Presentation on theme: "The Cold War Russia, Europe, and the United States 1945-Present."— Presentation transcript:
The Cold War Russia, Europe, and the United States 1945-Present
“The Cold War” Outline West vs East – Division of Powers – Spread of the Cold War – Cuban Missile Crisis – Vietnam The Powers – Soviet Union/Eastern Europe – North America/Western Europe End of the War – Fall of the Soviet Union – Future of Eastern Europe – North America and Western Europe New Future of the West
West vs East West – Fears the spread of communism Based on principles of Karl Marx Trade and industry publicly owned (government), with each person working and being paid according to needs – Made up of U.S. and Western Europe – Motives US wanted to maintain prestige after WWII Wanted Eastern Europe to have choice in government East – Fears the spread of capitalism Private owners (citizens) control trade and industry – Made up of USSR and Eastern Europe – Motives USSR did not want to give up control of Germany and Eastern Europe after WWII Wanted Eastern Europe to be pro-Soviet, regardless of the want of the people
Division of Powers Rivalry in Europe (1947) – Truman Doctrine – US would give $$$ to nations threatened by communism In response to fear of USSR interfering in Greece – Marshall Plan – US pledged $13 billion to European economic recovery Fight USSR with $$$ – US adopts policy of containment to stop communism from spreading Division of Germany – US, France, Great Britain vs Russia – Berlin (capital) in East (USSR territory), USSR tries to block all Western influence Berlin Air Lift – combined effort of Western powers to provide food, supplies to West Berlin – Late 1949, Federal Republic of Germany set up in West, German Democratic Republic set up in east – FRG (West) creates new capital in Bonn
Spread of the Cold War New Alliances – 1949 – China becomes communist, USSR explodes atomic bomb Mao Zedong pushes for communism in China (Great Leap Forward) Arms race begins between US/USSR – 1949 – North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) – Alliance of West Europe and North America – 1955 – Warsaw Pact – Alliance of East Europe and USSR East vs West Germany – 1961 – Berlin Wall created to prevent East Germans from escaping to West Germany – Nikita Krushchev in charge of USSR, creation of wall
Exit Slip In your opinion, what was the biggest factor in the US and USSR disagreeing with each other? What was the purpose of the Truman Doctrine? The Marshall Plan?
Korean War ( ) – Korea owned by Japanese 1945 – US, USSR decide to split Korea after defeat of Japan – Split at 38 th parallel – North – USSR – South – US – By 1950, communism vs capitalism June 1950 – North invades South – Pushed out by July Chinese send large forces, push back to 38 th parallel, where border is today Armistice signed in 1953
Cuban Missile Crisis ( ) Cuban Revolution – 1959 – Fidel Castro takes Cuba, supported by USSR Now within 90 miles of US Bay of Pigs Invasion – April 1961 – JFK’s planned invasion of Cuba – Failure of CIA to land Cuban exiles and take island back Cuban Missile Crisis – USSR has weapons in Cuba – US understandably fears USSR weapons, but they also hold weapons in Turkey…BORDERING USSR – 1962 – US blockades Cuba to prevent Russian fleet from carrying weapons to them “Your rockets are in Turkey. You are worried by Cuba…because it is 90 miles from the American coast. But Turkey is next to us.” – Krushchev – Does he have an argument?
Vietnam ( ) Alliances – North – Soviets & East – South – US & West U.S. Concerns – Domino Theory – If communists succeed in South Vietnam, other Asian nations would fall The War – Starts out as light warfare, eventually draft issued and thousands serve – 1968 – Tet Offensive turns tide of war in favor of communists 1969 – Conscription begins in US Heavy protests, Americans not wanting to participate – Early 70s – Laos and Cambodia fall to Soviet forces – Despite more money and equipment, South falls to North in 1975 at Saigon
Soviet Union/Eastern Europe Stalin to Krushchev – Stalin ( ) Heavy industry pushed Atom bomb in 1953 Oppresses science, literature – Nikita Krushchev (‘53-’64) Begins de-stalinization, science and lit. benefit Sputnik I launches in ’57 Lost job b/c of Cuban Missile Crisis Behind the Iron Curtain – Communism forced from ‘45- ’47 – Revolts take place, but Soviets able to squash them – Yugoslavia and Freedom Fighters only group to succeed
Western Europe Recovery – France Charles de Gaulle created Fourth and Fifth Republics Puts France on world stage, explodes 1 st nuclear bomb in 1960 – West Germany Konrad Adenauer chancellor Post-war economic growth, “economic miracle” – Great Britain Welfare state – gov’t takes responsibility for providing citizens with means to live Bc of this, couldn’t maintain colonies, breaks apart empire Unity – 1957 – European Economic Community created Powerful trading bloc, or nations with a common purpose Free trade (no tariffs) between nations
North America American Development – Period of economic boom after WWII – Sen. Joe McCarthy begins Red Scare – fear communists had infiltrated U.S. – 1954 – Brown v. Board of Education makes segregation illegal – Lyndon B. Johnson ( ) pursues welfare state – Martin Luther King, Jr. leads civil rights movement, helps create Civil Rights Act in 1964 Canada emerges as a power in North America – Help from American investment, desire to grow industry in country
Exit Slip List three ways Nikita Krushcev’s Russia differ from the Russia of Stalin. How would you define the European Economic Community (EEC)? Give an example of the change the United States was experiencing during the Cold War.
Brezhnev Era in Russia Leonid Brezhnev ( ) – Followed Krushchev – Allowed détente, or relaxed relations between US/USSR Struggles of the USSR – Brezhnev encouraged heavy industry Leads to no incentive amongst farmers to do anything outside provide for themselves – Gov’t becomes corrupt by 70’s – Weak gov’t, weak economy, poor working conditions leading to weak Russia
Fall of the Soviet Union Rising/Falling Tension – 1979 – USSR invades Afghanistan, ruins relations Pres. Carter removes US from ‘80 Olympics (Moscow) – 1980 – Reagan elected – US backs Afghans, begins new arms race with USSR Gorbachev and a New USSR – 1985 – Mikhail Gorbachev takes power in USSR – Begins policy of glasnost (openness in discussion of public policy) and perestroika (restructuring of policy) – US & USSR both running up debt with military policy, choose to pull back on nuclear arms race – Gorbachev also ends aid to Communist gov’ts in Eastern Europe – Peaceful revolution sweeps Europe in ‘89, Same year elected legislature meets in USSR, Germany reunified in Oct. ‘90
The New Russia End of the Soviet Union – USSR included 92 ethnic groups and 112 different languages Bc of release of grip by “Iron Fist” in Moscow, groups begin nationalist movements for independence – By the end of 1991, USSR had dissolved Boris Yeltsin (‘91-’99) – Followed Gorbachev – Oversaw beginning of new Russian era Vladimir Putin (’00-’08, ‘12- Present) – Continued economic moves forward – Most recently, Ukraine crisis (still ongoing)
3-2-1 Exit Slip 3 Things you learned 2 Things you found interesting 1 Thing you still have questions about
Eastern Europe – 80s-90s Revolution – Gorbachev’s removal of funding to communist regimes means change – Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania each experience change, removal of communism Disintegration of Yugoslavia – Remained separate from USSR, despite being communist – 6 republics and 2 provinces made up nation, begin to call for independence in 1990 – Bloody revolution takes place against communist leader Josip Tito
Western Europe – 80s-90s France – Experienced a shift from socialist policy in 80s to conservatism in 90s Germany – Willy Brandt, chancellor of West, signs a treaty with East in 1972 – New focus on building Germany, conservative groups brought to power Great Britain – Faced constant fighting between Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland – Margaret Thatcher leader of GB during ‘80s Thatcherism – Saw industrial zones prosper at the expense of non- industrialized areas of GB
North America – 80s-90s United States – At home, Reagan cut back on welfare state spending, using $$$ for military Pushed budget deficit to 3x its amount in 70s – Succeeded by Bush Sr. and Clinton Canada – Biggest issue is the fate of Quebec – People of Quebec wanted to secede, Canadian Supreme Court said “no” Needed a unanimous decision
New Future of the West How have things changed in the following areas: – Technology? – Popular Culture? – Religion? – New concerns?