5Rise of the Safavid Dynasty 1501 – Ismail seized much of Iran & Iraq.Called himself the shah (king) of a new Persian state.He sent Shiite preachers into Anatolia to convert Turks in the Ottoman Empire.Massacred Sunni Muslims when he conquered Baghdad in 1508.
6Rise of the Safavid Dynasty Ottoman ruler Selim I won a major battle against them near Tabriz.Within a few years, Ismail regained control of Tabriz.Safavids tried to use the Shiite faith as a unifying force.The shah & sultan claimed to be the spiritual leader of Islam.
7Rise of the Safavid Dynasty Ottomans attacked in 1580s conquering Azerbaijan & controlling the Caspian Sea.Abbas, the Safavid shah, signed a peace treaty & lost a lot of territory.The Safavid capital moved east from Tabriz to Isfahan.
8Glory and DeclineSafavids reached their high point under Shah Abbas ( ).Created a system similar to the Ottoman’s & strengthened his army with the latest weapons.
9Glory and DeclineEarly 17th century, with the help of European allies, Abbas moved against the Ottomans to regain territories.Had little success, but in 1612 a peace treaty returned Azerbaijan to their control.The dynasty lost strength after Abba’s death (1629).
10Glory and DeclineThe pressure to conform to traditional religious beliefs, or religious orthodoxy, increased and curbed the empire’s intellectual freedom.Persian women were now forced into seclusion and forced to adapt the veil.
12Glory and DeclineAfghan people seized the capital of Isfahan in the early 18th century.Safavid rulers retreated to their earlier homeland, Azerbaijan.Turks seized territories and Persia sank into a long period of political and social anarchy.
13Political Structures Mixed society of Turks & Persians. Turks were nomadic peoples.Persians were farmers and townspeople.
14Political Structures Pyramid-shaped political system. Shah Bureaucracy Landed classes Common People
15Political Structures Shiism was the state religion. Shahs were surprisingly available to their subjects, even eating meals with them.Most shahs controlled 2 things:Power of the landed aristocracyBringing many lands under their control
16Political StructuresAppointment to the bureaucracy was by merit, not birth.Shahs were active in trade & manufacturing.Large, affluent middle class also participated in trade.Most goods traveled by horse or camel.The Safavid Empire was not as prosperous as the Ottoman or Mogul.
18Safavid CultureKnowledge of science, medicine, and math under the Safavids equaled that of other societies.Arts blossomed under Shah Abbas.Isfahan was a grandiose planned city.Silk & carpet weaving based on new techniques flourished.