organized group that would help prevent war through diplomacyIt is created, but without US presence, as Congress says “no”
19 Outcome of the War Paris Peace Conference David Lloyd George (GB), Georges Clemanceau (Fra), Vittorio Orlando (Italy) & Woodrow Wilson (US) lead talksGB, Italy, & France want to make Germany pay for warTreaty of Versailles (June 28, 1919)Signed in Palace of Versailles in FranceDeclared Germany responsible for war, had to pay $63 billion ($768 billion today)100,000 man army, cut back on navy, eliminate air forceLands of Alsace and Lorraine given to FrenchThe Rhine (German border to France) demilitarizedLegacy of WarNew map of Europe10 million people deadHow will Germans feel? How could this impact WWII?