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Let Your Motto Be Resistance ( )- Part 1

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1 Let Your Motto Be Resistance (1833-1850)- Part 1
The Rising Tide of Racism & Violence Antislavery Movement Responds Moral Suasion

2 A Rising Tide of Racism & Violence
From the 1830’s up to the Civil War, America had become more violent and racist. This was evident in the ideals of Manifest Destiny which legitimized war and expansion in the U.S. American ethnologist also rejected the ideals of tabula rasa, and turned towards a racist ideal that whites were superior, while other races were intrinsically inferior. Nativism was also a new belief that came out of this era, and was initiated by native born protestants whose prejudice against immigrant Roman Catholics had come to a head. Federal and State governments led the racially motivated violence with several actions such as the systematic removal of Native Americans . Also, antiblack riots erupted in urban areas and white mobs attacked abolitionist newspaper presses and African American neighborhoods.

3 Antiblack & Antiabolitionist Riots
As abolitionism gained strength in the 1820’s and 30’s, riots combating both blacks and abolition groups became more and more prevalent. Some examples of these riots: - Cincinnati (1829) a 3 day riot started by local politicians leads to blacks fleeing to Canada. - Providence, white sailors lead a riot that would destroy a black neighborhood. - Philadelphia more riots then any other state (1820, 1829, 1834, 1835, 1838, 1842 and 1849)

4 Texas & The War with Mexico
Manifest Destiny became most evident in Pres. Polk’s foreign policy and expansionism seen with Mexico in the 1840’s. Polk called for the annexation of Texas and Oregon during his presidency and also pushed the U.S. into a two year war with Mexico. The war was essentially in response to Mexico’s independence and abolishment of slavery, particularly in Texas where southern slaveholders had settled. The expansion of the American territory into the Southwest spread fear in the north of southern dominance in Congress, and led to the controversial Compromise of 1850.

5 The American Anti-Slavery Society
The American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS) was changed in 1831 when William Lloyd Garrison decided to call for the immediate, uncompensated emancipation as well as equal rights for blacks. Garrison worked very closely with blacks to bridge the racial gap. He spoke to black groups and even stayed with blacks when he traveled. African Americans, in turn, supported his paper financially and worked for Garrison as promoters and body guards. Although the AASS allowed for blacks to participate in the meetings and help the society, it still did not allow for them to take a leading role. This pattern continued. Women, both black and white, were only allowed to observe at these meetings until 1840.

6 Black & Women’s Antislavery Societies
Due to the struggle over “the women question,” in the AASS, women and some black men formed auxiliary groups to the AASS. The desire for racial solidarity and discord in white dominated groups also led to blacks forming their own groups. Although the main task of the female groups was fundraising, they also challenged the traditional role assigned to women along with giving rise to feminism.

7 The Black Convention Movement
Stemming from the reform movements of the antebellum period. 1st meeting established by Hezekiah Grice and Richard Allen in PA. Meetings were small, informal, and did not have a method for choosing delegates. Meetings discussed abolition, improvement for African Americans, integrated education, and self-help. Unfortunately this program faltered since many black abolitionist turned to the AASS in the 1830’s.

8 Black Churches in the Antislavery Cause
The leading black abolitionists were ministers. They attacked slavery, racial discrimination, the ACS, and proslavery white churches. They also allowed speakers like Douglass and Garrison to use the church as well as white antislavery groups.

9 Black Newspapers Although many abolitionist papers failed due to financial issues, they were influential. Samuel Cornish and John Russworm published the first paper, The Freedom’s Journal in 1827. The North Star and Frederick Douglass’ Paper were the most influential.

10 Moral Suasion Moral Suasion- persuasion of one’s morals, particularly through the use of Christianity. Abolitionist argued that slavery was a crime and sin, as well as inefficient since it only enriched a small percentage of the population. They also targeted the north’s role in slavery, as well as the federal governments. Textiles, interstate slave trade, and fugitive slave act. By attacking slavery through new methods (i.e. postal messages and speeches) the AASS was reacted to with violence from southern whites. Congress also reacted with passing the Gag Rule in 1836. Some abolitionist leaders lives were also threatened.

11 The American & Foreign Antislavery Society and the Liberty Party
When the AASS broke up in 1840, many who left established the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society and the Liberty Party. The AASS broke up due to “the women question,” Garrison’s radicalism, and the failure of moral suasion. The AFASS was led by Lewis Tappan and the Liberty Party was led by James G. Birney who ran for president in 1840. The NY wing of the Liberty Party was the most directly involved in helping slaves escape under the leadership of Gerrit Smith.

12 Conclusions The radicalism of the abolition was directly correlated with the rising tide of violence and racism of the 1830’s. Both blacks and whites worked towards abolition, yet many attempts were short lived or failed. HW: Finish Ch. 9 active notes (pp )

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