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European Imperialism 1880-1920 Chapter 14, Sections 1-4.

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Presentation on theme: "European Imperialism 1880-1920 Chapter 14, Sections 1-4."— Presentation transcript:

1 European Imperialism 1880-1920 Chapter 14, Sections 1-4

2 Imperialism Imperialism is the extension of a nation’s power over other lands – 1800s brought new focus Two forms: – Indirect Rule – Local rulers allowed to maintain position – Direct Rule – Local rulers removed, replaced w/leaders from mother country Motives? – Search for raw materials like cloves, pepper, tea, and silk – Nations wanted to gain advantage over rival nations – National prestige – White Man’s Burden – responsibility to civilize “primitive” people

3 Imperialism in Southeast Asia Britain – Singapore Major stopping point for trade going to China – Burma Land route to South China Difficult terrain caused this plan to fail France – Vietnam Forced leaders to accept French protection, making it a protectorate, to defend it from Britain – Thailand Fought over between France and Britain Leaders promoted European education Allowed to remain independent as a “buffer state” between the two nations

4 Imperialism in Southeast Asia Cont’d United States – Philippines Acquired through Spanish-American War Gave U.S. a launching point to trade w/China Economies – Colonies developed raw materials and sent to mother country – Mother country used industry to create and sell products – Did not want colonies gaining industry – What kind of benefits could come for the mother country? The colony? Resistance – At first – peasant revolts, uprisings – Later – educated native peoples brought up through European rule began to use nationalism to resist

5 Imperialism in Africa West Africa (Britain, France, Germany) – Slave trade had died out – Peanuts, timber, hides, and palm oil to trade – Gold Coast the primary target British annex, or incorporate into their state North Africa (Britain, France, Italy) – Egypt had gained independence in 1805 Led by Muhammad Ali Growing economy led to construction of Suez Canal connecting Mediterranean and Red Seas – British see importance of Suez Canal, buy Egypt’s share Egyptians are mad, revolt British stop revolts, take Egypt as a protectorate in 1914

6 Imperialism in Africa Cont’d Central Africa (Britain, Belgium, France) – David Livingstone, a British explorer, traveled the jungles of Central Africa Henry Stanley sent to find Livingstone, continued his work when he passed away – King Leopold II of Belgium pushed for colonization of the area Hired Henry Stanley to help Set up settlements in the Congo East Africa (Britain, Germany) – Britain wanted territory to stretch from South Africa to Egypt – Germany wanted an empire like other European powers – Berlin Conference (1884-1885) divided the land between the two No African representatives allowed to attend

7 Imperialism in Africa Cont’d South Africa – Boers were original Dutch settlers – British seized lands during Napoleonic Wars, invited citizens (1880-1881) – Boers, sick of British rule, move to area above Vaal River Put the indigenous, or native, peoples on reservations – Boers constantly fighting native groups Boer Wars – First was 1880-1881 – Second (1899-1902) saw British take Boer lands – Cecil Rhodes, in charge of British South Africa, wants Boer lands because of diamonds and gold – To make Boers happy British allow limited self government and only whites and few blacks with property could vote

8 Imperialism in Africa Cont’d Colonial Rule in Africa – Most countries relied on indirect rule Less costs, effort Also kept one family in power, preventing change – Some used direct rule Official from mother country at top Helped govern alongside indigenous peoples Rise of African Nationalism – European educational programs created a new group of African leaders – Suppression by colonial rulers led to resentment Africans could only work certain jobs, make certain amount of money Few voting or political rights – Out of this came national pride and a desire to rule themselves (nationalism)

9 Colonialism in India Background – British had taken Mogul Empire during period of internal weakness – To rule, British had soldiers, forts, and sepoys, or hired Indian soldiers – British ruled through a viceroy, or a governor that acted as the monarch Sepoy Mutiny – Began when British gave sepoys new bullets greased with cow and pig fat Cow sacred to Hindu, pig taboo to Muslims Sepoys attacked and killed 50 European men, women, and children – Indians outnumbered British 230,000 to 40,000, but Muslims and Hindu would not work together British win – Queen Victoria named Empress of India in 1876 India becomes “Crown Jewel” of British Empire

10 Colonialism in India Cont’d Positives of British rule – Order and stability – Education, military – Railroads, telegraph, postal service Negatives of British rule – Education and military only covered top 10% of population – British industries beat Indian industries (cotton vs food) – Use of zamindars increased Indian culture under British rule – Educators, authors, and political and social leaders emerged to challenge British – Novels, poems, and teachings encouraged continued Indian cultural practices

11 Colonialism in India Cont’d Indian nationalist movement – Primarily upper class, educated Indian citizens – 1885 – Indian National Congress (INC) meets to call for a share in governing Separation of Hindu and Muslim beliefs caused problems – 1915 – Return of Mohandas Gandhi from Britain and South Africa Peaceful calls for action would end British reign in India

12 Fall of Nationalism in Latin America Background – Creoles, or descendants of Europeans and native Latin Americans encourage equal rights – Peninsulares maintained Spanish and Portuguese power and practices – Napoleon’s victories in Europe weakened their power in Central America – 1804 – Haiti is first to declare freedom when slaves rise up against French rulers Revolt in Mexico – Miguel Hidalgo (1753-1811) starts revolution – Sept. 16, 1810 – Uprising occurs but is squashed, Hidalgo is ordered to die – 1821 – Creoles and Peninsulares work together to overthrow Spanish, set up government…Agustin de Iturbide is selected as leader

13 Fall of Nationalism in Latin America Cont’d Revolt in South America – Jose de San Martin (Argentina) and Simon Bolivar (Venezuela) fighting to get Spanish out of South America – By 1824, most of South America free of European control U.S. Intervention – Concert of Europe still wants to go back and take LA – U.S. Prez James Monroe issues Monroe Doctrine, warning against any European interference in Western Hemisphere – Britain works as an ally with U.S., using it’s navy to keep other nations from entering LA

14 Fall of Nationalism in Latin America Cont’d Challenges of building nations – Not sure of new boundaries, nations go to war – Poor roads, bridges, railroad tracks, made travel difficult – Small amount of families owned most land Caudillos – Strong leaders ruling by military force – Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna and Benito Juarez of Mexico New Imperialism – Spain and Portugal replaced by Britain and U.S.

15 Fall of Nationalism in Latin America Cont’d Political change – U.S. responsible for political leaders changing, countries rebelling Looking out for U.S. interests – Landed elite held more power than lower classes Economy – Middle class began to grow Spread of industry, more jobs – Still a large gap between rich and poor

16 Exit Slip Define imperialism Describe the Sepoy Mutiny


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