Presentation on theme: "Nationalist Movements in the Late 20th Century"— Presentation transcript:
1 Nationalist Movements in the Late 20th Century Chapters 22-24
2 “Nationalist Movements” Outline Latin AmericaTrends in LACentral AmericaSouth AmericaAfrica and the Middle EastIndependence Movements in AfricaConflict in the Middle EastAsia and the PacificCommunism and ChinaSouth and Southeast AsiaJapan and the Pacific
3 Trends in Latin America Economy and Politics60s – Countries dependent on US, Japan, GB, othersPolitical parties abolished, military dictators push export-import economiesMultinational corporations just make this worse70s – Foreign debt grows from $27 billion to $315.3 billion80s – Move toward democracyCould only gain more loans through reformU.S./L.A. Relations1948 – Organization of American States (OAS) createdEnd military action of Western Hemisphere nations in other Western Hemisphere nationsUS does not abide, fears spread of communism
4 Central America Mexico Cuba One major party – Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)1968 – Protesters were killed, beginning call for changeChange only came with economic troubles70s – Oil found, Mexico begins to rely on it80s – Oil prices drop world wide, economy goes down80s – Gov’t HAS TO sell companies to private firms (privatization)Cuba1959 – Fidel Castro takes Cuba1960 – Embargo placed on Cuba by US1961 – Bay of Pigs invasion1962 – Cuban Missile CrisisWith embargo, Cuba had to rely on USSR1989 – Soviet collapse leads to slow decline of Cuba
5 Central America Cont’d Central America includes seven nations:Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Panama, Honduras, Belize, and GuatemalaEach experience bouts with Marxist regimes or harsh dictatorsUS willing to get involved to benefit its interestEl Salvador & Nicaragua – US helps overthrow USSR-aligned leadersPanama – Independence in 1903 is helped in hopes of building a canal; drug trafficking in 80s & 90s push US help
6 South America Argentina Brazil Military regime started in 1940s Overthrew oligarchyJuan Peron elected Prez in 1946Fought for the descamisados, or “shirtless ones” (workers)Encouraged unionization, industrialization, and to free country from foreign investorsPeron tries to set up similar gov’t to Hitler, is overthrown in ’55Military rule lasts until ‘82, when Argentina lost dispute vs Great Britain over Falkland IslandsBrazil1964 – Military takes control, institutes new economic policies“Economic miracle” ensues1985 – Massive inflation leads to military backing down, democracy being pushed in Brazil
7 South America Cont’d Chile Peru Colombia 1970 – Marxist Salvador Allende electedBegan to take control of copper businesses (owned by U.S.)1973 – Augusto Pinochet takes control w/use of militaryKilled and tortured thousands to keep ruleDefeated in 1989 free electionsPeru1968 – Juan Velasco Alvarado takes control, fights for poorPut land in control of peasant cooperatives, or farm organizations1980 – Unable to make changes, military turns gov’t back over to civiliansCommunist groups like the Shining Path begin to emerge, promise changeColombiaPost WWII through present, constant fighting between military and civiliansDrug lords teamed with civilians to fight gov’tU.S. continues to support Colombian gov’t vs drug cartels
8 3-2-1 Exit Slip 3 things you learned 2 things you found interesting 1 thing you still have questions about
9 Trends in AfricaPost WWII – Europe realizes colonization of Africa must endUN charter pledged self-determination of all peoples– 28 new African nations formedEritrea last nation in 1993Racial Apartheid (apartness) in South AfricaWhite Afrikaners prevented equal voting, working, and civil rightsBlack Africans brutally repressed, Nelson Mandella arrested in 1962 saw a call for armed movements vs AfrikanersPan-Africanism spreadsUnity of all black Africans, regardless of nationality
10 New Nations Struggle and Succeed Government and economic policies rangedSome wanted to follow Western examples, others admired Eastern policiesSeveral problems led to weak economyRelying too much on exports (like Latin America)Corrupt spendingRapid population growthDrought and other natural disastersAIDS epidemicPolitically, democracies struggledUltimately, differences among ethnic groups led to disagreement
11 New Nations Struggle and Succeed Cont’d Several positives in Africa recentlyDictatorships knocked out from 70s-presentRemoval of apartheid in South Africa, election of Nelson Mandela as president in 1994Women can vote, hold political office
12 Trends in the Middle East Biggest post-WWII question involves Palestine1948 – Divided into Arab and Jewish states of Palestine and IsraelZionists wanted a Jewish statePan-Arabism spreadsMovement to unify all people of Arab descentReligious warfare dominates through the presentUS involvement (oil)
13 Revolution Palestine and Israel Iran Iraq Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) tried to fight Jewish occupation of Israel with forceIntifada (uprising) occurs in 1980s by Arabs in Israel1993 – Both recognize each other, temporary peaceIranChief U.S. ally in 1950s-60sDue to perceived materialism, people upset, want to divide from U.S.Restore Islamic law in 1979Iraq– Saddam Hussein rulesReligious differences between Iraq and Iran cause several conflicts during 80s1990 – Gulf War occurs when Iraq invades KuwaitUS involved for oil2003 – US launches another attack on Iraq for fear of weapons of mass destruction (WMDs)
14 Exit SlipIn your opinion, what was the biggest issue we discussed regarding Africa?In your opinion, what was the biggest issue we discussed regarding the Middle East?How are pan-Africanism and pan-Arabism similar? Different?
15 Trends in Asia China Southeast Asia Japan Mao Zedong threatens Communist takeoverSoutheast AsiaEuropean nations now questioning colonization in areaMove away from colonization creates problems in former coloniesJapanMove towards a modern societyRecovery from WWII and a new hope for relations with West
16 China and Communism1945 – Nationalists (Chiang Kai-shek) vs Communists (Mao Zedong)South (N) vs North (C)1949 – Peoples Liberation Army winsKorean War starts soon after (‘50-’53)1958 – Zedong begins Great Leap ForwardFarms and villages combined into communes15 million people die of starvation when peasants don’t grow needed crops, natural disaster strikes1966 – Zedong begins Great Proletariat Cultural RevolutionRed Guards (youth groups) target older, more conservative ChineseDestroyed foreign books, temples, music, etcOver time, people begin to oppose movement, as well as Mao
17 China After Mao1976 – Mao dies, revolutionaries led by Deng Xiaoping take controlInvited foreign investors, companies to ChinaStill, people want democracyProtests in Tiananmen Square late 80s – 90sDeng sends tanks and troops to end protestsStrained relations with West throughout 90s
18 India Divided Religious differences separated India Hindu vs Muslim groups1947 – India (Hindus) and West and East Pakistan (Muslims) granted independenceIndiaModeled after British parliamentary systemRapid population growth + poor economy = creation of slumsMuslim-Hindu religious wars continued to plague regionPakistanCompletely new upon gaining independenceWhat kinds of problems come with this?Tried to hold gov’t in West Pakistan, but East didn’t like idea1971 – East Pakistan declared independence, became Bangladesh after a brief civil war
19 Southeast Asia US and Britain make moves to leave Asia 1946 – US grants independence to Philippines1948 – Britain gives up Burma1957 – GB gives up MalayaFrench and Dutch try to maintain coloniesBloody battles between French and Vietnamese led to 1954 independenceVietnam split North (Communist) and South (Democracy)Vietnam War would soon follow
20 Japan 1945-1952 – Japan is occupied by Allied forces Douglas MacArthur in charge of Allies hereMacArthur pushed Western ideologyWithin 50 years, Japan becomes 2nd greatest industrial power in the worldWestern gov’t structure (three branches, universal suffrage)Gov’t has heavy presence in economy (price and wage policies)A cultural tradition of group work and a focus on completing tasks has helped propel the nation
21 The “Asian Tigers”Made up of South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong KongImitate Japanese success in industryAll experience change following removal of former rulersSouth Korea – JapanTaiwan – ChinaSingapore/Hong Kong – GB
22 Exit SlipIn your opinion, what was the biggest trend in the following areas:ChinaIndia/PakistanJapanName one country within the “Asian Tigers”. Who did this group of nations model their economy after?
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