2Overview: Nature/Nurture/Diversity Questions How do we explain traits that all humans may have in common?How do we explain the origins of diversity, the source of differences in the traits:between genders?among cultures?among individuals?But first, how do we investigate these issues?Click to reveal all bullets.Additional comments to make to students:Many human behaviors and traits (covering various areas of this course) appear to be human universals, including our capacity to adapt in diverse ways.In this chapter, we have already to some extent left the nature vs. nurture debate behind, and instead are looking to explore the relative contributions of nature AND nurture in explaining both human universals and human differences.
3Behavior Genetics: Predicting Individual Differences Behavior geneticistsstudy how heredity and environment contribute to human differences.The topics in the text:genestwin and adoption studiestemperament and hereditymolecular geneticsheritabilitygene/environment interactionLet’s start by looking at GENES.Automatic animation.Instructor: Behavior geneticists study how heredity and environment contribute to human differences. Following this slide is an optional slide in case you want that definition on screen. The book words it differently: “Behavior geneticists study our differences and weigh the interplay of heredity and environment.”Using the word “predicting” here instead of “explaining” is a different standard as we assemble our evidence into theories. We hope to not only come up with descriptions that include reasons, but to understand patterns well enough that we can predict what will happen.The focus in this section is on the tools we can use to explore the “nature” side of the equation; later we will look at cultural and other environmental influences on the brain, gender roles, and other traits and behaviors. We will wait until a later chapter to explore and possibly explain or predict individual and group differences in intelligence.
4The Building Blocks of Heredity and Development GENES:The Building Blocks of Heredity and DevelopmentGenes are parts of DNA molecules, which are found in chromosomes in the nuclei of cells.No animation.DNA(Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
5Chromosomes are made of DNA, which are made of genes. Chromosome: threadlike structure made largely of DNA moleculesDNA:a spiraling, complex molecule containing genesAutomatic animation.}
6Chromosomes and Inheritance The human genome includes 46 chromosomes in 23 sets matched sets; each chromosome has the same gene locations.This includes the X and Y chromosomes, not a matched set in males, who are missing some genes on the Y.A biological parent donates half his/her set of chromosomes to his/her offspring.We received half a set of chromosomes from each biological parent.Click to reveal bullets.
7The Human Genome: 20,000 to 25,000 Genes The genome: an organism’s entire collection of genesHuman genomes are so nearly identical that we can speak of one universal human genome.Yet tiny genetic differences make a difference. If there is a:.001 percent difference in genome, your DNA would not match the crime scene/you are not the baby’s father.0.5 to 4 percent difference in genome, you may be a chimpanzee.50 percent difference in genome, you may be a banana.Click to reveal bullets.
8How Genes Work Genes are not blueprints; they are molecules. These molecules have the ability to direct the assembly of proteins that build the body.This genetic protein assembly can be turned on and off by the environment, or by other genes.Any trait we see is a result of the complex interactions of many genes and countless other molecules.Click to reveal bullets.Note: there is rarely one single gene for one trait, and tiny differences in genes can influence big differences in appearance and behavior.
9Next step for behavior geneticists: Controlling Variables Can we design an experiment to keep genes constant and vary the environment and see what happens?Automatic animation.Answer to these questions:Not exactly, but we can observe what has happened when those circumstances have arisen, such as in twin and adoption studies.Or vary the genes in the same environment?
10Fraternal and Identical Twins Twin and Adoption StudiesTo assess the impact of nature and nurture, how do we examine how genes make a difference within the same environment?study traits of siblings vs. identical twinssee if the siblings vary more than twinsFraternal “twins” from separate eggs are not any more genetically alike than other siblings.Identical twin: Same sex onlyClick to reveal sidebar.Fraternal twins are more alike than other siblings, however, in the home environment they share. They are raised at the same time in their parents’ lives, with the same number and age of siblings.Even identical twins, though, can have biological differences, if they have separate placentas (this happens in about one out of three times) and thus get different nourishment.Fraternal twin: Same or opposite sex
11Identical vs. Fraternal Twins Twin and Adoption StudiesHow do we find out how the same genes express themselves in different environments?We can study the traits of identical twins as they grow up, or if they were raised separately (e.g., the Minnesota Twin Family Study).Studies of twins in adulthood show that identical twins are more alike than fraternal twins in:personality traits such as extraversion (sociability) and neuroticism (emotional instability).behaviors/outcomes such as the rate of divorce.abilities such as overall Intelligence test scores.Click to reveal sidebar.Instructor: In these and related studies, not only are identical twins more alike than fraternal twins, but fraternal twins are more alike than random strangers even though random strangers are also raised in different environments.Question for the students, in this slide and the next: which factor is being controlled here, and which factor is varying? [Answer: presumably, these studies are done on twins raised at first together, then having some adult time apart; if fraternal twins have more differences than identical twins, the only factor which has varied is the level of genetic similarity.]
12Studies of Identical Twins Raised Apart Critiques of Twin StudiesIn the more recent years of the Minnesota Twin Family Study, twins have known about each other and may influence each other to be more similar.Coincidences happen; some randomly chosen pairs of people will have similar traits, including even spouses, children, and dogs with identical names.Environments may be similar; adoptive families tend to be more similar than randomly selected families in education, income, and values.Similarities found in identical twins despite being raised in different homes:personality, styles of thinking and relatingabilities/intelligence test scoresattitudesinterests, tastesspecific fearsbrain waves, heart rateClick to reveal bullets, then more in sidebar.Instructor: There are cases in which identical twins are separated at birth through adoption but are later found to be twins. The Minnesota Twin Family Study is the biggest example of this.Again, I suggest asking the students: which factor is being controlled here, and which factor is varying?Sidebar: Another critique is that the environments or “nurture” may be more similar for twins than for a pair of unrelated people because they look identical and thus are treated more similarly.BUT none of these factors explains, better than the genetic explanation, why fraternal twins have more differences than identical twins.
13Searching for Parenting Effects: Biological vs. Adoptive Relatives Studies have been performed with adopted children for whom the biological relatives are known. Findings: Adopted children seem to be more similar to their genetic relatives than their environmental/nurture relatives.Given the evidence of genetic impact on how a person turns out, does parenting/nurture make any difference?Does the home environment have any impact?Click to reveal bullets.
14Parenting Does Matter religious beliefs values manners attitudes Despite the strong impact of genetics on personality, parenting has an influence on:religious beliefsvaluesmannersattitudespoliticshabitsAutomatic animation.
15If parenting has an influence, why are siblings so different? Siblings only share half their genes.Genetic differences become amplified as people react to them differently.Siblings are raised in slightly different families; the youngest has more older siblings and has older (wiser? more tired?) parents.Click to reveal bullets.
16Temperament is another difference not caused by parenting. From infancy into adulthood, most people do not seem to change temperament (defined as a person’s general level and style of emotional reactivity).According to some researchers, three general types of temperament appear in infancy:“easy”“difficult”“slow to warm up”Click to reveal bullets.Biological explanations: anxious, inhibited infants have fast and variable heart rates and a reactive nervous systemExperience matters too. Supportive parenting can reduce the impact of early withdrawal, and unsupportive parenting or trauma can bring out the anxious, inhibited personality in a child who is predisposed to this temperament.
17Molecular GeneticsMolecular genetics is the study of the molecular structure and function of genes.Molecular genetics might help us see exactly how specific genes have an influence on behavior.Genetic tests can reveal which people are at risk for many physical diseases, and may soon identify people at risk of mental health disorders.Ethical conundrum: should people use genetic tests to select sperm, eggs, and even embryos?Click to reveal bullets.
18Clarifying Heritability If five unrelated people had nearly identical upbringing, but differed in a trait such as shyness, then the heritability of this trait for them is close to 100 percent.Nurture may have influenced how shy they are, but because it influenced them all in the same way, any differences are almost certainly caused by genes.When you see a variation of some trait within a population, the heritability of that trait is the amount of variation in the population that is explained by genetic factors.This DOES NOT tell us the proportion that genes contribute to the trait for any one person.The heritability of a trait also does not tell us whether genetics explain differences between groups/populations.Click to reveal bullets, then more in sidebar.Height is 90 percent heritable in general. However, as a group, people are taller in this century than last, or in South Korea compared to North Korea. This is probably not caused by genetics but by nurture (nutrition).Sidebar: This explanation is also presented in the slides for the chapter on intelligence. You may want to delete it in one of the two places.
19How does the interaction of genes and environment work? Nature and nurture working together Interaction of Genes and EnvironmentSome traits, such as the overall design of our bodies, are set by genes.Other traits, such as physical and mental abilities, develop in response to experience.How does the interaction of genes and environment work?Genetic traits influence the social environment, which in turn affects behavior.Click to reveal bullets and example.Example: the levels above genes on the slide. Someone predisposed to depression may have that predisposition triggered by chronic stress or hormonal changes. These can lead to lifestyle changes which can reinforce depression, even changing activity in the brain. Some environmental influences can turn genes on and off.The chart, summarizing the mutual influences among genes, brain, behavior, and environment, is from at least one article by Gilbert Gottlieb, found at:Gilbert Gottlieb also has written more recently about epigenesis.
20How does the interaction of genes and environment work? Example of self-regulation in animals: shortened daylight triggers animals to change fur color or to hibernateSelf-regulation: genes turn each other on and off in response to environmental conditionsEpigenetics: the environment acts on the surface of genes to alter their activityExample of self-regulation in humans:obesity in adults can turn off weight regulation genes in offspringClick to reveal bullets and examples.The main mechanism for epigenetic change is the methyl molecule on DNA which essential deactivates it, keeping the gene from coding proteins.Sample of some of the citations on the obesity result at the bottom:
21The Human Approach to Nature and Nurture The trait of being adaptable is built into the human genome.Paradox: our genes allow us not to be tied so much to our genes!We have minds which allow us to change our behavior in response to the environment to a greater degree than other species.We even shape our environments to suit our nature.Humans can adapt to a variety of climates, diets, lifestyles, and skills.Click to reveal bullets.Part of our universal human biological heritage is our ability to use that heritage in a great variety of ways.Some species have a biological ability to adapt by changing colors with the seasons; humans have the ability to adapt to a variety of climates, diets, lifestyles, and skills.
22Evolutionary Psychology: Understanding Human NatureSome topics:Natural selection and adaptationEvolutionary success may help explain similaritiesAn evolutionary explanation of human sexualityEvolutionary psychology is the study of how evolutionary principles help explain the origin and function of the human mind, traits, and behaviors.Click to reveal definition of evolutionary psychology.Evolutionary principles are used in evolutionary psychology to explain human universals and commonalities; qualities that helped ancestors survive and reproduce and spread those traits in the genes of many offspring.We have been talking so far about human differences; we may now seek insight in the ways in which humans are alike.
23Natural Selection: How it Works Evolutionary Psychology:Natural Selection: How it WorksBegin with a species’ genome, which contains a variety of versions of genes that shape traits.Conditions make it difficult for individuals with some traits (some versions of those genes) to survive long enough to reproduce.Other individuals thus have their traits and genes “selected” to spread in the population.Automatic animation.
24Artificial Selection The Domesticated Silver Foxes Dmitri Balyaev and Lyudmila Trut spent 40 years selecting the most gentle, friendly, and tame foxes from a fox population, and having those reproduce.As a result, they were able to shape avoidant and aggressive creatures into social ones, just as wolves were once shaped into dogs.Click to reveal bullets.
25How might evolution have shaped the human species? Example:Why does “stranger anxiety” develop between the ages of 9 and 13 months?Hint: in evolutionary/survival terms, humans are learning to walk at that time.Possible explanation: infants who used their new ability to walk by walking away from family and toward a lion might not have survived to reproduce as well as those who decided to cling to parents around the time they learned to walk.Click to reveal bullets.Another possible example of evolutionary shaping (from the text): the instinct to dislike bitter foods (which may have been toxic to our ancestors) especially during pregnancy.Critique of evolutionary psychology: it begins with an effect (stranger anxiety, phobias) and works backward to propose an explanation. It is almost impossible to lose when proposing an explanation in hindsight, and these explanations almost always defy the level of scientific scrutiny and verification suggested in Chapter 1.
26Evolutionary Psychology’s Explanation of Phobias Why do people so easily acquire a phobia of snakes?An evolutionary psychologist would note that snakes are often poisonous…so those who more readily learned to fear them were more likely to survive and reproduce.Can we apply the same logic to phobias about heights? enclosed spaces? clowns?Click to reveal bullets.Discussion question: why are clowns such a common phobia? Hint at a possibility: there is evidence that our lineage split away from those that evolved into today’s baboons and mandrills long before our ancestry diverged from today’s chimpanzees or even gorillas and orangutans. Check out a picture of a mandrill…Critique: note how once an evolutionary psychologist has the effect (clown phobia), almost any proposal can be suggested to explain it. This is why noted paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould (1997) called hindsight explanation nothing more than “speculation [and] guesswork in the cocktail party mode.”Note: spiders were removed from this example because they are rarely poisonous and are far less dangerous than many other animals.
27A Possible Human Genetic Legacy: “Illogical” Moral Reasoning It might be “logical” to kill one innocent person if it would enable five other innocent people to live. Research shows that most people can imagine letting the one person die, but cannot picture killing the person themselves.Why would it be instinctual not to kill unless we are directly threatened?Click to reveal question.This scenario of killing one person to save many (vs. LETTING someone die to save many) has been presented in many forms. The one in the text about pushing someone into a vent, and the classic train or trolley example, presented as pulling a switch or pushing someone off a bridge to divert a train or slow a trolley to save others on the tracks.There is no agreed-upon correct answer to the question on the slide. However, you might want to ask, "why risk our lives trying to kill someone unless it was to prevent our own death or the death of those who share our genes? (It would be interesting to test people on these scenarios, but this time, picture your family in danger and a stranger who must be killed.)
28Male and Female Differences: Focusing on Mating Preferences First issue: quantity (of mating)Generally, men think more than women about sex, and men are more likely to think that casual sex is acceptable.Why might natural selection have resulted in greater male promiscuity?An evolutionary psychologist’s answer:Click to reveal bullets, question and answers.Instructor: more about other male/female differences, ones which are presumed to be more influenced by culture than genes, later in the chapter.The information below is for your use in case you decide not to use upcoming 2-3 slides to save time:The potential answer to this question that I hope students can figure out: males who had the trait of promiscuity are more likely to have their genes continue, even spread, in the next generation. And there is little cost to spreading extra genes.Promiscuous women, by contrast, might have been LESS likely to have this result, because they would be less likely to have stable male partners around to help with the parenting than women who were more selective about whom they had sex with.Men who had the trait of promiscuity were more likely to have their genes continue, and even spread, in the next generation. And there is little cost to spreading extra genes.For women, a trait of promiscuity would not greatly increase the number of babies, and it would have greater survival costs (pregnancy, once a life-threatening condition).
29Possible Evolutionary Strategies in Seeking Partners Q: How would evolutionary psychology explain why males and females have different preferences for sexual partners?Men seek women with a fuller figure… to make sure they are not too young or too old to have children? Women seek males with loyal behavior and physical/social power and resources… in order to ensure the survival of the mother’s offspring?Click to reveal bullets.
30Critiquing the Evolutionary Perspective on Gender Differences in Sexuality Are males and female really so different in their mating choices?Differences are less in cultures that move to gender equality.Isn’t much of gender behavior a function of culture?Yes, as we’ll see later in this lesson.How do you explain homosexuality?Guesses such as population control or misplaced instincts are unproven and seem forced.Click to add notes.Does evolutionary psychology really tell us anything useful?See next slide…
31Critiquing Evolutionary Psychology “You’re just taking current reality and constructing a way you could have predicted it.” This is hindsight reasoning and unscientific.“You’re attributing too much to genes rather than the human ability to make choices about social behavior.”Click to show two critiques and responses.Instructor: You can ask students to explain why people all over the world like soccer based on an evolutionary psychology perspective. Students can invent great explanations…because our distant ancestors had to kick stones out of the way; because people who kicked lions really hard survived to spread their genes…etc.)Response: yes, but there are predictions made about future behavior using this reasoning.Response: yes, but our evolutionary past does not prevent our ability to act differently; “is” does not equal “ought.”
32Nature/Nurture From Genes to the Role of Environment How environment/experience affects brain developmentForces guiding the course of development:parentspeerscultureOur starting pictureOur environment gives us our experiences.Click to reveal bullets, then click to show animation.
33Experience and Brain Development Rats living in an “enriched” environment (more social interaction and physical play) experienced a greater growth in brain size and complexity than those rats living in an “impoverished” environment.Automatic animation.Many kinds of stimulation help generate brain development, even providing massage and other touch to newborns (especially those born prematurely).
34Brain Development Means Growth AND Pruning To make our well-used brain pathways work better, the unused connections are “pruned” away.This means that if certain abilities are not used, they will fade.Click to reveal bullets.The process of pruning is actually more like a withering away of some connections, while other connections are being strengthened (long-term potentiation).
35Impact of Experience/Nurture on Brain Development The Process Continues into Adulthood Automatic animation.Repeated practice at a finger-tapping task begins to activate a [slightly] larger group of motor neurons.
36Is parenting a powerful environmental influence on development? Generally, environmental influences, including parenting, account for about 10 percent of temperament, although a much higher percentage for other features such as values.Non-abusive “average” parents should ease off on both the blame and the credit they assume for how their kids turn out.Click to reveal bullets.The “extreme” pattern of abuse and neglect can lead to many more effects than the “abused kids who become abusive” phrase in the book. You can ask students to list the other possibilities, which may include anxiety, depression, flashbacks, compulsions, or even lead to unusual strengths in coping such as problem-solving, acceptance, determination, or ability to seek out helpful resources (a key factor in resilient survivors).Where this percentage increases: “extreme” parenting, including severe neglect and abuse
37Peer InfluenceThe degree of peer influence is hard to trace. Apparent conformity (the whole group smokes) could be a selection effect (they get together because they want to be with others who like to smoke).Interaction with peers can teach new social skills.Parents may try to have indirect influence by selecting a child’s peers, such as by selecting a school or neighborhood. However, ultimately, most children self-select their peers.Click to reveal bullets.
38Parents vs. Peers Battling over non-genetic influence Peers have more influence on:Parents have more influence on:Education and career path Cooperation Self-discipline Responsibility Charitableness Religion Style of interaction with authority figuresLearning cooperation skills Learning the path to popularity Choice of music and other recreation Choice of clothing and other cultural choices Good and bad habitsHave students guess at these before clicking to reveal each list.
39Culture Influences on Development The nature of cultureVariation across culturesExamples of cultural variation over timeCulture refers to the patterns of ideas, attitudes, values, lifestyle habits, and traditions shared by a group of people and passed on to future generations.Culture is not just an influence on our nature, but it is also part of our nature. Humans form not only relationships, but culture.Each culture has norms--standards for acceptable, expected behavior.Example: “Eww, you wear your shoes from outdoors right into the house?”Culture shock: feeling lost about what behaviors are appropriateCultural variation can occur even within one culture:language changes in vocabulary and pronunciationthe pace of life quickensgender equality increases.people sleep less, socialize in person less, stare at screens morepeople marry more for love, but then expect more romanceThese cultural changes occur too fast to be rooted in genetic change.Click to reveal “The Nature of Culture” text.Other species DO pass on practices that are learned and not genetically programmed. However, humans combine this talent with our capacity for language to pass on traditions and ideas remotely and across more generations.Humans also seem to have higher levels of cooperation, coordination, differentiation, and complexity than other species.Click to reveal “Variation across Cultures” text.We might feel culture shock in either India or Japan if we walked into a house and wondered why people looked at us, seeming shocked and disgusted.Click to reveal “Cultural Variation over Time” text.
40Culture Influences on Development Culture and the self: individualism and collectivismIndividualist cultures value independence. They promote personal ideals, strengths, and goals, pursued in competition with others, leading to individual achievement and finding a unique identity.Collectivist cultures value interdependence. They promote group and societal goals and duties, and blending in with group identity, with achievement attributed to mutual support.Individualist and Collectivist Cultures ComparedClick to reveal bullets.On the last domain on each list, related to attributions for behavior, you might add/clarify that people in collectivist societies are more likely to give credit to others for accomplishments, as mentioned in the text when describing interviews with successful athletes.
41Culture Influences on Development Similarities across groupsAlthough there are cultural differences, the differences within any group are usually greater than the differences between groups.Example: How socially active are people in people in two hypothetical countries? They may differ on average because of cultural influence, but both countries may have many mildly friendly people.Sociability Levels in ShylandSociability Levels in PartylandClick to reveal bullets and example.Self-Isolating -- Shy Private Friendly Outgoing -- PartierLevel/Amount of Social ActivitySCALE:
42Culture and Genes: A Complex Interaction There is a difference in average blood pressure between “racial” groups.This may seem like a genetic difference but may actually be a cultural difference…. How?Different cultures may have dietary differences, which in turn affect blood pressure.Click to reveal bullets.I did not list specific groups, because this difference is not only about blacks and whites in the United States, but also between western and eastern Europeans, attributed now to the “Mediterranean Diet.”You might want to remind the class that many scientists believe that “race” is an unscientific and bogus concept.
43Child-rearing: Cultural Differences People in individualist cultures might raise children to be self-reliant and independent.People in collectivist cultures might raise children to be compliant, obedient, and integrated into webs of mutual support.People in Asian and African cultures might raise children to be more emotionally and physically close to others than in western European cultures.Click to reveal bullets.
44Gender DevelopmentGender refers to the physical, social, and behavioral characteristics that are culturally associated with male and female roles and identity.Some of these traits may be genetic differences; other role differences may be nurtured by culture.No animation.Men and women are different in many ways; are these differences the cause or the result of the way gender roles are defined?
45Group differences?In this example related to self-esteem, the difference between groups is small compared to differences within each gender.No animation.Sometimes news reports make a big deal about the differences between two groups, e.g. males and females, without bothering to comment on how big this difference is compared to the differences within each group.In this example, even if the average man DOES have higher self-esteem than the average woman, it would be ridiculous (that is, unsupported by the data) to predict, “he’s a man, so he probably thinks highly of himself.”
46Differences Between Genders Biological:women enter puberty earlier, live longer, and have more fat and less muscleGender and Aggression:men behave more aggressively than women, and are more likely to behave in ways that harm othersthis difference applies to physical aggression rather than verbal or relational aggressionMental and Behavioral Health:women are more likely to have depression, anxiety, or eating disordersmen are more likely to have autism, ADHD, and antisocial personality disorderClick to reveal three bubbles.Men murder far more people than women do; it is hard to discern whether this difference is caused by men’s ability or tendency to commit murder.
47Gender and Social Power In a variety of cultures, men have attributes and reputations that help them attain more social power (positions controlling more people and resources) than women do.Men tend to interact in more dominating ways than women. Men often speak opinions rather than offering support and inviting input as women do.Click to reveal bullets.The difference in reputation: men are seen as dominant, forceful, and independent, and women are seen as more deferential, nurturing, and affiliative.
48Gender and Social Connection: Play When boys play, the focus tends to be on the activity.Male play is more competitive.Men tend to dictate how the playtime will proceed.When women play, the focus tends to be on connection and conversation.Female play is more social.Girls tend to invite feedback.Click to reveal two text boxes and a question.The question on this slide in more detail:Is the different style of play a result of genetic male-female differences?Or is it a part of the culturally-influenced socialization of men in preparation for competitive roles and succeeding at activities, and the socialization of women in preparation for more social, relational roles they will play? Is it nature or nurture?Image from the 9th edition of the text.Are these differences due to nature or nurture?
49Gender and Social Communication However, men and women speak about the same number of words per day. What fills in the extra time on those longer phone calls?Women communicate more than men:more time with friendsmore text messageslonger phone callsMaybe…. listening?Men and women use communication differently.Women seek input and explore relationships.Women speak about people and feelings.Men state their opinions and solutions .Men speak about things and actions.Click to reveal all text.
50Gender and Social Connectedness Both men and women turn to women when they want someone to talk to, seeking the “tend and befriend” response or better listening.In general, women change roommates more often.Women tend to have stronger ties to friends and family.Women are often more involved with religion.Click to reveal bullets.The second bullet point refers to the study about women changing roommates more often than men. The authors of that study suggest that this may happen because women are perhaps more determined to seek good emotional intimacy. If you bring up this study, ask the class based on their experiences as college students: “do you think there are any explanations for this result?” Do the males (or females) in class have a different way of explaining this?
51The Biology of Gender What biologically makes us male or female? Brain DifferencesDuring the fourth and fifth month of pregnancy, sex hormones bathe the fetal brain.In adulthood, women have thicker areas in a part of the frontal lobes that help with verbal fluency.There are also differences in the amygdala, hippocampus, and ratio of cell bodies to axons.What biologically makes us male or female?It begins with whether our 23rd pair of chromosomes looks like XX (female) or Xy (male).Testes develop, and at seven weeks, the testes produce a flood of testosterone.Hormones then guide the development of external sex organs.Click to reveal bullets and sidebar.It is worth speculating: are the adult brain differences results caused by this biological difference in the fetus, or caused by the nurture/experience?
52Lessons about Gender: Unusual Biological Cases Breaking Free of GenderTransgendered people have a sense of sexual identity that is different from their birth sex.Transsexual people act on this sense of difference by living as a member of the opposite sex, often with hormonal and surgical interventions that support this gender reassignment.In cases in which prenatal testosterone levels were high in females, there is an increase in “tomboyish” behavior, possibly caused by other people’s response to more masculine features. However, there is not a general pattern of gender identity change.In cases where males had underformed or absent genitalia, attempts to raise them as females generally did not work out well.Click to reveal bullets and sidebar.Biological changes (problems in sexual identity development) can bend gender, but not fully change it.Do students think that these gender identity phenomena originate in biology, culture influence, or in the mind and personal experience?The sidebar covers material that doesn’t appear until later in the chapter, but if you’re going to use the material on the left, this slide seems to follow up well from the other gender-bending possibilities.
53The Nurture side of Gender Roles: The Influence of Culture Gender role: the behaviors expected of people related to their identity as men and womenGender identity: one’s sense of whether one is male and female, including a sense of what it means to be that genderDoes culture define which behaviors fill a gender role? Or do the roles affect culture?Gender roles and culture: is differentiation a good thing?If it’s man’s job to get the high paying employment,If it’s women’s work to take care of the kids and home,Click to reveal text boxes and questions.does that prevent conflict, and help culture stay stable, because roles are clear?or is equality worth having some conflict and uncertainty?
54Change in Social Roles?If current trends continue, women will soon be the majority of practitioners in some fields that were once dominated by men in the United States.No animation.
55Culture Influence on Gender Role Development Or is it instinct? Social learning theory: we learn gender role behavior by imitation, and by rewards and punishments that shape our behaviorGender schemas: the cognitive frameworks for developing concepts of “male” and “female”; these frameworks guide our observationsGender typing: the instinct which drives some children to fit into traditional gender rolesClick to reveal bullets.Some parents may seem mystified that even when they don’t try to shape kids toward traditional gender role behavior, it happens anyway. Does that mean it’s genetic? What may be genetic is the drive to form gender schema just as kids are driven to figure out the rest of the world, and to “play detective” in figuring out what boys and girls are supposed to do, even if parents try to present no information which differentiates gender roles. Kids find out, and then imitation does its work, along with the desire to fit in and to do behavior that gets rewarded.
57Beyond Biopsychosocial Influences: CHOICE Is our behavior and identity rigidly determined by our combination of nature/genes and nurture/experience?Even if free will is an illusion, it would seem that we can make choices that override our genetic influences, that differ from cultural norms, and that do not fit our environment.We can even choose to directly alter culture, environment, and even genes.Click to reveal bullets.Humans, perhaps uniquely, have the experience (or perhaps the delusion) of rising above the mere influence of nature and nurture.
58Epilogue: EvolutionPossible areas of consensus, with or without evolution:The human mind and body seems almost “designed,” by evolution or other forces, to have certain traits and abilities.Nurture may shape us, but we seem to start out with some sort of human nature.Evolution is a scientific theory (NOT a guess, and not a hypothesis, but something more): a coherent set of principles that fits very well with the accumulated evidence.Parts of the evolutionary story may conflict with other stories of origins and change over time.Is there room for overlap and agreement?Click to reveal bullets and sidebar bullets.