Presentation on theme: "UNIT V-----PERSONALITY"— Presentation transcript:
1UNIT V-----PERSONALITY Personality refers to your characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.Motive---stimulus that moves a person to behave in waysdesigned to accomplish a specific goal. ---WHYS of behavior
2Objectives and agenda 12/9 Review the Stages of developmentBuild an understanding of how needs and drive develop the idea of motivationList the different theories of motivationAgendaWork on vocabulary for chapters 11,12—adolescence and adulthoodNeeds and driveVideo—127 Hours—list his psychological needs and biological needsTheories of motivation notes.What is a hero? Group work—listGroup—list the major ideas of childhood (10), adolescence (11), and adulthood (12)HW—Review questions for chapter Test on Development will be on Friday
4The Psychology of Motivation NeedsNeed—condition in which we require something we lack.Biological and psychologicalAchievement, self-esteem a sense of belonging and social approval---psychologicalNeed for sleep, food, etc---biological---BASED UPON DEPRIVATIONPsychological needs are not necessarily based on deprivation.Psychological needs may be learnedDrivesNeeds give rise to drivesDrives—the forces that motivate an organism to take actionHunger, thirst both drives---the experience of the is psychological
6major theories of MOTIVATION Instinct / Evolutionary PerspectiveDrive ReductionIncentiveArousal TheoryMaslow’s hierarchy of needs
7Objectives and agenda Objectives Agenda Review and be able to work with the theories of motivationPractice the “hunger” biological driveReview the different types of Achievement motivationAgendaWork on worksheet as a warm-upNotes (quiz) on theories of motivationSkit on hunger driveAchievement motivation notesWork on Study guide.----Review WIKI
8Instinct (Motivational Theory # 1) Refers to inherited patterns of behavior that are unlearned (genetically transmitted)Ex: Imprinting
9Instinct (Motivational Theory #1) + Provides survival value – Doesn’t meet the complexity of most human behavior Hero instinctInstinct to Survive
10Drive Reduction Theory (Motivational Theory # 2) Drive Reduction Theory: idea that physiological (biological) needs create drives which motivates an organism to satisfy the need.Ex: Thirstiness (physiological need) creates tension state (drive) which motivates you to get water.After you drink, the drive is reduced and you are closer to homeostasis.
13Incentive Theory (Motivational Theory #3) Incentives Theory: a positive or negative ENVIRONMENTAL (has to be external) stimulus motivates behavior.Incentives are not “needs”.Ex: money, etc.
14Contrasting approaches Drive reduction theory5 hours since last mealHungerinternalIncentive theoryIce cream truckPalatability (good tasting)external
15Arousal Theory (Motivational Theory #4) Based on 2 basic ideas:Individuals perform tasks at different levels of arousal (wakefulness/stress).Each individual seeks to find its optimal level of arousal to perform tasks and to avoid boredom.People with high levels of optimal arousal may be more susceptible to thrill seeking activities while those with low levels may seek out more relaxing quiet activities.We are motivated to do some things to maintain our arousal.Babies Explore their surroundings out of curiosity.
18Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (Motivation Theory 5) Physical Needs at bottom must be met first.Psychological goals come after…ultimate goal is self actualization.
19Quick Review: Why Do We Eat? Incentive Theory would argue:Drive Reduction Theory would argue:Optimal Arousal Theory would argue:
20The Hypothalamus--Left side—“start eating” center. (LH) Activity--Biological Needs: focus on Hunger The Hunger Drive—regulated by both biological and psychological factors.The role of the mouthThe role of the stomachThe Hypothalamus--Left side—“start eating” center. (LH)Underside—(VHM)-“stop eating” centerPsychological influences
21Culture’s Influence on Eating (disorders) Many argue the impossible standards of beauty put out by popular culture has lead to an increase in eating disorders:Anorexia Nervosa: eating disorder in which a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet still feels fat and starves themselves.Bulimia Nervosa: an eating disorder usually characterized by excessive eating followed by vomiting.
22Changing Beauty Standards Correlate with Eating Disorders KATE MOSSIDEAL UNTIL 1900’SMARILYN MONROE
24Achievement Motivation Achievement Motivation: desire to accomplish things and attaining a high standard.2 Types of Achievement Motivation:Intrinsic Motivation: performing task for its own sake.Extrinsic Motivation: performing task because of you will receive rewards or punishments.
25Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Mom: “I’ll give you $5 for every A.’’Controlling rewardChild: “As long as she pays,I’ll study.’’Extrinsic motivationMom: “Your grades were great!Let’s celebrate by going outfor dinner.’’Informative rewardChild: “I love doing well.’’Intrinsic motivation
26Look these three theories up in Chapter 13 and define. Cognitive ConsistencyBalance TheoryCognitive-Dissonance theory
29Trait-an aspect of personality that is considered to be reasonably stable. Can be assumed by how one behavesAnxious and avoiding social settings-shyMaking jokes with friends-outgoing and humorous
30Hippocrates Fluids called humors Yellow bile--quick-tempered, Choleric Blood--warm and cheerfulPhlegm--sluggish and coolBlack bile--thoughtful temperamentMelancholicFour Humors needed to be balance to have good health.
31Gordon Allport—18,000 traits Traits categorizedPhysical TraitsBehavioral TraitsAssumed traits were inherited and were the building blocks of personality
32Hans EysenckIntroverts-tend to be imaginative and look inward rather than to others for their ideas and energyExtroverts-tend to be active and self-expressive and gain energy from interaction with other peopleStable—reliable and composed and rationalUnstable –agitated and unpredictable
34The Five Factor ModelPersonalities tend to mature rather than be shaped by environmental conditionsAre effected by society and cultureBig five are important in defining a person’s psychological makeup.1. Extroversion2. emotional stability3. Conscientiousness4. Agreeableness5. openness to experience.
36Objectives and agenda Objectives Agenda Describe the psychoanalytic theory and Freud’s roleCompare other psychologists to Freud’s modelAgendaWarm-up—list the traits of the most interesting man or woman in the worldNotes on FreudDefense mechanism worksheetGroup—chart on other psychologistsHomework—outline the last three approaches
37The Most Interesting Man in the World If you were to describe your own idea of the most interesting man/woman in the world, what personality traits would you give him?
38The Psychoanalytic Perspective Mostly based on the ideas of Sigmund Freud.Freud argued that personality was mostly influenced by unconscious conflicts/motivations and early childhood sexuality/experiences.From his viewpoint, only through understanding your unconscious conflicts can you overcome psychological problems like depression, anxiety, etc.
39Structure of Our Personality According to Freud IdSuperegoEgoConscious mindUnconsciousmindTo Freud, personality is like an iceberg.We can only see a very small part of it (conscious) while most of it is unseen (unconscious)
40Parts of Personality According to Freud Id: largest part of your personality that is unconscious, and operates to satisfy biological, sexual and aggressive drives.Seeks immediate gratification and operates according to the pleasure principle.
41Parts of Personality According to Freud Ego: the largely conscious part of your personality that mediates conflict between your id and superego.Operates according to the reality principle satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.
43Your Personality Arises From Conflict Between Pleasure Seeking Impulses (Id) and Social Restraints (Superego) Against Them
44Personality Development According to Freud, personality developed during the life’s first few years.adult’s conflicts are rooted in unresolved conflicts from early childhoodPsychosexual Stages: childhood stages of development during which according to Freud, the id’s pleasure seeking energies are focused on distinct erogenous zones.
45Stages of Development—personality goes through 5 stages—birth through adolescence The oral StageFirst year of life—explore—needs not met, stuck in oral stage—smoking, overeating, talking, nail-biting (may be clinging, dependent on relationshipsThe Anal StageOne and a half and twoCan control their own bodily functions—self control becomes a vital issueAnal-retentive—perfectionism and excessive needs for order and cleanlinessThe Phallic StageDiscover physical differences between sexes—strong attachments to parent of opposite sexComplex emotions—can lead to depression, guilt and anxiety laterThe Latency StageFive or sixRetreat from conflict with parents and repress aggressive urges. “hidden”—hide emotionsThe Genital StagePubertyNo new psychological conflictsMore aware of gender identify
46Defense Mechanisms--defense mechanisms Repression—pushes anxiety into the unconscious—tea kettleRationalization—self use of deceptions to justify unacceptable behaviors or ideasDisplacement-transfer of an idea or impulse from threatening to less threatening. Father hit son, son hits friendRegression—stress—return to earlier behaviorProjection—project impulses outward onto other people—see their own faults in other peopleReaction Formation—act contrary to their genuine feelingsDenial—refuses to accept the reality of anything that is badSublimation—channel basic impulses into socially acceptable behavior
47OthersCarl JungAnalytic psychology—out of favor with Freud—greater emphasis on influences of mysticism and religion on behaviorArchetypes—ideas and images of accumulated experience of all human beingsAlfred AdlerInferiority complex—everyone has a basic need to overcome feelings of inferiorityKaren HorneyAgreed with Freud—childhood experience plays a major roleErik EriksonDevelopmental theory of personalityExpanded on five stages—eight stages.Social relationships are most important factors in personality development
48The Learning Approach Behaviorism John Watson—external forces, not internal influences such as traits shape a person’s behavior.Socialization—process by which people learn the socially desirable behaviors of their particular culture and adopt them as part of their personalities.Social-Learning TheoryBelieve that people can act intentionally to influence the environment (behaviorist—environment shapes us.) i.e. Skills—Values—Goals—Expectations—Self-efficacy expectation—
49The Humanistic Approach-self awareness is the core of humanity Abraham Maslowdesire to achieve self-actualization—full potentialPeople are unique—follow own paths--Take risksCarl Rogers—conscious architects of their own personalities.self-concept—view of oneself as an individual.Congruence—consistency between one’s self-concept and one’s experience.self esteem--Path to self-actualization requires getting in touch with our genuine feelings and acting on them.