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Ch. 2 Key Issue 3 & 4 NOTES. The global population explosion after World War II reflected the effects of: – the heavy death toll during the war with fewer.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 2 Key Issue 3 & 4 NOTES. The global population explosion after World War II reflected the effects of: – the heavy death toll during the war with fewer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch. 2 Key Issue 3 & 4 NOTES

2 The global population explosion after World War II reflected the effects of: – the heavy death toll during the war with fewer births occurring – massive industrialization attempts in both developing and developed countries – the return of thousands of military men to their families from the war – drastically reduced death rates in developing countries without simultaneous and compensating reductions in births – government policies in Europe attempting to repopulate the war-torn countries

3 Ch. 2 Key Issue #3 – “Does the World Face an Overpopulation Problem?” The Science of Overpopulation

4 Malthusian Theory – Thomas Malthus ( ) English economist World population increase would outrun the development of food supplies – population increases geometrically (exponentially) – food supply increases arithmetically – formed conclusion after England became 1st country to enter Stage 2 of DTM following the Industrial Revolution – predicted the world was heading for a crash – Overpopulation: The Making of a Myth Overpopulation: The Making of a Myth

5 Human Overpopulation PSA The Science of Overpopulation The Population Bomb - BBC

6 Overpopulation is NOT…. – It IS…. Why do people use contraceptives? Northern Europe? How does population grow? How does food supply grow? “Malthus was fairly close to the mark on food production but much too pessimistic on population growth” What is the #1 indicator of DTM Stages Most Stage 5 countries are in______________.

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10 Neo-Malthusians (contemporary) fear population growth since WWII is worse than what Malthus predicted – Malthus failed to anticipate more rapid growth in LDCs from diffusion of medical technology – Economic development in LDCs has happened slower than population growth – Robert Kaplan and Thomas Fraser Homer-Dixon anticipate a world strife with war and violence competing for scarce food, water, and energy – Motivated institution of radical anti-natalist policies 1971 – India’s Emergency Act China’s “One Family, One Child” policy; now aging; “Lost Girls”One Family, One Childnow aging“Lost Girls” Indonesia’s radical Family Planning program Widespread abortion and infanticide

11 Sustainable Development

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13 Malthus’s false assumptions created critics failed to anticipate possibility that technology could increase food supply (Overpopulation: The Making of a Myth)Overpopulation: The Making of a Myth – more efficient use of existing resources – substitution of new resources or synthetic ones for scarce ones – Ester Boserup and Simon Kuznets theorize that larger population stimulates economic growth and production of more food (7 Billion People: Everybody Relax)7 Billion People: Everybody Relax – more people = more brains = more good ideas = more life-improving inventions (“Poverty: Where We All Started”)(“Poverty: Where We All Started”) – as pop. growth places strain on food sources, technology shifts food production from extensive to intensive – Marxists (Frederich Engels) believe population growth is NOT the problem, but injustice and inequality in a capitalist world. There are sufficient resources to eliminate global hunger and poverty…if the resources were distributed equally. “Waste not, want not!” “Trashavores” “Dumpster Diving”

14 Declining Birth Rates – Despite population explosion in last half-century, we are not “running out” of food - Food: There’s Lots of itFood: There’s Lots of it – Food supply increased more rapidly, while NIR increased more slowly – better growing techniques, higher-yielding seeds, cultivation of more land – “Green Revolution” Regional issues of overpopulation and carrying capacity are issues of wealth distribution and political power Malthus did not anticipate cultural, economic, and technological factors that would induce Stages 3 & 4 – Reasons for Declining Birth Rates (from 27 to 21 since 1990) The Cairo Plan – 1994 – UN International Conference on Population and Development – Rejected past government imposed anti-natalist quotas – Supported empowerment of women as preferred method of population control economic development - “The Girl Effect”“The Girl Effect” – more $ spent in education (of women particularly)educationwomen particularly – more $ for health care – lowers IMR – “I am powerful” “I am powerful” – “Unlocking the Power of Women” “Unlocking the Power of Women” distribution of contraceptives – successful in parts of Asia – problem in Africa due to poverty and low status of women – faces opposition from religious groups – Roman Catholics, fundamentalist Protestants, Muslims, and Hindus

15 7 Billion People: Everybody Relax

16 Child Brides: Tiringo Child Brides: Stolen Lives Cairo Plan UN: Investing in Girls Education Delaying Early Marriage She’s the first! The Girl Effect

17 Overpopulation myth exposed Overpopulation: The More the Merrier? Bill Gates on Overpopulation Hans Rosiling on Population Growth Hans Rosling: No More Boring Data Hans Rosling on Global Population Growth Poverty: Where we all Started

18 World Health Threats A new, and unexpected factor is now lowering NIRs: rising CDR due to AIDS and the reemergence of infectious and parasitic diseases Epidemiologic Transition – identification of distinctive causes of death in each stage of the DTM

19 Stage 1 – Pestilence and famine – Cycle of infectious and parasitic diseases – “natural check” on pop. growth in Stage 1 DTM – Black Plague (Bubonic) – from Kyrgyzstan, to Italy, to NW Europe from 1347 to 1350 – carried by rats – killed 25 million Europeans by 1350; 13 million Chinese by 1380 Stage 2 – receding pandemics caused by urbanization and unsanitary conditions and contaminated water sources – Cholera, Dysentery, Tuberculosis devastated poor areas of big cities, spread by water sources contaminated by sewage (Haiti’s Cholera Outbreak)Haiti’s Cholera Outbreak – Receded as cities built water and sewage systems – Has reappeared in urbanizing LDCs Epidemiologic Transition Model

20 Stage 3 – degenerative and human-created disease – decline of infectious diseases and rise of disorders brought on by lifestyles and aging (heart disease and cancer) – vaccines wiped out polio, measles, tetanus, diphtheria, pertussus, and leprosy Stage 4 – improved medical treatments and healthier lifestyles delay degenerative diseases and raise life expectancy

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23 Stage 5 – (debatable) reemergence of infectious and parasitic diseases and appearance of new ones (AIDS) AIDSAIDS – evolution of microbes develops resistance to drugs and insecticides – antibiotics and genetic engineering cause new strains to mutate that are antibiotic-resistant – Malaria – wiped out by DDT but mosquitoes have become resistant to DDT Malaria – poverty – tuberculosis (“consumption”) wiped out in MDCs, but major cause of death in LDCs – treatment is too expensivetuberculosis – increased travel – interaction of urban and rural residents, and people of MDCs with people in LDCs transmits diseases faster and over greater distances


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