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Nationalist Movements in the Late 20th Century

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Presentation on theme: "Nationalist Movements in the Late 20th Century"— Presentation transcript:

1 Nationalist Movements in the Late 20th Century
Chapters 22-24

2 “Nationalist Movements” Outline
Latin America Trends in LA Central America South America Africa and the Middle East Independence Movements in Africa Conflict in the Middle East Asia and the Pacific Communism and China South and Southeast Asia Japan and the Pacific

3 Trends in Latin America
Economy and Politics 60s – Countries dependent on US, Japan, GB, others Political parties abolished, military dictators push export-import economies Multinational corporations just make this worse 70s – Foreign debt grows from $27 billion to $315.3 billion 80s – Move toward democracy Could only gain more loans through reform U.S./L.A. Relations 1948 – Organization of American States (OAS) created End military action of Western Hemisphere nations in other Western Hemisphere nations US does not abide, fears spread of communism

4 Central America Mexico Cuba
One major party – Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) 1968 – Protesters were killed, beginning call for change Change only came with economic troubles 70s – Oil found, Mexico begins to rely on it 80s – Oil prices drop world wide, economy goes down 80s – Gov’t HAS TO sell companies to private firms (privatization) Cuba 1959 – Fidel Castro takes Cuba 1960 – Embargo placed on Cuba by US 1961 – Bay of Pigs invasion 1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis With embargo, Cuba had to rely on USSR 1989 – Soviet collapse leads to slow decline of Cuba

5 Central America Cont’d
Central America includes seven nations: Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Panama, Honduras, Belize, and Guatemala Each experience bouts with Marxist regimes or harsh dictators US willing to get involved to benefit its interest El Salvador & Nicaragua – US helps overthrow USSR-aligned leaders Panama – Independence in 1903 is helped in hopes of building a canal; drug trafficking in 80s & 90s push US help

6 South America Argentina Brazil Military regime started in 1940s
Overthrew oligarchy Juan Peron elected Prez in 1946 Fought for the descamisados, or “shirtless ones” (workers) Encouraged unionization, industrialization, and to free country from foreign investors Peron tries to set up similar gov’t to Hitler, is overthrown in ’55 Military rule lasts until ‘82, when Argentina lost dispute vs Great Britain over Falkland Islands Brazil 1964 – Military takes control, institutes new economic policies “Economic miracle” ensues 1985 – Massive inflation leads to military backing down, democracy being pushed in Brazil

7 South America Cont’d Chile Peru Colombia
1970 – Marxist Salvador Allende elected Began to take control of copper businesses (owned by U.S.) 1973 – Augusto Pinochet takes control w/use of military Killed and tortured thousands to keep rule Defeated in 1989 free elections Peru 1968 – Juan Velasco Alvarado takes control, fights for poor Put land in control of peasant cooperatives, or farm organizations 1980 – Unable to make changes, military turns gov’t back over to civilians Communist groups like the Shining Path begin to emerge, promise change Colombia Post WWII through present, constant fighting between military and civilians Drug lords teamed with civilians to fight gov’t U.S. continues to support Colombian gov’t vs drug cartels

8 3-2-1 Exit Slip 3 things you learned 2 things you found interesting
1 thing you still have questions about

9 Trends in Africa Post WWII – Europe realizes colonization of Africa must end UN charter pledged self-determination of all peoples – 28 new African nations formed Eritrea last nation in 1993 Racial Apartheid (apartness) in South Africa White Afrikaners prevented equal voting, working, and civil rights Black Africans brutally repressed, Nelson Mandella arrested in 1962 saw a call for armed movements vs Afrikaners Pan-Africanism spreads Unity of all black Africans, regardless of nationality

10 New Nations Struggle and Succeed
Government and economic policies ranged Some wanted to follow Western examples, others admired Eastern policies Several problems led to weak economy Relying too much on exports (like Latin America) Corrupt spending Rapid population growth Drought and other natural disasters AIDS epidemic Politically, democracies struggled Ultimately, differences among ethnic groups led to disagreement

11 New Nations Struggle and Succeed Cont’d
Several positives in Africa recently Dictatorships knocked out from 70s-present Removal of apartheid in South Africa, election of Nelson Mandela as president in 1994 Women can vote, hold political office

12 Trends in the Middle East
Biggest post-WWII question involves Palestine 1948 – Divided into Arab and Jewish states of Palestine and Israel Zionists wanted a Jewish state Pan-Arabism spreads Movement to unify all people of Arab descent Religious warfare dominates through the present US involvement (oil)

13 Revolution Palestine and Israel Iran Iraq
Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) tried to fight Jewish occupation of Israel with force Intifada (uprising) occurs in 1980s by Arabs in Israel 1993 – Both recognize each other, temporary peace Iran Chief U.S. ally in 1950s-60s Due to perceived materialism, people upset, want to divide from U.S. Restore Islamic law in 1979 Iraq – Saddam Hussein rules Religious differences between Iraq and Iran cause several conflicts during 80s 1990 – Gulf War occurs when Iraq invades Kuwait US involved for oil 2003 – US launches another attack on Iraq for fear of weapons of mass destruction (WMDs)

14 Exit Slip In your opinion, what was the biggest issue we discussed regarding Africa? In your opinion, what was the biggest issue we discussed regarding the Middle East? How are pan-Africanism and pan-Arabism similar? Different?

15 Trends in Asia China Southeast Asia Japan
Mao Zedong threatens Communist takeover Southeast Asia European nations now questioning colonization in area Move away from colonization creates problems in former colonies Japan Move towards a modern society Recovery from WWII and a new hope for relations with West

16 China and Communism 1945 – Nationalists (Chiang Kai-shek) vs Communists (Mao Zedong) South (N) vs North (C) 1949 – Peoples Liberation Army wins Korean War starts soon after (‘50-’53) 1958 – Zedong begins Great Leap Forward Farms and villages combined into communes 15 million people die of starvation when peasants don’t grow needed crops, natural disaster strikes 1966 – Zedong begins Great Proletariat Cultural Revolution Red Guards (youth groups) target older, more conservative Chinese Destroyed foreign books, temples, music, etc Over time, people begin to oppose movement, as well as Mao

17 China After Mao 1976 – Mao dies, revolutionaries led by Deng Xiaoping take control Invited foreign investors, companies to China Still, people want democracy Protests in Tiananmen Square late 80s – 90s Deng sends tanks and troops to end protests Strained relations with West throughout 90s

18 India Divided Religious differences separated India
Hindu vs Muslim groups 1947 – India (Hindus) and West and East Pakistan (Muslims) granted independence India Modeled after British parliamentary system Rapid population growth + poor economy = creation of slums Muslim-Hindu religious wars continued to plague region Pakistan Completely new upon gaining independence What kinds of problems come with this? Tried to hold gov’t in West Pakistan, but East didn’t like idea 1971 – East Pakistan declared independence, became Bangladesh after a brief civil war

19 Southeast Asia US and Britain make moves to leave Asia
1946 – US grants independence to Philippines 1948 – Britain gives up Burma 1957 – GB gives up Malaya French and Dutch try to maintain colonies Bloody battles between French and Vietnamese led to 1954 independence Vietnam split North (Communist) and South (Democracy) Vietnam War would soon follow

20 Japan 1945-1952 – Japan is occupied by Allied forces
Douglas MacArthur in charge of Allies here MacArthur pushed Western ideology Within 50 years, Japan becomes 2nd greatest industrial power in the world Western gov’t structure (three branches, universal suffrage) Gov’t has heavy presence in economy (price and wage policies) A cultural tradition of group work and a focus on completing tasks has helped propel the nation

21 The “Asian Tigers” Made up of South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong Imitate Japanese success in industry All experience change following removal of former rulers South Korea – Japan Taiwan – China Singapore/Hong Kong – GB

22 Exit Slip In your opinion, what was the biggest trend in the following areas: China India/Pakistan Japan Name one country within the “Asian Tigers”. Who did this group of nations model their economy after?


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