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Presentation on theme: "UNIT V-----PERSONALITY"— Presentation transcript:

Personality refers to your characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. Motive---stimulus that moves a person to behave in ways designed to accomplish a specific goal. --- WHYS of behavior

2 Objectives and agenda 12/9
Review the Stages of development Build an understanding of how needs and drive develop the idea of motivation List the different theories of motivation Agenda Work on vocabulary for chapters 11,12—adolescence and adulthood Needs and drive Video—127 Hours—list his psychological needs and biological needs Theories of motivation notes. What is a hero? Group work—list Group—list the major ideas of childhood (10), adolescence (11), and adulthood (12) HW—Review questions for chapter Test on Development will be on Friday

3 Personality

4 The Psychology of Motivation
Needs Need—condition in which we require something we lack. Biological and psychological Achievement, self-esteem a sense of belonging and social approval---psychological Need for sleep, food, etc---biological---BASED UPON DEPRIVATION Psychological needs are not necessarily based on deprivation. Psychological needs may be learned Drives Needs give rise to drives Drives—the forces that motivate an organism to take action Hunger, thirst both drives---the experience of the is psychological

5 127 Hours

6 major theories of MOTIVATION
Instinct / Evolutionary Perspective Drive Reduction Incentive Arousal Theory Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

7 Objectives and agenda Objectives Agenda
Review and be able to work with the theories of motivation Practice the “hunger” biological drive Review the different types of Achievement motivation Agenda Work on worksheet as a warm-up Notes (quiz) on theories of motivation Skit on hunger drive Achievement motivation notes Work on Study guide.----Review WIKI

8 Instinct (Motivational Theory # 1)
Refers to inherited patterns of behavior that are unlearned (genetically transmitted) Ex: Imprinting

9 Instinct (Motivational Theory #1)
+ Provides survival value – Doesn’t meet the complexity of most human behavior Hero instinct Instinct to Survive

10 Drive Reduction Theory (Motivational Theory # 2)
Drive Reduction Theory: idea that physiological (biological) needs create drives which motivates an organism to satisfy the need. Ex: Thirstiness (physiological need) creates tension state (drive) which motivates you to get water. After you drink, the drive is reduced and you are closer to homeostasis.



13 Incentive Theory (Motivational Theory #3)
Incentives Theory: a positive or negative ENVIRONMENTAL (has to be external) stimulus motivates behavior. Incentives are not “needs”. Ex: money, etc.

14 Contrasting approaches
Drive reduction theory 5 hours since last meal Hunger internal Incentive theory Ice cream truck Palatability (good tasting) external

15 Arousal Theory (Motivational Theory #4)
Based on 2 basic ideas: Individuals perform tasks at different levels of arousal (wakefulness/stress). Each individual seeks to find its optimal level of arousal to perform tasks and to avoid boredom. People with high levels of optimal arousal may be more susceptible to thrill seeking activities while those with low levels may seek out more relaxing quiet activities. We are motivated to do some things to maintain our arousal. Babies Explore their surroundings out of curiosity.

16 Arousal Theory (Motivational Theory #4)

17 Babies Illustrating Optimal Arousal

18 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (Motivation Theory 5)
Physical Needs at bottom must be met first. Psychological goals come after…ultimate goal is self actualization.

19 Quick Review: Why Do We Eat?
Incentive Theory would argue: Drive Reduction Theory would argue: Optimal Arousal Theory would argue:

20 The Hypothalamus--Left side—“start eating” center. (LH)
Activity--Biological Needs: focus on Hunger The Hunger Drive—regulated by both biological and psychological factors. The role of the mouth The role of the stomach The Hypothalamus--Left side—“start eating” center. (LH) Underside—(VHM)-“stop eating” center Psychological influences

21 Culture’s Influence on Eating (disorders)
Many argue the impossible standards of beauty put out by popular culture has lead to an increase in eating disorders: Anorexia Nervosa: eating disorder in which a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet still feels fat and starves themselves. Bulimia Nervosa: an eating disorder usually characterized by excessive eating followed by vomiting.

22 Changing Beauty Standards Correlate with Eating Disorders

23 Anorexia Often Ends In Death

24 Achievement Motivation
Achievement Motivation: desire to accomplish things and attaining a high standard. 2 Types of Achievement Motivation: Intrinsic Motivation: performing task for its own sake. Extrinsic Motivation: performing task because of you will receive rewards or punishments.

25 Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic
Mom: “I’ll give you $5 for every A.’’ Controlling reward Child: “As long as she pays, I’ll study.’’ Extrinsic motivation Mom: “Your grades were great! Let’s celebrate by going out for dinner.’’ Informative reward Child: “I love doing well.’’ Intrinsic motivation

26 Look these three theories up in Chapter 13 and define.
Cognitive Consistency Balance Theory Cognitive-Dissonance theory


28 Trait Theory

29 Trait-an aspect of personality that is considered to be reasonably stable.
Can be assumed by how one behaves Anxious and avoiding social settings-shy Making jokes with friends-outgoing and humorous

30 Hippocrates Fluids called humors Yellow bile--quick-tempered, Choleric
Blood--warm and cheerful Phlegm--sluggish and cool Black bile--thoughtful temperament Melancholic Four Humors needed to be balance to have good health.

31 Gordon Allport—18,000 traits
Traits categorized Physical Traits Behavioral Traits Assumed traits were inherited and were the building blocks of personality

32 Hans Eysenck Introverts-tend to be imaginative and look inward rather than to others for their ideas and energy Extroverts-tend to be active and self-expressive and gain energy from interaction with other people Stable—reliable and composed and rational Unstable –agitated and unpredictable


34 The Five Factor Model Personalities tend to mature rather than be shaped by environmental conditions Are effected by society and culture Big five are important in defining a person’s psychological makeup. 1. Extroversion 2. emotional stability 3. Conscientiousness 4. Agreeableness 5. openness to experience.

35 The Five Factor Modal

36 Objectives and agenda Objectives Agenda
Describe the psychoanalytic theory and Freud’s role Compare other psychologists to Freud’s model Agenda Warm-up—list the traits of the most interesting man or woman in the world Notes on Freud Defense mechanism worksheet Group—chart on other psychologists Homework—outline the last three approaches

37 The Most Interesting Man in the World
If you were to describe your own idea of the most interesting man/woman in the world, what personality traits would you give him?

38 The Psychoanalytic Perspective
Mostly based on the ideas of Sigmund Freud. Freud argued that personality was mostly influenced by unconscious conflicts/motivations and early childhood sexuality/experiences. From his viewpoint, only through understanding your unconscious conflicts can you overcome psychological problems like depression, anxiety, etc.

39 Structure of Our Personality According to Freud
Id Superego Ego Conscious mind Unconscious mind To Freud, personality is like an iceberg. We can only see a very small part of it (conscious) while most of it is unseen (unconscious)

40 Parts of Personality According to Freud
Id: largest part of your personality that is unconscious, and operates to satisfy biological, sexual and aggressive drives. Seeks immediate gratification and operates according to the pleasure principle.

41 Parts of Personality According to Freud
Ego: the largely conscious part of your personality that mediates conflict between your id and superego. Operates according to the reality principle satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.


43 Your Personality Arises From Conflict Between Pleasure Seeking Impulses (Id) and Social Restraints (Superego) Against Them

44 Personality Development
According to Freud, personality developed during the life’s first few years. adult’s conflicts are rooted in unresolved conflicts from early childhood Psychosexual Stages: childhood stages of development during which according to Freud, the id’s pleasure seeking energies are focused on distinct erogenous zones.

45 Stages of Development—personality goes through 5 stages—birth through adolescence
The oral Stage First year of life—explore—needs not met, stuck in oral stage—smoking, overeating, talking, nail-biting (may be clinging, dependent on relationships The Anal Stage One and a half and two Can control their own bodily functions—self control becomes a vital issue Anal-retentive—perfectionism and excessive needs for order and cleanliness The Phallic Stage Discover physical differences between sexes—strong attachments to parent of opposite sex Complex emotions—can lead to depression, guilt and anxiety later The Latency Stage Five or six Retreat from conflict with parents and repress aggressive urges. “hidden”—hide emotions The Genital Stage Puberty No new psychological conflicts More aware of gender identify

46 Defense Mechanisms--defense mechanisms
Repression—pushes anxiety into the unconscious—tea kettle Rationalization—self use of deceptions to justify unacceptable behaviors or ideas Displacement-transfer of an idea or impulse from threatening to less threatening. Father hit son, son hits friend Regression—stress—return to earlier behavior Projection—project impulses outward onto other people—see their own faults in other people Reaction Formation—act contrary to their genuine feelings Denial—refuses to accept the reality of anything that is bad Sublimation—channel basic impulses into socially acceptable behavior

47 Others Carl Jung Analytic psychology—out of favor with Freud—greater emphasis on influences of mysticism and religion on behavior Archetypes—ideas and images of accumulated experience of all human beings Alfred Adler Inferiority complex—everyone has a basic need to overcome feelings of inferiority Karen Horney Agreed with Freud—childhood experience plays a major role Erik Erikson Developmental theory of personality Expanded on five stages—eight stages. Social relationships are most important factors in personality development

48 The Learning Approach Behaviorism
John Watson—external forces, not internal influences such as traits shape a person’s behavior. Socialization—process by which people learn the socially desirable behaviors of their particular culture and adopt them as part of their personalities. Social-Learning Theory Believe that people can act intentionally to influence the environment (behaviorist—environment shapes us.) i.e. Skills—Values—Goals—Expectations—Self-efficacy expectation—

49 The Humanistic Approach-self awareness is the core of humanity
Abraham Maslow desire to achieve self-actualization—full potential People are unique—follow own paths--Take risks Carl Rogers—conscious architects of their own personalities. self-concept—view of oneself as an individual. Congruence—consistency between one’s self-concept and one’s experience. self esteem--Path to self-actualization requires getting in touch with our genuine feelings and acting on them.

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