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Change in East Asia Chapter 15, sections 1-3. Change in East Asia Outline Decline of the Qing Dynasty – Reasons for decline – Imperialism reaches China.

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Presentation on theme: "Change in East Asia Chapter 15, sections 1-3. Change in East Asia Outline Decline of the Qing Dynasty – Reasons for decline – Imperialism reaches China."— Presentation transcript:

1 Change in East Asia Chapter 15, sections 1-3

2 Change in East Asia Outline Decline of the Qing Dynasty – Reasons for decline – Imperialism reaches China Revolution in China – Civil war – Chinese society Rise of Modern Japan – End to isolationism – Meiji Japan – Imperialism reaches Japan

3 Decline of the Qing Dynasty Remember? – Qing take over after Ming – Kangxi most famous ruler – Originally allowed Europeans, but banned them after fallout with missionaries – Europeans still interested in trade with China Qing dynasty begins to fall due to external and internal factors

4 External Factor – The Opium War British are importing more than exporting – Losing $$$ Begin to offer opium grown in India to Chinese – Highly addictive drug, makes $$$ for British After British refuse to quit selling drug, Chinese begin searches of all goods coming through ports – Upset British begin war in 1839 – War ends when British sail up Yangtze River, Qing make peace Treaty of Nanjing (1842) is signed – Opens 5 ports for British instead of 1 – Limits taxes for British goods – Chinese pay for war damages – At port, Europeans followed their own laws…practice called extraterritoriality

5 Internal Factor – Tai Ping Rebellion Economic issues lead to this peasant rebellion – Led by Hong Xiuquan, who believed he was a brother of Jesus Christ People were to give up private possessions, people were viewed as equals, everything was to be shared 1853 – Rebels killed 25,000 men, women, and children in Nanjing 1864 – With help from Europeans, Qing took back Nanjing and ended rebellion 20 million died over 14 year period of war

6 Qing Reform In order to fight rebels, Qing relied on local warlords that taxed their people to raise armies – After rebellion ends, they still hold power Warlords demand Qing begin practice of self strengthening – Adopting Western technology while maintaining Confucian values China becomes more open to European ideas, while still holding traditional values

7 Advancing Imperialism and the Open Door Struggle with foreign powers – Treaty of Tianjin (1858) Chinese legalize opium, opened more ports, gave land to Britain Treaty forced by Britain and France, Britain would seize Beijing in 1860 – Spheres of influence, or areas where imperial powers had exclusive trading rights, existed throughout China Struggle from within – Emperor Guang Xu started a movement known as the One Hundred Days of Reform Implemented Western government, educational ideas – Many conservatives did not want change, stopped movement Guang Xu’s aunt and the imperial army imprisoned him to end efforts

8 Open Door Policy Qing Dynasty continues to weaken – Britain and U.S. afraid of other nations taking over China 1899 – John Hay, US Secretary of State under William McKinley, suggests Open Door Policy – Equal access to Chinese market for all nations Spheres of influence diminished, but still exist

9 Boxer Rebellion Boxers were members of the Society of Harmonious Fists – Upset with Imperialists in China – Slogan was “destroy the foreigner” Gangs killed missionaries, Chinese Christians, and any foreigners they crossed In response, 20,000 troops attacked in August 1900 – British, French, Russian, German, Japanese, and American troops Chinese forced to pay for all damages to powers that crushed Boxers – Known as an indemnity Chinese now weaker than ever

10 “Change” in China… Change? – Nationwide education systems set up – Provincial, or local, elections held for legislative and national assemblies Still, assemblies could only advise rulers Nothing really done for peasants Sun Yat-sen & Revolution – Wanted Qing out – 1905 – In Tokyo, found like-minded Chinese and formed the Revolutionary Alliance – Sun said China could be claimed through (1) A military takeover, (2) Preparation for democracy, & (3) A constitutional democracy – Revolutionary Alliance became the Nationalist Party calling for nationalism, democracy, and the right for people to pursue their own livelihood

11 Chinese Civil War Revolution of 1911 – 1908 – Guang Xu and aunt Empress Dowager Ci Xi die, Henry Pu Yi takes throne – 1911 – Sun Yat-sen’s followers launch attack – Revolutionary Alliance takes China, supported by Western powers China in Chaos – General Yuan Shigai takes over Military leader that had led revolution – Yuan cut down on democratic organizations, tried to re-create imperial dynasty – China continued down a path of war even after Yuan’s death

12 Chinese Society Society – Westerners in China meant changes Introduced new transportation and communication Created an export market Pushed Chinese market into the world economy – All pushed for commodities, or marketable products from China Culture – Western books, paintings, music, and ideas were introduced – Cities saw Europeanized changes while rural areas remained traditional

13 Japan and Isolationism Ending Isolation – Western powers approached Japan hoping for trade – US first to succeed Matthew Perry and a fleet of warships arrived, left a letter requesting trade from President Millard Fillmore Also asked for shipwrecked Americans held prisoner – Treaty of Kanagawa (1850s) Japanese say yes to both Japanese feel US military superiority warrants concessions, or political compromises Resisting the New Order – Many upset with foreign relations decision – 1863 – Sat-Cho alliance forms, ended Western relations in Japan – 1868 – Sat-Cho forced shogun to resign, declared all power returned to emperor

14 Meiji Restoration The Restoration – Emperor Mutsuhito became symbol of new Sat-Cho era – Called the era Meiji, or “enlightened rule” New Politics – Stripped Daimyo of land, made them governors of the prefectures, or territories – Japanese studied political systems of Western nations – Two parties began to emerge Liberals – Wanted a parliament to hold authority Progressives – Wanted executive/legislative branches – Progressives won, and emperor lost power to prime minister – Upper and lower houses, with both having elected officials and the upper also having appointed officials

15 Meiji Society Economics – Farmers taxed $$$ instead of % of crops – $$$ raised put towards industry Social Structure – Military – All men served for 3 years – Education – Followed American system of elementary, secondary, and universities Daily Life – Women could be educated – Western culture began to influence younger generation – Workers had little rights

16 Imperialist Japan Expansion – Took land in China and Korea War with Russia – Land disputes in Korea led to war – 1904 – Japanese attack Russians Surprises Russians – Russians brought navy around South Africa to Japan – 1905 – Russians surrender to Japan American Relations – Rocky relations, US fears Japanese influence in East Asia – 1905 – Recognize Japan’s control of Korea in return for US control of Philippines – 1907 – Teddy Roosevelt restricts Japanese immigration to US, creating tension – 1910 – Japan annexes Korea

17 Exit Slip What was the Open Door Policy? Explain the cause of the Boxer Rebellion. What kinds of changes did General Yuan Shigai make when he became emperor of China?

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