Presentation on theme: "Understanding by Design & Assessment"— Presentation transcript:
1 Understanding by Design & Assessment What is the desired result of teaching?ECS 210 class (Carol Fulton & Julie Machnaik)Tuesday, Sept. 25 from :15 am in ED 106 (Ed auditorium).LOT 8 FOR GUEST SPEAKERName: JULIE SMITH (Ministry of Education)Date: Tuesday, Sept. 25/12Time: 9:00 am - 1:00 pm,Class: ECS Dr. Carol FultonFoapal: ECSBackwards design is the popular name for Understanding by Design, a teacher planning conceptual framework first proposed by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, and which has since been widely adopted into educational practice.- begin with the end in mind- goal from this lecture: demystify assessment
2 Desired Result Student achievement of educational outcomes Illustrated by evidence of learning/assessmentEffective assessment is designed with a result in mindThe desired result of teaching is student achievement of educational outcomes. This result is illustrated by evidence of learning, or assessment, and effective assessment is designed with a result – a particular learning goal – in mind. When teachers begin their plans for units and lessons with an end result (evidence of learning/assessment) in mind, they are using backwards design1. While traditional planning begins with topic selection followed by activity planning and assessment, backwards design begins with goals or outcome selection, then assessment design followed by activity planning. When educators have a clear understanding of the desired end result or outcome(s) before they start to plan units of instruction, it is easier to plan effectively.
3 3 Subject curricula can be accessed at edonline.sk.ca/ Goal of Understanding by Design/Backwards Design is to design instruction purposefully.How does a teacher use backwards design? In planning for project-based learning, as in planning for other units of instruction, the teacher must consider Saskatchewan Broad Areas of Learning2, which are the desired overarching outcomes of PreK-12 education. Next, he or she carefully examines Saskatchewan Ministry of Education subject curricula3 and selects outcome(s)4 and indicators5 to be achieved. The teacher must then decide what type of evidence of learning, or assessment, will clearly illustrate student achievement of the selected outcome(s). With a clear result in mind, the teacher determines what instruction, experiences, and activities will help students achieve the outcome(s). Finally, the reflective teacher considers the results: is re-teaching or enrichment required for any students, or will the class proceed to the next unit of instruction?2 Broad Areas of Learning include: (1) sense of self, community, and place; (2) lifelong learners; and, (3) engaged citizens.3 Subject curricula can be accessed at edonline.sk.ca/4 Outcomes define what a student is expected to know and be able to do at the end of the grade or Secondary Level course. All curriculum outcomes are required… [They are a] high priority for attaining deep understanding; represent thinking or behaving like a subject discipline expert within the subject discipline; require creation using different types and levels of knowledge including factual, conceptual, procedural, and metacognitive (i.e., addresses competency and not just content coverage); and, are expansive enough to encourage and require various ways of knowing and worldviews… Saskatchewan outcomes require that students develop a combination of factual, conceptual, procedural, and metacognitive knowledge.” (Renewed Curricula: Understanding Outcomes, 2010, p.12)5 Indicators provided in the curriculum for an outcome: provides the intent (depth and breadth) of the outcome; tells the story, or creates a picture, of the outcome; defines the level and types of knowledge intended by the outcome; and, is not a checklist or prioritized list of instructional activities or prescribed assessment items.”Desired outcome Unplanned outcomes
4 Phases of Planning.1 1. Identify desired results/ outcomes What types of knowledge are required by the outcome?What key facts, concepts, processes, and other knowledge do students need to construct in this area of study?What are the big ideas that students will be exploring?What questions will engage students in exploring the big ideas?What learning context(s) will enable students to attain these outcomes in a meaningful way?1. Identify desired results/ outcomes2. Determine acceptable evidence/ assessment3. Plan learning experiences4. Reflect on resultsIdentify desired results/outcomes.-In Understanding by Design (2006), Wiggins and McTighe recommend that teachers determine what knowledge is worth being familiar with, what is important to know and do, and what constitutes enduring understandings.-Knowledge worth being familiar with includes what students need to know in order to complete the unit of study. They need to use this content but it is not important beyond the unit. The content of the unit is the knowledge that that students need to know and be able to do as a result of the unit. It includes facts, concepts, principles, and skills (processes, strategies, and methods).-Enduring or deep understandings are big ideas, abstract concepts, and essential questions within key curricular areas that students will revisit throughout their school career.-When students understand deeply, they access the upper levels of understanding in Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy. The following cognitive processes, sample verbs, and sample activities can prove helpful in planning assessments and activities that target specific levels of thinking.
5 Cognitive processes: Possible verbs and activities Your professor can provide you with this material if you wish.
6 “Deconstructing” Outcomes What knowledge do students need in order to achieve the outcome?What level of reasoning is required?What skills are required?What abilities are required?How do the nouns in the outcome show what is being learned?How do the verbs in the outcome indicate the performance required?What adjectives and adverbs define the nouns and verbs in the outcome?The task of creating coherent units of instruction is eased by first determining the intent of curriculum outcomes and indicators. Analyzing exactly what knowledge, skills, and abilities students need in order to achieve an outcome is often referred to as “unpacking the outcomes.” Questions that can guide this process include:What knowledge do students need in order to achieve the outcome?What level of reasoning is required?What skills are required?What abilities are required?How do the nouns in the outcome show what is being learned?How do the verbs in the outcome indicate the performance required?What adjectives and adverbs define the nouns and verbs in the outcome?
7 Example(Nouns – bold; Adjectives – italics; Verbs – underlined)Read and demonstrate comprehension and interpretation of grade-appropriate texts including traditional and contemporary prose fiction, poetry, and plays from First Nations, Métis, and other cultures to evaluate the purpose, message, point of view, craft, values, and biases, stereotypes, or prejudices. (from English Language Arts 8, Outcome: CR8.6)
8 Essential Questions (examples) How do individuals develop values and beliefs?How have people been discriminated against because of their colour, gender, sexual orientation, religion, or race?How does literature both reflect and influence society?What injustices would you like addressed in your society? How could changes best be made?How do authors create suspense?What are our responsibilities to others?(adapted from English Language Arts 8, 2008)Use the nouns, adjectives, and verbs in the outcome to create essential questions, which are: broad in scope; not easily answered (maybe controversial or pose a dilemma); require reasoning and justification; inspire further questions; and, recur throughout PreK-12 and beyond. Essential questions are provocative, foster inquiry, develop understanding, and help to transfer learning. They cannot be answered satisfactorily in a sentence.
9 Topical Questions (examples) What is the message of the story?Why did this character do ___?What stereotype does the author disprove in ___?What bias did the immigrant family face in their community?What values did ___ show by behaving the way she did?How might this sentence be written in dialogue?Once the essential questions have been created, the teacher can determine topical questions, which show exactly what students are to know about the topic; can be answered by uncovering the content of the outcome; can be answered by in depth inquiry into the topic; and, may be answered in 1 to 2 sentences.
10 Key Understandings (examples) How to identify prose fiction, poetry, and playsHow to identify and use literary techniques that contribute to prose fiction, poetry, and playsHow to read texts that use both traditional and contemporary languageHow to identify values, bias, stereotypes, and prejudiceHow to determine and author’s purpose, message, and point of viewHow textual features contribute to an author’s messageHow to support a personal interpretation of a text with evidenceHow to explain one's own judgment of an idea in prose fiction, poetry, or playsFinally, the teacher must determine the key understandings in the unit of study, or what students need to know and be able to do as a result of the unit. What knowledge and understandings are necessary in order to answer the essential question (s)?
11 Inquiry Learning Essential Question: How do living creatures adapt to their environments?Topical Question:How have the structures of amphibians show adaptation?Key Understanding:What are the physical characteristics of a lake trout?6 The inquiry learning process focuses on the development of compelling questions to motivate and guide inquiries into topics, problems, and issues related to curriculum content and outcomes. Inquiry is a philosophical approach to teaching and learning in which students: construct deep knowledge and deep understanding rather than passively receiving information; are directly involved and engaged in the discovery of new knowledge; encounter alternative perspectives and differing ideas that transform prior knowledge and experience into deep understandings; transfer new knowledge and skills to new circumstances; and, take ownership and responsibility for their ongoing learning and mastery of curriculum content and skills. Inquiry learning is cyclical: various phases of the process are revisited and rethought as a result of students' discoveries, insights, and co-construction of new knowledge.
12 Elements of Discipline-based Inquiry AuthenticityAcademic RigourAssessmentBeyond the SchoolAppropriate Use of TechnologyActive Exploration
13 Phases of Planning.2 1. Identify desired results/ outcomes Decide on criteria for acceptable evidence.Plan assessment and evaluation (how learners show what they understand, know and do).1. Identify desired results/ outcomes2. Determine acceptable evidence/ assessment3. Plan learning experiences4. Reflect on resultsDetermine acceptable evidence/assessment.The second stage in the design process is to define what forms of assessment will demonstrate that the student has acquired competency and deep understanding in relation to the previously identified outcome(s). Teachers need to be very clear about how the assessment will be scored before the assessment is given because evaluation of student work refers only to how well the student performed one particular task. Strong assessment includes multiple types and instances of evidence of student learning accumulated over time.According to the facets of understanding identified by Wiggins and McTighe (Understanding by Design, 1998), students:can explain: provide thorough, supported, and justifiable accounts of phenomena, facts, and datacan interpret: tell meaningful stories; offer translations; provide a revealing historical or personal dimension to ideas and events; make knowledge personal or accessible through images, anecdotes, analogies, or modelscan apply: effectively use and adapt what they know in diverse contextshave perspective: see and hear points of view through critical eyes and ears; see the big picturecan empathize: find value in what others might find odd, alien, or implausible; perceive sensitively on the basis of prior experiencehave self-knowledge: perceive the personal style, prejudices, projections, and habits of mind that both shape and impede their understanding; they are aware of what they do not understand and why understanding is so hard
14 Assessment Phases & Understanding Multiple facets of understanding may be apparent in each phase of assessment.- purpose of classroom assessment - helping students achieve prescribed standards, fair, unbiased, differentiated-Ongoing formative assessment improves student performance. Ongoing assessment can help teachers address misconceptions and misunderstandings before summative assessment at the end of the unit. Good formative assessment, or feedback, is quick and detailed. It includes: checking for understanding; posing key questions; asking students to explain concepts, definitions, or attributes in their own words; encouraging students to generate their own examples; and, encouraging active participation. Teachers can use the results of criteria-referenced and traditional assessments formatively to target and address students’ individual needs. However, consideration should be given to the weighting of assessments that do not illustrate students’ final achievement.Summative assessments should be designed so that the content of the assessment matches the content of the instruction. In inquiry learning6, students are evaluated on the basis of their culminating projects7, in which they frequently:explore real-world problems/challengesdevelop cross-curricular skillswork in small collaborative groupssharpen organizational and research skillsimprove communication with peers and adultsperform real work/actions in the communityuse technologyAuthentic assessment includes performance and product requirements that echo real-world demands, opportunities, and constraints. Students are tested on their ability to "do" the subject in context, or to transfer their learning effectively. Culminating performances/ projects are generally considered authentic assessment.
15 Evidence of Learning Sufficient evidence? Inquiry-based? Technological literacy?Develop literacy?Anchor unit?PBL?Problem solving?Presentation modalities?Who understands?Student choice?Cross-curricular competencies?Value to students?While no single assessment can take into account every consideration, educators may find the following questions about evidence of learning helpful in planning assessment activities.What would be sufficient and revealing evidence of understanding?What performance tasks must anchor the unit and focus the instructional work?How will I be able to distinguish between those who really understand and those who don’t (though they may seem to)?Against what criteria will I distinguish work?What misunderstandings are likely? How will I check for those?Is the assessment inquiry based? Does it involve project-based learning?Does it allow for student choice of topics?Do students need technological literacy to find their solutions?Does it involve independent problem solving?Does it incorporate the cross-curricular competencies (developing thinking; developing identity and interdependence; developing literacies; developing social responsibility)?Do the students need to communicate their knowledge through writing (developing literacy)?Does the final draft or project require other modalities in its presentation (e.g., visual, oral, data)?Can the students see the value in the assessment?
16 Activities for Assessment: Performance/ Criteria-referenced/Unprompted Performance TasksCriteria-referencedUnprompted and selfWiggins and McTighe distinguish between performance, criteria-referenced, and unprompted assessment.Performance tasks are meant to be real-world challenges that require thoughtful and effective use of knowledge and skill – authentic tests of understanding in context that illustrate students’ transfer of knowledge. Authentic assessment and evaluation involves:designing performance tasks that align with curricular outcomesinvolving students in determining how their learning will be demonstratedplanning for various phases of assessment and evaluationExamples of authentic assessment include projects like the following:Students might build a backyard shed based on the needs of the owner. They must locate the shed appropriately, select appropriate construction materials and tools, budget and manage cost, and build according to a plan they develop.Students might present well-researched recommendations to a local community concerning the possible contamination of a local aquifer. They must collect water samples and test their purity, document local land and water use, and research potential conservation methods.Students might fundraise for a local charity. They must plan and run fundraising events, budget, collect money, and maintain clear records.
17 Planning for Performance Assessment GRAPEGoalRole and situationAudienceProduct and PresentationEvidence of LearningGRASPSGoalRoleAudienceSituationProduct Standards for SuccessCriteria-referenced assessments provide instructors and students with feedback on how well the facts and concepts have been understood. These traditional forms of assessment are useful in assessing knowledge and skills necessary for achievement of the selected outcome(s).7 Culminating performances/projects are summative assessments that cover all of the outcomes and indicators previously selected for each unit of instruction. Numerous related tasks build toward one final creation that provides evidence of students’ transfer of understanding.
18 Unprompted assessments listen to kidsread kids’ workconfer with kids (dialogues)listen in on conversationsobserve behavior and expressionschart responseskeep anecdotal records of conferences and conversationsscript what kids say, recording their comments and questionsUnprompted assessments and self-assessments include methods such as the following, suggested by Harvey & Goodvis (2007, p.40), as ways that that teachers can check for understanding during lessons:listen to kidsread kids’ workconfer with kids (dialogues)listen in on conversationsobserve behavior and expressionschart responseskeep anecdotal records of conferences and conversationsscript what kids say, recording their comments and questionsSelf- and Peer-evaluation can scaffold students’ internalization of assessment criteria and encourage metacognition.
19 Criteria-referenced assessments Open-ended questionsWritten compositionsOral presentationsProjectsExperimentsPortfoliosEssaysInterviewsSelected responseCloze activitiesPerformance tasksExhibitions and demonstrationsJournalsTeacher-created testsRubricsShort or constructed responseInformal observationsPersonal communications
20 Rigour: ContinuumVarious forms of assessment involve different levels of rigour, which should be reflected in the calculation of a formal reported grade.
21 Formative classroom assessment Student InvolvementFormative classroom assessmentFeedbackMotivationSummative evaluationWhen students become involved in their own assessment, it becomes increasingly relevant to them. Teachers may choose to involve students in planning assessment criteria. Davies (2007) identifies four ways in which student involvement in classroom assessment engages and motivates students to learn more.Formative classroom assessmentStudents can take part in constructing the criteria by which they are assessed; self-assess in relation to the criteria; give themselves information to guide their learning; collect and present evidence of their learning; and, reflect on their strengths and needs.FeedbackStudents learn more from descriptive feedback then from evaluative feedback. Descriptive feedback is valuable both during and after learning. It compares student work to criteria, rubrics, models, exemplars, samples, or descriptions of excellence. Evaluative feedback, occurring after learning, relates student performance to others (norm-referenced) or to learning outcomes (criterion-referenced) using letters, numbers, checks, or other symbols.MotivationClearly defining goals, including steps, and involving students as partners in co-constructing criteria encourages them to take ownership of their learning. An emphasis on learning and performance, rather than on competition and grades, encourages students to be more engaged in learning; take more risks that challenge and expand their learning; and, experience fewer discipline problems.Summative evaluationEffective summative evaluation requires consistent criteria, triangulation (collected from multiple sources and in multiple forms, both qualitative and quantitative), and is best collected over time.Educators can involve students in the assessment process by:-showing students how to compare their own work to sample work-modelling how to talk about and reflect on their own work using the language of the criteria-multiplying the amount of feedback students receive (with peer assessment)-co-constructing criteria by brainstorming, sorting, categorizing, portraying in a chart-engaging students in collecting, selecting, reflecting on, and presenting evidence of their learning-Students who take an active role in developing scoring criteria, self-evaluation, and goal setting more readily accept that the assessment is adequately measuring their learning.
22 Will this help the student to improve? Not necessarily for a grade Quality FeedbackGoal-referencedTIMELYWhat do Ido next?Where am I?Will this help the student to improve?Can I assess myself?-timely and consistent-appeals to mind (cognition) and the heart (motivation) –user-friendly-helps students understand where they are in their learning and what to do next –actionable –concrete, specific, useful-tied to a specific learning goal-not necessarily tied to a grade-helps students assess themselves-ask yourself: will this help the student to improve?-consistentNot necessarily for a grade
23 Phases of Planning.3 1. Identify desired results/ outcomes Plan instruction and activities based on indicators. Formative assessment is key at this stage.1. Identify desired results/ outcomes2. Determine acceptable evidence/ assessment3. Plan learning experiences4. Reflect on resultsBoth knowledge of how learning is acquired, as well as knowledge of the needs of particular students, are fundamental considerations in planning learning experiences. Engaging learning activities stimulate students to actively participate and effective sequencing of learning anticipates misunderstandings and addresses them at the design stage. Scaffolding activities can assist students in overcoming misunderstandings about abstract ideas that require prior knowledge or are counterintuitive.Units of instruction using the Understanding by Design model include three general types of learning: acquisition, meaning-making, and transfer (as discussed by Herold, ASCD Summer Conference 2011).
24 Types of Learning: UbDUnits of instruction using the Understanding by Design model include three general types of learning: acquisition, meaning-making, and transfer (as discussed by Herold, ASCD Summer Conference 2011).Acquisition alone is not enough to achieve understanding, but understanding cannot be achieved without acquiring knowledge and skill. Acquisition of knowledge and skills is how students will be able to illustrate understanding (meaning making) and transfer. Teachers might use instructional techniques such as: explicit instruction in targeted knowledge and skills; lecture, graphic organizers; demonstration or modeling; process guides; guided practice; feedback; and, corrections.During meaning-making, students discover what facts imply, what facts mean, why facts are important, and when they would or would not use a skill. Teachers might use instructional techniques such as: facilitative teaching; guided inquiry into problems, texts, or simulations; graphic organizers; concept attainment; problem based learning; formative assessments; rethinking and reflection prompts; and using analogies.During transfer, learn how they may effectively apply facts, skills, and ideas effectively in a new situation. The goal is independent transfer. Teachers might use instructional techniques such as: coaching; ongoing assessment, providing specific feedback in the context of authentic application; conferencing; and just-in-time teaching (individual, small group, and whole class).Instructional methods are selected based on the specific types of learning needed to achieve the desired results. Three general categories of instruction are: (1) transmission (one-way communication such as lecture or demonstration); (2) transaction (two-way communication such as questioning or discussion); and, (3) transformation (learning by doing such as performance, work-experience, practicum, simulation, or role-playing).
25 Choosing Activities Student interest Sequence Resources/materials LocationGradingOnce teachers know the specific learning needs of their students, they can sequence lessons and gather resources that help students to demonstrate the desired understanding (Wiggins & McTighe, nd). Questions that can assist teachers in planning class activities include:What kinds of activities about this topic would be interesting and engaging for students?What sequence of activities would facilitate learning?What materials and resources (people, things) are available for this topic?What will students do in class? Out of class?How will I give students a grade that I can justify?The sequence of instruction is planned backward from specific tasks and expectations, so knowledge and performance skills can be built. The desired performance may have to be simplified, scaffolded, or enriched. Skills are built sequentially and fundamentals are revisited as necessary. The learning/teaching process is not linear: it is iterative, cycling and recycling through increasingly higher levels.
26 Effective Techniques same & different recognition for effort homework summary & notessame & differentcooperative learninghomework& practicenonlinguistic representationCues, questions, organizersrecognition for efforthypothesis testingIn a presentation about Classroom Instruction that Works, Elizabeth Hubbel identified 9 teaching techniques that have proved to be the most effective according to their 2010 meta-amalysis.9.Identifying similarities and difference8.Summarizing and note-taking7.Reinforcing effort and providing recognition6.Homework and practice5. Cooperative learning4. Nonlinguistic representation3.Generating and testing hypotheses2.cues, question, and advance organizers1.Setting objectives and providing feedback[setting objectives & providing feedback
27 Questions Encourage Thinking What makes you think that?How should X be made or done?Can you elaborate on that?What is the essential function of X?How is X made or done?What does X mean?What are the component parts of X?How can X be described?What are the types of X?What are the causes of X?What is the value of X?What is my personal response to X?How did X happen?How does X compare to Y?What are the consequences of X?How can X be summarized?Questions play a key role in promoting deeper thinking. Open-ended questions encourage divergent thinking rather than one right answer. The following sample questions have been compiled from Harvey & Goodvis (2007) and Wiggins & McTighe (1999).What makes you think that?Why did you say that?Can you elaborate on that?Can you tell me more about your thinking?How did you come up with that?What does X mean?How can X be described?What is my personal response to X?What is my memory of X?What is the value of X?How can X be summarized?What case can be made for or against X?What are the component parts of X?How is X made or done?How should X be made or done?What is the essential function of X?What are the causes of X?What are the consequences of X?What are the types of X?How does X compare to Y?What is the present status of X?How can X be interpreted?What are the facts about X?How did X happen?What kind of person is X?Authentic questions are starting points for research (whether asked by students or teachers), prompt thinking, don't always have one right answer, may have many answers, cause us to ponder and wonder, dispel or clarify confusion, challenge us to rethink our opinions, lead us to seek out further information, are subject to discussion, debate, and conversation, and may require further research.
28 Designing Units overall expectations specific expectations assessment strategies (on going and culminating)resourcestimeline/sequencingreference to particular learning/teaching strategiesWhile numerous models exist for designing units, most include the following:overall expectationsspecific expectationsassessment strategies (on going and culminating)resourcestimeline/sequencingreference to particular learning/teaching strategies
29 Models for Designing Units: WHERE W – where, why, what, where, what H – hook E – exploring, experiencing, equipped R – rehearse, revise, refine E – evaluationThe WHERE model, one of many possible approaches, originated with Wiggins & McTighe (1999).W stands for students knowing Where they are heading, Why they are heading there, What they know, Where they might go wrong in the process, and What is required of them.H stands for Hooking the students on the topic of study.E stands for students Exploring and Experiencing ideas and being Equipped with the necessary understanding to master the standard being taught.R stands for providing opportunities for students to Rehearse, Revise, and Refine their work.E stands for student Evaluation.
30 Models for Designing Units: ICE IDEASbasic factsvocabularydetailsconcepts"foundational" ideasCONNECTIONSDemonstrate connection among basic conceptsDemonstrate connection between what was learned and what they already knowEXTENSIONSStudents use their learning in new waysStudents are able to answer the questions: What does this mean? How does this shape my view of the world?Another model is Ideas, Connections, and Extensions (ICE), created by Young & Wilson (2000). It provides a framework for differentiating instruction and assessment. ICE, a simplified version of Bloom’s Taxonomy, includes three levels of learning; ideas, connections and extensions. The underlying principle is that, if shown the way, all students can demonstrate connections between concepts and use them in new ways. The framework provided by ICE helps to clarify the characteristics and markers that indicate where learners are along the learning continuum, which enables teachers to make instructional decisions that maximize learning. The ICE model can be used across subject areas and grade levels.According to the ICE, the three phases of learning are ideas, connections, and extensions.
31 Planning with UbD: a Checklist The design focuses on the big ideas of the targeted content.Assessments provide fair, valid, reliable, and sufficient measures of the desired results/outcomes.The learning plan is effective and engaging.The plan shows clear alignment of the previous three parts.This checklist may serve as a reference during design, be used for self and peer reviews of draft designs, or assist in quality control of completed designs.___ 1. The design focuses on the big ideas of the targeted content.The targeted understandings are enduring and are based on transferable, big ideas at the heart of the discipline.The targeted understandings are framed by questions that spark meaningful connections, provoke genuine inquiry and deep thought, and encourage transfer.The essential questions are provocative, arguable, and likely to generate inquiry (rather than a “pat” answer) around the central ideas.Appropriate goals are identified?Valid and unit-relevant knowledge and skills are identified.___ 2. Assessments provide fair, valid, reliable, and sufficient measures of the desired results/outcomes.Students exhibit their understanding through authentic performance tasks.Appropriate criterion-based scoring tools are used to evaluate student products and performances.Various appropriate assessment formats are used to provide additional evidence of learning.Assessments are used as feedback for students and teachers, as well as for evaluation.Students are encouraged to self-assess.___ 3. The learning plan is effective and engaging.Students will know where they're going (the learning goals), why the material is important (reason for learning the content), and what is required of them (unit goal, performance requirements, and evaluative criteria).Students will be hooked—engaged in digging into the big ideas (e.g., through inquiry, research, problem solving, and experimentation).Students will have adequate opportunities to explore and experience big ideas and receive instruction to equip them for the required performancesStudents will have sufficient opportunities to rethink, rehearse, revise, and refine their work based upon timely feedback.Students will have an opportunity to evaluate their work, reflect on their learning, and set goals.All students’ needs, learning styles, and interests are accommodated within a flexible plan.Learning experiences are organized and sequenced to maximize engagement and effectiveness.___ 4. The plan shows clear alignment of the previous three parts.
32 Phases of Planning.4Reflect on results (re-teaching, enrichment, proceed to next unit).1. Identify desired results/ outcomes2. Determine acceptable evidence/ assessment3. Plan learning experiences4. Reflect on results