Presentation on theme: "Russia, Europe, and the United States 1945-Present"— Presentation transcript:
1Russia, Europe, and the United States 1945-Present The Cold WarRussia, Europe, and the United States1945-Present
2“The Cold War” Outline West vs East The Powers End of the War Division of PowersSpread of the Cold WarCuban Missile CrisisVietnamThe PowersSoviet Union/Eastern EuropeNorth America/Western EuropeEnd of the WarFall of the Soviet UnionFuture of Eastern EuropeNorth America and Western EuropeNew Future of the West
3West vs East West East Fears the spread of communism Based on principles of Karl MarxTrade and industry publicly owned (government), with each person working and being paid according to needsMade up of U.S. and Western EuropeMotivesUS wanted to maintain prestige after WWIIWanted Eastern Europe to have choice in governmentEastFears the spread of capitalismPrivate owners (citizens) control trade and industryMade up of USSR and Eastern EuropeMotivesUSSR did not want to give up control of Germany and Eastern Europe after WWIIWanted Eastern Europe to be pro-Soviet, regardless of the want of the people
4Division of Powers Rivalry in Europe (1947) Division of Germany Truman Doctrine – US would give $$$ to nations threatened by communismIn response to fear of USSR interfering in GreeceMarshall Plan – US pledged $13 billion to European economic recoveryFight USSR with $$$US adopts policy of containment to stop communism from spreadingDivision of GermanyUS, France, Great Britain vs RussiaBerlin (capital) in East (USSR territory), USSR tries to block all Western influenceBerlin Air Lift – combined effort of Western powers to provide food, supplies to West BerlinLate 1949, Federal Republic of Germany set up in West, German Democratic Republic set up in eastFRG (West) creates new capital in Bonn
5Spread of the Cold War New Alliances East vs West Germany 1949 – China becomes communist, USSR explodes atomic bombMao Zedong pushes for communism in China (Great Leap Forward)Arms race begins between US/USSR1949 – North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) – Alliance of West Europe and North America1955 – Warsaw Pact – Alliance of East Europe and USSREast vs West Germany1961 – Berlin Wall created to prevent East Germans from escaping to West GermanyNikita Krushchev in charge of USSR, creation of wall
6Exit SlipIn your opinion, what was the biggest factor in the US and USSR disagreeing with each other?What was the purpose of the Truman Doctrine? The Marshall Plan?
7Korean War (1950-1953) 1905-1945 – Korea owned by Japanese 1945 – US, USSR decide to split Korea after defeat of JapanSplit at 38th parallelNorth – USSRSouth – USBy 1950, communism vs capitalismJune 1950 – North invades SouthPushed out by JulyChinese send large forces, push back to 38th parallel, where border is todayArmistice signed in 1953
8Cuban Missile Crisis (1959-1963) Cuban Revolution1959 – Fidel Castro takes Cuba, supported by USSRNow within 90 miles of USBay of Pigs InvasionApril 1961 – JFK’s planned invasion of CubaFailure of CIA to land Cuban exiles and take island backCuban Missile CrisisUSSR has weapons in CubaUS understandably fears USSR weapons, but they also hold weapons in Turkey…BORDERING USSR1962 – US blockades Cuba to prevent Russian fleet from carrying weapons to them“Your rockets are in Turkey. You are worried by Cuba…because it is 90 miles from the American coast. But Turkey is next to us.” – KrushchevDoes he have an argument?
9Vietnam (1959-1975) Alliances U.S. Concerns The War North – Soviets & EastSouth – US & WestU.S. ConcernsDomino Theory – If communists succeed in South Vietnam, other Asian nations would fallThe WarStarts out as light warfare, eventually draft issued and thousands serve1968 – Tet Offensive turns tide of war in favor of communists1969 – Conscription begins in USHeavy protests, Americans not wanting to participateEarly 70s – Laos and Cambodia fall to Soviet forcesDespite more money and equipment, South falls to North in 1975 at Saigon
10Soviet Union/Eastern Europe Stalin to KrushchevStalin ( )Heavy industry pushedAtom bomb in 1953Oppresses science, literatureNikita Krushchev (‘53-’64)Begins de-stalinization, science and lit. benefitSputnik I launches in ’57Lost job b/c of Cuban Missile CrisisBehind the Iron CurtainCommunism forced from ‘45-’47Revolts take place, but Soviets able to squash themYugoslavia and Freedom Fighters only group to succeed
11Western Europe Recovery Unity France West Germany Great Britain Charles de Gaulle created Fourth and Fifth RepublicsPuts France on world stage, explodes 1st nuclear bomb in 1960West GermanyKonrad Adenauer chancellorPost-war economic growth, “economic miracle”Great BritainWelfare state – gov’t takes responsibility for providing citizens with means to liveBc of this, couldn’t maintain colonies, breaks apart empireUnity1957 – European Economic Community createdPowerful trading bloc, or nations with a common purposeFree trade (no tariffs) between nations
12North America American Development Period of economic boom after WWIISen. Joe McCarthy begins Red Scare – fear communists had infiltrated U.S.1954 – Brown v. Board of Education makes segregation illegalLyndon B. Johnson ( ) pursues welfare stateMartin Luther King, Jr. leads civil rights movement, helps create Civil Rights Act in 1964Canada emerges as a power in North AmericaHelp from American investment, desire to grow industry in country
13Exit SlipList three ways Nikita Krushcev’s Russia differ from the Russia of Stalin.How would you define the European Economic Community (EEC)?Give an example of the change the United States was experiencing during the Cold War.
14Brezhnev Era in Russia Leonid Brezhnev (1964-1982) Followed KrushchevAllowed détente, or relaxed relations between US/USSRStruggles of the USSRBrezhnev encouraged heavy industryLeads to no incentive amongst farmers to do anything outside provide for themselvesGov’t becomes corrupt by 70’sWeak gov’t, weak economy, poor working conditions leading to weak Russia
15Fall of the Soviet Union Rising/Falling Tension1979 – USSR invades Afghanistan, ruins relationsPres. Carter removes US from ‘80 Olympics (Moscow)1980 – Reagan elected – US backs Afghans, begins new arms race with USSRGorbachev and a New USSR1985 – Mikhail Gorbachev takes power in USSRBegins policy of glasnost (openness in discussion of public policy) and perestroika (restructuring of policy)US & USSR both running up debt with military policy, choose to pull back on nuclear arms raceGorbachev also ends aid to Communist gov’ts in Eastern EuropePeaceful revolution sweeps Europe in ‘89, Same year elected legislature meets in USSR, Germany reunified in Oct. ‘90
16The New Russia End of the Soviet Union Boris Yeltsin (‘91-’99) USSR included 92 ethnic groups and 112 different languagesBc of release of grip by “Iron Fist” in Moscow, groups begin nationalist movements for independenceBy the end of 1991, USSR had dissolvedBoris Yeltsin (‘91-’99)Followed GorbachevOversaw beginning of new Russian eraVladimir Putin (’00-’08, ‘12-Present)Continued economic moves forwardMost recently, Ukraine crisis (still ongoing)
173-2-1 Exit Slip 3 Things you learned 2 Things you found interesting 1 Thing you still have questions about
18Eastern Europe – 80s-90s Revolution Disintegration of Yugoslavia Gorbachev’s removal of funding to communist regimes means changePoland, Czechoslovakia, Romania each experience change, removal of communismDisintegration of YugoslaviaRemained separate from USSR, despite being communist6 republics and 2 provinces made up nation, begin to call for independence in 1990Bloody revolution takes place against communist leader Josip Tito
19Western Europe – 80s-90s France Germany Great Britain Experienced a shift from socialist policy in 80s to conservatism in 90sGermanyWilly Brandt, chancellor of West, signs a treaty with East in 1972New focus on building Germany, conservative groups brought to powerGreat BritainFaced constant fighting between Catholics and Protestants in Northern IrelandMargaret Thatcher leader of GB during ‘80sThatcherism – Saw industrial zones prosper at the expense of non-industrialized areas of GB
20North America – 80s-90s United States Canada At home, Reagan cut back on welfare state spending, using $$$ for militaryPushed budget deficit to 3x its amount in 70sSucceeded by Bush Sr. and ClintonCanadaBiggest issue is the fate of QuebecPeople of Quebec wanted to secede, Canadian Supreme Court said “no”Needed a unanimous decision
21New Future of the West How have things changed in the following areas: Technology?Popular Culture?Religion?New concerns?