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The Muslim Empires Chapter 8, Sections 1-3.

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Presentation on theme: "The Muslim Empires Chapter 8, Sections 1-3."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Muslim Empires Chapter 8, Sections 1-3

2 Outline Rise of Ottoman Turks Rise of Safavid Dynasty
Expansion of empire Ottoman society Problems Rise of Safavid Dynasty Safavid society and political structure Decline of the Safavid Dynasty Rise of the Mogul Dynasty Decline of Moguls British in India Mogul society and culture

3 Rise of the Ottoman Turks
Began on the Anatolia Peninsula Land given to the Osman Turks for helping ruling Turks defend their land against the Mongols As Seljuk empire begins to fall, Osman begin aggressive push for land Through the use of janissaries, or the elite guard, Ottoman empire spreads Reaches the Balkan Peninsula in 14th century Sultans were supreme political and military leaders Resided with his wives at the harem, or sacred palace Also used pashas to collect taxes, maintain laws, and enforce the sultan’s laws

4 Expansion of the Empire
Constantinople (1453) 80,000 troops vs 7,000 defenders Fighting lasted 2 months Ottomans win, Byzantine empire falls Made Constantinople their new capital Western Asia and Africa (Early 1500s) Conquests of Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Arabia Control of the holy cities of Jerusalem, Mecca, and Madinah Europe (Early 1500s) Suleyman I wanted to expand into Europe Made it to Vienna before being turned back in 1529 Maintained land deep in Europe until 1683, when combined European forces drove them out

5 Ottoman Society Known as a gunpowder empire
Outside emperor takes over and unifies territories Also implies use of guns and gunpowder Sultan maintained control through a council headed by the grand vizier Sultan claimed title of caliph, or spiritual leader Gave religious duties to advisors known as ulema People were divided into 4 primary groups Peasants, artisans, merchants, and pastoral peoples

6 Problems in the Ottoman Empire
Stable under Suleyman I, but began to crumble under the control of his sons Sultans increasingly appointed people to do jobs for them Further divided their relationship with the people Corruption rose, wars occurred more often European influence through trade divided western and eastern Ottoman Empire West was more Europeanized

7 Rise of the Safavid Dynasty
Founded by Shah Ismail Had been ruler of Azerbaijan Shah means king In 1501, Ismail began to take territories in the Middle East Creating a new Persian Empire High point came under Shah Abbas ( ) Created a system similar to Ottomans Regained territories from Ottomans

8 Safavid Society Religion Role of the Shah Economy and Trade
Great pressure to conform to traditional beliefs, or orthodoxy Role of the Shah Shah seen as direct descendant of the prophet Muhammad Freely ate and drank with visitors Economy and Trade Fabrics and spices were some of the most valuable commodities Successful shahs kept trade routes free of bandits

9 Decline of the Safavid Dynasty
Early 1800s, capital city of Isfahan taken by Afghan peoples Safavid rulers forced to retreat to Azerbaijan, original ruling territories Period of anarchy, or lawlessness and disorder, follows

10 Rise of the Mogul Dynasty
Founded by Babur Descendant of Timur Lenk and Genghis Khan Inherited land in the river valley of Syr Darya Expanded the empire across North India through use of advanced weaponry Muslims ruling Hindu people Akbar, grandson of Babur, greatest conqueror of Moguls Practiced religious tolerance Incorporated use of zamindars Local landholder that rented land to lower classes

11 Decline of the Moguls Although conquest succeeded, Moguls faced other issues at home Wars increased need for money, meaning increased taxes People aren’t happy When Shah Jahan fell sick, his son Aurangzeb took the throne Imprisoned his father, killed his brother Aurangzeb rejected “social evils” of India Suttee – cremating a widow on her husband’s funeral pyre Also implemented pro-Muslim polices, upsetting Hindu India became divided and subject to attack

12 British in India British entered for one purpose – TRADE
Increased interest from other European nations Entered through the East India Company, a “private” trading company Sir Robert Clive was responsible for protecting the company and defending against any threat British constantly faced turmoil while ruling People didn’t embrace them Consistent fighting with both French and Moguls Still, British became rich through exploitation of India and Moguls

13 Mogul Society and Culture
Some Muslim practices encouraged change in India Allowed to work and earn money Did restrict women, isolating them at times Hindu practices also survived Suttee, child marriage Combined Persian and Indian architectural style Taj Mahal Also saw a blend in the arts

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